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REVOLUTION OF 1800 Jefferson avoided the sober, formal, and ceremonial decorum of Washington/Adams years –Walked to inauguration –“rule of pell-mell” –Did.

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Presentation on theme: "REVOLUTION OF 1800 Jefferson avoided the sober, formal, and ceremonial decorum of Washington/Adams years –Walked to inauguration –“rule of pell-mell” –Did."— Presentation transcript:

1 REVOLUTION OF 1800 Jefferson avoided the sober, formal, and ceremonial decorum of Washington/Adams years –Walked to inauguration –“rule of pell-mell” –Did not dress up –Did not make much of a physical impression

2 POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY Believed that “government which governs least, governs best” –Believed that federal government should conduct foreign policy and oversee relations between states But that was it –Believed that the individual states should “have the principal care of our persons, our property, and our reputation”

3 JEFFERSON IN ACTION Got rid of Federalist programs he thought represented excessive government interference into lives of citizens –Especially Alien and Sedition Acts Reduced size of bureaucracy –Fired tax collectors, federal judges –Cut army and navy by 50% –Closed U.S. embassies everywhere except England, France, and Spain Repealed Hamilton’s taxes –All the money necessary to run government came from sale of federal land in West and import duties

4 THE LOUISIANA TERRITORY France took control of Louisiana Territory in 1800 from Spain This bothered Americans for two reasons –French possession of New Orleans gave them a stranglehold on American commerce on the Mississippi River –Many envisioned the U.S. someday including the entire continent Would never happen if the French established colonies in Louisiana Territory

5 A SURPRISE IN FRANCE Jefferson sent diplomats to France to find out what Napoleon planned to do with Louisiana Territory –Napoleon offers to sell territory to U.S. for 15 million dollars –A fantastic deal

6 CONSTITUTIONAL ARGUMENT Jefferson had always been a “strict constructionist” –Argued that if a power was not clearly spelled out in the constitution, then the government had no right to claim that power Jefferson uses “implied powers” argument to justify purchase –Nothing in constitution specifically authorized government to buy territory from another nation –Jefferson argued power was “implied” in the Constitution

7 THE WAR OF 1812 Both France and England tried to draw us into their side in the Napoleonic Wars –Jefferson had to use all his skill to keep us out of the conflict –But the U.S. was drawn into the wars anyway under Jefferson’s successor, James Madison

8 NEUTRAL RIGHTS U.S. wanted to be neutral in war but England and France frequently violated our neutral rights In American eyes, England was the more serious and dangerous violator

9 IMPRESSMENT Desertion was major problem in British navy due to poor conditions –Many deserters joined American merchant marine To stop this loss of manpower, England claimed the right to stop and search American merchant ships and impress any deserters they found back into British navy –Also began to impress American sailors who had not deserted but who had been born in England –Between 1803 and 1812, over 10,000 naturalized American citizens were impressed into British navy

10 CHESAPEAKE INCIDENT U.S. government complained about impressment but were ignored by British British warship fired three broadsides at the American merchant ship, Chesapeake, in 1807 –When it wouldn’t allow British to board ship –24 American sailors were killed or wounded –British impressed four sailors

11 EMBARGO Jefferson resisted public clamor for war and imposed embargo against both England and France –Refused to sell either country American products Both England and France hurt by embargo –But not enough to stop them from harassing American shipping –Also hurt American business Especially in Northeast Strengthened Federalists in region

12 JAMES MADISON James Madison elected 4th president in 1808 –Because Jefferson refused to run for third term Tried to stick to Jefferson’s policy of avoiding war with England

13 THE WAR HAWKS Young Republicans who advocated war with England –Gained control of Congress in 1810 –Included Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina –Put pressure on Madison to fight England and also take over Canada and Florida –Madison caves in to pressure because he wanted to the Republican nomination for president again in 1812 Henry Clay John C. Calhoun

14 WAR Madison asked Congress to declare war against England on June 1, 1812 –Because England impressed American citizens into its navy –Because England interfered with American trade –Because England incited Indians on the American frontier Congress declared war two weeks later –But the vote was close in Senate Madison was re-elected president

15 ASPECTS OF THE WAR (1) Americans tried to invade Canada twice but failed Fort Dearborn attacked by Indians friendly to British and destroyed –Site of modern Chicago British attack and burn down most of Washington D.C.

16 ASPECTS OF THE WAR (2) British attack Fort McHenry –Near Baltimore –Failed Inspired Francis Scott Keys to write “Star Spangled Banner” –About the attack

17 BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS British attack New Orleans –Stopped by Andrew Jackson Tennessee planter and militia general With army made up of Tennessee and Kentucky sharpshooters, French pirates, slaves, and Creoles –British lost 700 dead, 1400 wounded, and 500 prisoners Jackson lost just 8 dead and 13 wounded

18 SIGNIFICANCE Up until Battle of New Orleans, American military operations had been badly bungled and unsuccessful –Morale was low –Federalists launched effort to pull out of war Jackson’s victory: –Discredited Federalists –Improved American spirit and confidence –Convinced British to agree to a peace settlement Treaty of Ghent (1814)

19 THE WAR AND THE INDIANS Before war, Indians who lived in Mid- West could count on aid from British in Canada to resist American settlement Indians in Southeast received similar aid from Spanish in Florida

20 TECUMSEH Name means “Shooting Star” From Shawnee tribe Attempted to unite all the tribes in the Mississippi Valley in order to resist white settlement and create a vast Indian state stretching westward from the Ohio River

21 WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON Governor of Indiana Territory Negotiated with individual tribes within his territory –Using every dirty trick in the book of American Indian relations –Made separate treaties which resulted in tribes giving up huge amounts of land to the United States Same process going on in Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama Resulted in much discontent among dispossessed tribes throughout the Mississippi Valley

22 TECUMSEH’S PLAN Tecumseh argued that Harrison did not legally have title to the land he had gained –Because he had negotiated with individual tribes –Land belonged to all tribes together and none could individually give parts of it away without permission of the others Determined to unite all tribes, return them to their ancient ways and customs, and create a vast Indian nation –Free from all white men and white influences

23 INITIAL SUCCESS Aided by brother –One-eyed medicine man named “the Prophet” Tecumseh tramped from village to village from headquarters at junction of Tippecanoe Creek and Wabash River (western Indiana) –From Wisconsin to Florida –Achieved great deal of success Due to charisma and magnetism A sense of common purpose and unity began to permeate the various tribes of the region –He actually began to pull them together The Prophet

24 “BATTLE” OF TIPPECANOE Harrison attacked Tecumseh’s headquarters at Tippecanoe in November 1811 –While Tecumseh was gone –Massacred most Indians or drove them off (included The Prophet) –Burnt town to the ground Tecumseh fled to Canada with remaining followers –Killed fighting for the British in 1813

25 AFTERMATH No other Indian leader had Tecumseh’s charisma or vision America would gain Florida as a result of the war –Ending Spanish aid to Indians British abandoned support of Indians after war Tecumseh had been the Indians’ last hope –His death and defeat was, in many ways, their own


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