2Two sides of Cold War NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization USA, France, Great Britain, West GermanyCAPITALISMWarsaw Pact – pro Soviet countries – USSR, and all countries controlled by the USSR.COMMUNISM
3Causes of the Cold War in 1945 American fear of communist attackTruman’s dislike of StalinUSSR’s fear of the American's atomic bomb USSR’s dislike of capitalismUSSR’s actions in the Soviet Zone of GermanyAmerica’s refusal to share nuclear secretsUSSR’s expansion west into Eastern Europe + broken election promisesUSSR’s fear of American attackUSSR’s need for a secure western borderUSSR’s aim of spreading world communismThis feeling of suspicion lead to mutual distrust and thisdid a great deal to deepen the Cold War
4Cold WarEra of confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States
5NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization- all free nations
8YALTA (in the USSR)Date: Feb 1945Present: Churchill,Roosevelt and Stalin
9POTSDAM (Germany)Date: July 1945Present: Churchill,Truman and Stalin
10Divided Germany Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe theseparating ofThose communistlands of EastEurope from theWest.Divided Germany
11Improve your knowledge Divided BerlinImprove your knowledgeThe Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
12Berlin WallBerlin is Germany’s capital city.The Soviets built the wall to keep communists from escaping to the American sector.
16Wall torn down in 1989.Significance is that this symbolizes and end to the Cold War.
17Improve your knowledge The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post-war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
18Marshall PlanUSA’s plan to send food, blankets, fuel to Europe to help them. AND to keep them from turning communist.
27Truman DoctrineThe Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting” communism.This led to containment – policy of containing communism where it is.
28Domino TheoryCommunism spreads like a disease- if one nations falls, others will follow
29Korea and VietnamUSA tried to contain communism. In both wars, communist troops fought armies trained and funded by the USA.
30Communists invaded from the north Communists invaded from the north. China sent a million troops to help reds.
31Korean WarAfter the failure of the promise of Korean independence by the Allied nations, on June 25, 1950, communist North Korean troops invaded South Korea. Poorly armed, the South Koreans were no match for the North. The United Nations ordered North Korea to withdraw its troops. General MacArthur was appointed to command all UN troops in Korea. After three years of fighting a stalemate, more than 54,000 American troops perished.
32How Is The US Reacting to all of the Soviet moves such as Sputnik? Under Eisenhower the National Defense Education Act is passed.Intended to push math and science education to be able to keep up with the Soviets.
33Red Scare was Americans response to the fear of Communism Senator Joseph McCarthy accused 205 US Govt. officials of being Communist.McCarthyism to destroy or assassinate one’s character without proof and it ruined the careers of many Americans.Became a witch hunt that led to Americans pledging a “loyalty oath” to the United States…….red scare
34H U A C House Committee for Un-American Activities 1938–75, Congress investigated Americans suspected as communistsred scare3HUAC committee warned of civil rights violations.Witnesses who refused to answer were cited for contempt of Congress.
35McCarthy’s “Big Lie”Tactic used to create the impression that people were affiliated with CommunismRepeated the lies until people began to believe them, thus ruining people’s reputations.Usually did this to Democrats because he thought they were soft on Communism.
36What Finally Brings McCarthy Down? The hearings were televisedMade him look like a bullyLast straw was his accusation that the United States Army was a Communist organization.Was he totally wrong about the spies? NoBUT he ruined enough reputations that it cost him his political career and he left the Senate a shamed man.
38United NationsInternational Organization where countries try to find peaceful solutions
39United NationsIt has no army but uses troops from other countries.
40Vietnam War 1960s-1973Through the Kennedy years, US troops trained S. Vietnamese troops to fight the Reds.After the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, under LBJ, US troops started to fight more.
41Vietnam Divided into North and South at the 17th parallel Our first presence there was asmilitary advisors to the SouthVietnamese armyUnder Kennedy, we actually beganto train the troops for themWe wanted to be able to trade withthem because they had resourceswe don’t have.
42Gulf of Tonkin Resolution An act of Congress that allowed retaliation if American troops were in harms way or had been attacked.This led to his decision not to run for reelection in 1968 because he had messed it up so badly.Under Johnson we had gone from about 50K troops to about 500K.President Johnson used this as approval to wage war and seriously escalated the war.
53Significance: It’s the closest the US and Soviet Union came Castro takes Castro takes sidesAmerican Properties with Soviet UnionTry Bay of American spy JFK puts navalPigs invasion planes photograph blockades aroundFirst nuclear missile sites CubathereAfter 13 days theUSSR pulls outSignificance: It’s the closest the US and Soviet Union cameto armed conflict during the Cold War.
54Soviet response.Don’t worry comrade Castro. We got your back!
64EmbargoesRefusing to trade or aid countries in order to punish them
65Cuba embargoStill today, the USA has an economic embargo on communist Cuba.Their only cars are from before the embargo!
66Detente A permanent relaxation in international affairs Why did we experience this?The horrors of Vietnam shocked peopleGrowing fear of a nuclear holocaust especially with the growth of nuclear weapons
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