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International Economic Relations: indicators, factors and forms of development.

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Presentation on theme: "International Economic Relations: indicators, factors and forms of development."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Economic Relations: indicators, factors and forms of development.

2 Fully isolated (autarchy) economy. Fully released economy. Import quota. Foreign trade quota. The characteristics of IER development factors

3 An embargo (from the Spanish embargo) is the partial or complete prohibition of commerce and trade with a particular country, in order to isolate it.Spanish

4 Embargoes are considered strong diplomatic measures imposed in an effort, by the imposing country, to elicit a given national-interest result from the country on which it is imposed. Embargoes are similar to economic sanctions and are generally considered legal barriers to trade, not to be confused with blockades, which are often considered to be acts of war. [1]economic sanctionsblockadeswar [1]

5 Embargo may also refer to the practice of blocking fare classes at certain levels, and award availability on airlines. In response to embargoes, an independent economy or autarky often develops in an area subjected to heavy embargo.autarky

6 Effectiveness of embargoes is thus in proportion to the extent and degree of international participation.

7 Examples of Embargoes The Embargo of 1807 was a series of laws passed by the U.S. Congress 1806–1808, during the second term of President Thomas Jefferson. The Embargo of 1807 Thomas Jefferson

8 Britain and France were engaged in a major war; the U.S. wanted to remain neutral and trade with both sides, but neither side wanted the other to have the American supplies. The American national-interest goal was to use the new laws to avoid war and force that country to respect American rights.

9 One of the most comprehensive attempts at an embargo happened during the Napoleonic Wars.Napoleonic Wars

10 In an attempt to cripple the United Kingdom economically, the Continental System – which forbade European nations from trading with the UK – was created.United Kingdom Continental SystemEuropean nationsUK In practice it was not completely enforceable and was as harmful if not more so to the nations involved than to the British

11 List of countries under embargo Mali (by ECOWAS) total embargo in order to force Juntas to give power back and re-install National constitution. Decided on April 2nd, 2012 MaliECOWAS China (by EU and US), arms embargo, enacted in response to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 ChinaTiananmen Square protests of 1989

12 Iran (by US and US international allies), notably bar nuclear, missile and many military exports to Iran and target investments in oil, gas and petrochemicals, exports of refined petroleum products, as well as the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, banks, insurance, financial transactions and shipping. enacted 1979, increased through the following years and reached its tightest point in 2010. IranUSIslamic Revolutionary Guard Corps

13 North Korea (by UN, USA, EU), luxury goods (and arms), enacted 2006 North KoreaUNUSAluxury goods Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, (by UN), consumer goods, enacted 1975 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Cuba (by US), arms, consumer goods, money, enacted 1960 Cuba

14 Georgia (by Russia), agricultural products, wine, mineral water, enacted 2006 Georgiaby Russia Japan, animal shipments due to lack of infrastructure and radiation issue after the 2011 9.0 earthquake (землетрес.) aftermath. Japan2011 9.0 earthquake

15  Indonesia (by Australia), live cattle(рогатый скот) because of cruel slaughter methods (жестокие методы резни) in Indonesia. IndonesiaAustralia  Gaza Strip by Israel since 2001 Gaza StripIsrael  Syria (by EU, US), arms and imports of oil Syria

16 Former trade embargoes Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (by UN) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia North Vietnam (1964–1975) and later Vietnam (1975–1994), trade embargo by the US [8] North VietnamVietnam [8] Republic of Macedonia (by Greece), complete trade embargo (1994- 1995). Republic of MacedoniaGreece

17 Libya (by United Nations), weapons, enacted 2011 after mass killings of Libyan protesters/rebels and ended later that year after the overthrow and summary execution of Gaddafi. LibyaUnited Nations overthrow and summary execution of Gaddafi India (by UK), [9] nuclear exports restriction. India [9]

18 Pakistan (by UK), [9] nuclear exports restriction, enacted 2002 Pakistan [9] Serbia by Kosovo's unilaterally declared government, since 2011 [10] SerbiaKosovo [10] European Union arms embargo on the People's Republic of China Embargo Act of 1807

19 Former Yugoslavia Embargo November 21, 1995 Dayton Peace Accord Former YugoslaviaDayton Peace Accord United States embargoes and permanent normal trade relations United States embargoes permanent normal trade relations

20 United States embargo against Cuba United States embargo against Nigeria United States embargo against Nigeria CoCom

21 Import quota An import quota is a limit on the quantity of a good that can be produced abroad and sold domestically.

22 It is a type of protectionist trade restriction that sets a physical limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported into a country in a given period of time. If a quota is put on a good, less of it is imported.protectionisttrade restrictionimported

23 Quotas, like other trade restrictions, are used to benefit the producers of a good in a domestic economy at the expense of all consumers of the good in that economy.

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