14 What is a quota? A limit on the quantity of a good that may be imported in a given time period
15 What are the arguments for protectionism? Infant industry argument National security argument Employment argument Cheap foreign labor argument Free trade agreements
16 What is a recent free trade agreement? North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
17 What is NAFTA? A 1993 free trade agreement between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico
18 What is the balance of payments? A bookkeeping record of all the international transactions between a country and other countries during a given period of time
19 What is the current account? The first section of the balance of payments, which includes trade in currently produced goods and services
20 What is the balance of trade? The most widely reported and largest part of the current account defined as the value of a nation’s merchandise imports subtracted from its merchandise exports
21 How is a current account deficit financed? By a capital account surplus
22 What is the capital account? The second section of the balance of payments, which records payment flows for financial capital
23 01 798381858789 91 93959799 Year -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 -250 Balance of Trade (billions of dollars) U. S. Balance of Trade, 1979-2000
24 What does the balance of payments always equal? Zero; the current account deficit should equal the capital account surplus
25 How could the US have a balance of payments problem? The problem is with the composition of the balance of payments
26 What is an exchange rate? The number of one nation’s currency that equals one unit of another nation’s currency
27 If 1.81 dollars is exchangeable for 1 British pound, what is the exchange rate? 1 / 1.81 =.552 pounds per dollar
28 How is the exchange rate determined? Supply and demand for foreign exchange
29 200 150 100 50 0 200 300 400500100 Price (yen per dollar) Quantity of dollars (millions per day) Supply and Demand for Dollars S of $ (U.S. citizens) D for $ (Japanese citizens) E
30 What happens when a currency depreciates? The price of the currency falls in relation to another currency
31 What happens when a currency appreciates? The price of the currency rises in relation to another currency
32 What can cause a currency to change value? The demand and/or supply of the currency can change
33 What can cause a change in demand of a currency? There can be a change in - tastes and preferences relative price levels relative interest rates
34 100200300400500 50 150 200 250 100 Quantity of Dollars (millions per day Decrease in Demand S D1D1 D2D2 Price (yen per dollar E2E2 E1E1
35 U.S. exports less popular Decrease in the demand for dollars Value of the dollar falls (dollar depreciates)
36 What can cause a change in supply of a currency? There can be a change in - relative incomes relative price levels relative interest rates
37 100200300400500 50 150 200 250 100 Quantity of Dollars (millions per day) Price (yen per dollar Decrease in Supply S2S2 S1S1 E2E2 E2E2 D
38 Value of the dollar rises (dollar appreciates) Decrease in the supply of dollars Japanese imports less popular
39 What happens when demand and/or supply changes? The currency seeks a new equilibrium; the value changes
40 Japanese price level rises Japanese buy more U.S. exports Increase the demand for dollars Value of the dollar rises (dollar appreciates Decrease in the supply of dollars U.S. citizens buy fewer Japanese imports Impact on relative price changes on Exchange Rates
41 50 100200300 400 150 100 250 300 500600700 The Effects of Shift in Supply on Market Equilibrium S2S2 S1S1 D2D2 D1D1 200 E1E1 E2E2 Quantity of dollars Yen / Dollars
43 Key Concepts Why do countries trade? Why should countries specialize and trade? If countries should specialize, in what should they specialize?If countries should specialize, in what should they specialize? What is comparative advantage? What is absolute advantage? What is free trade? What is protectionism?
44 Key Concepts cont. What is an embargo? What is a tariff? What is a quota? What is Nafta? What is the balance of payments? What is the balance of trade? What is an exchange rate? What can cause a currency to change value? What if demand - supply changes?
46 Comparative advantage is a principle that allows nations to gain from trade. Comparative advantage means that each nation specializes in a product for which its opportunity cost is lower in terms of the production of another product and then nations trade.
47 When nations follow the principle of comparative advantage, they gain. The reason is that world output increases and each nation ends up with a higher standard of living by consuming more goods and services than possible without specialization and trade.
48 80 60 40 20 100 70 020 30 40 50 10 B´ (with trade) B (without trade) U.S. A C PPC Steel (tons per day) U.S. Production and Consumption Grain (tons per year)
49 Free trade benefits a nation as a whole, but individuals may lose jobs and incomes from the competition from foreign goods and services.
