Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945- 1991 Two sides of Cold War NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization USA, France, Great Britain, West Germany CAPITALISMCAPITALISM."— Presentation transcript:
The Cold War
Two sides of Cold War NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization USA, France, Great Britain, West Germany CAPITALISMCAPITALISM Warsaw Pact – pro Soviet countries – USSR, and all countries controlled by the USSR. COMMUNISM
Causes of the Cold War in 1945 American fear of communist attack Truman ’ s dislike of Stalin USSR ’ s fear of the American's atomic bomb USSR ’ s dislike of capitalism USSR ’ s actions in the Soviet Zone of Germany America ’ s refusal to share nuclear secrets USSR ’ s expansion west into Eastern Europe + broken election promises USSR ’ s fear of American attack USSR ’ s need for a secure western border USSR ’ s aim of spreading world communism This feeling of suspicion lead to mutual distrust and this did a great deal to deepen the Cold War
Cold War Era of confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization- all free nations
Warsaw Pact – all communist nations
YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin
Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.
Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
Berlin Wall Berlin is Germany’s capital city. The Soviets built the wall to keep communists from escaping to the American sector.
Wall torn down in Significance is that this symbolizes and end to the Cold War.
Improve your knowledge The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post- war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
Marshall Plan USA’s plan to send food, blankets, fuel to Europe to help them. AND to keep them from turning communist.
Berlin blockade led to Berlin Airlift
Space Race The USA and the Soviet Union raced as the world watched to be the first to conquer space.
1957 Sputnik – first satellite Score 1 for Soviets !
First man in space Score: USA – 0 Soviets - 2
Apollo program (NASA formed) USA spent the 60s trying to catch up to the Soviets.
Armstrong lands on moon! What is the purpose of a space program?
Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting” communism. This led to containment – policy of containing communism where it is.
Domino Theory Communism spreads like a disease- if one nations falls, others will follow
Korea and Vietnam USA tried to contain communism. In both wars, communist troops fought armies trained and funded by the USA.
Communists invaded from the north. China sent a million troops to help reds.
Korean War After the failure of the promise of Korean independence by the Allied nations, on June 25, 1950, communist North Korean troops invaded South Korea. Poorly armed, the South Koreans were no match for the North. The United Nations ordered North Korea to withdraw its troops. General MacArthur was appointed to command all UN troops in Korea. After three years of fighting a stalemate, more than 54,000 American troops perished.
How Is The US Reacting to all of the Soviet moves such as Sputnik? Under Eisenhower the National Defense Education Act is passed. Intended to push math and science education to be able to keep up with the Soviets.
Red ScareRed Scare was Americans response to the fear of Communism Joseph McCarthySenator Joseph McCarthy accused 205 US Govt. officials of being Communist. McCarthyismMcCarthyism to destroy or assassinate one’s character without proof and it ruined the careers of many Americans. red scare witch hunt loyalty oath Became a witch hunt that led to Americans pledging a “loyalty oath” to the United States…….
House Committee for Un-American ActivitiesHouse Committee for Un-American Activities 1938–75, Congress investigated Americans suspected as communists red scare3 HUACHUAC committee warned of civil rights violations. Witnesses who refused to answer were cited for contempt of Congress.
McCarthy’s “Big Lie” Tactic used to create the impression that people were affiliated with Communism Repeated the lies until people began to believe them, thus ruining people’s reputations. Usually did this to Democrats because he thought they were soft on Communism.
What Finally Brings McCarthy Down? The hearings were televised Made him look like a bully Last straw was his accusation that the United States Army was a Communist organization. Was he totally wrong about the spies? No BUT he ruined enough reputations that it cost him his political career and he left the Senate a shamed man.
What is the United Nations?
United Nations International Organization where countries try to find peaceful solutions
United Nations It has no army but uses troops from other countries.
Vietnam War 1960s-1973 Through the Kennedy years, US troops trained S. Vietnamese troops to fight the Reds. After the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, under LBJ, US troops started to fight more.
Vietnam Divided into North and South at the 17 th parallel Our first presence there was as military advisors to the South Vietnamese army Under Kennedy, we actually began to train the troops for them We wanted to be able to trade with them because they had resources we don’t have.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution An act of Congress that allowed retaliation if American troops were in harms way or had been attacked. President Johnson used this as approval to wage war and seriously escalated the war. This led to his decision not to run for reelection in 1968 because he had messed it up so badly. Under Johnson we had gone from about 50K troops to about 500K.
Seeing this on TV led to a loss of support at home
Meanwhile... After Korea and before Vietnam got really bad, America felt they had a problem closer to home.
Bay of Pigs 1961 The CIA trained and funded an invasion of communist Cuba. The invasion failed, and Castro had some powerful friends!
Castro takes Castro takes sides American Properties with Soviet Union Try Bay of American spy JFK puts naval Pigs invasion planes photograph blockades around First nuclear missile sites Cuba there After 13 days the USSR pulls out Significance: It’s the closest the US and Soviet Union came to armed conflict during the Cold War.
Soviet response. Don’t worry comrade Castro. We got your back!
A U2 spy plane found these missile silos in Cuba, 1962.
People built more bomb shelters.
End to a crisis! The Soviets removed the missiles in Cuba. In exchange, USA pledged to not invade Cuba again. And to remove missiles in Turkey (right).
Afterward A direct phone line was set up between their offices to bypass other channels.
November 22, 1963 LBJ took the Presidency JFK was shot in Dallas
How did the USA try to contain communism?
Helped anti-communist troops
Embargoes Refusing to trade or aid countries in order to punish them
Cuba embargo Still today, the USA has an economic embargo on communist Cuba. Their only cars are from before the embargo!
Detente A permanent relaxation in international affairs Why did we experience this? –The horrors of Vietnam shocked people –Growing fear of a nuclear holocaust especially with the growth of nuclear weapons
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