50 Protectionism is a government’s use of embargoes, tariffs, quotas, and other methods t impose barriers intended to both reduce imports and protect particular domestic industries.
51 Embargoes prohibit the import of export of particular goods. Tariffs discourage imports by making them more expensive. Quotas limit the quantity of imports or exports of certain goods. These trade barriers often result primarily from domestic groups that exert political pressure to gain from these barriers.
52 The balance of payments is a summary bookkeeping record of all the international transactions a country makes during a year. It is divided into different accounts, including the current account, the capital account and the statistical discrepancy.
53 The current account summarizes all transactions in currently produced goods and services. The overall balance of payments is always zero after an adjustment for the statistical discrepancy.
54 The balance of trade measures only goods (not services) that a nation exports and imports. A balance of trade can be in deficit or in surplus. The balance of trade is the most widely reported and largest part of the current account. Since 1975, the U.S. has experienced balance of trade deficits.
55 01 798381858789 91 93959799 Year -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 -250 Balance of Trade (billions of dollars) U. S. Balance of Trade, 1979-2000
56 An exchange rate is the price of one nation’s currency in terms of another nation’s currency. Foreigners who wish to purchase U.S. goods, services, and financial assets demand dollars. The supply of dollars reflects the desire of U.S. citizens to purchase foreign goods, services and financial assets.
57 The intersection of the supply and demand curves for dollars determines the number of units of a foreign currency per dollar.
58 200 150 100 50 0 200 300 400500100 Price (yen per dollar) Quantity of dollars (millions per day) Supply and Demand for Dollars S of $ (U.S. citizens) D for $ (Japanese citizens) E
59 Shifts in supply and demand for foreign exchange result from changes in such factors as tastes, relative price levels, relative real interest rates, and relative income levels.
60 Depreciation of currency occurs when one currency becomes worth fewer units of another currency. If a currency depreciates, it becomes weaker. Depreciation of a nation’s currency increases its exports and decreases its imports.
61 Appreciation of currency occurs when one currency becomes worth more units of another currency. If a currency appreciates, it becomes stronger. Appreciation of a nation’s currency decreases its exports and increases its imports.
63 1. With trade, the production possibilities for two nations lie a. outside their consumption possibilities. b. inside their consumption possibilities. c. at a point equal to the world production possibilities curve. d. none of the above. B. When countries specialize and trade, total world output increases and potential total total world consumption also increases.
64 2. Free trade theory suggests that when trade takes place a. both nations will be worse off. b. one nation must gain at the other nation’s expense. c. both nations are better off. d. one nation will gain and the other nation will be neither better nor worse off. C. Free trade allows a country to consume a combination of goods that exceeds its production possibilities curve.
65 3. Which of the following is true when two countries specialize according to their comparative advantage? a. It is possible to increase their total output of all goods. b. It is possible to increase their total output of some goods only if both countries are industrialized. c. One country is likely to gain from trade while the other loses. d. None of the above. A. Comparative advantage is the ability of a country to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another country.
66 4. According to the theory of comparative advantage, a country should produce and a. import goods in which it has an absolute advantage. b. export goods in which it has an absolute advantage. c. import goods in which it has a comparative advantage. d. export goods in which it has a comparative advantage. D. Don’t confuse comparative advantage and absolute advantage. Absolute advantage is the ability of a country to produce a good using fewer resources than another country.
67 COUNTRY POTATOES WHEAT U.S. 1 3 Ireland 1 2 Exhibit 11 Potatoes and Wheat Output (tons per hour)
68 5. In Exhibit 11, which country has the comparative advantage in the production of potatoes?Exhibit 11 a. The United States because it requires fewer resources to produce potatoes. b. The United States because it has the lower opportunity cost of potatoes. c. Ireland because it requires fewer resources to produce potatoes. d. Ireland because it has the lower opportunity cost of potatoes. D. To produce 1 ton of potatoes, the opportunity cost for the U.S. is 3 tons of wheat. To produce 1 ton of potatoes, the opportunity cost for Ireland is 2 tons of wheat.
69 6. In Exhibit 11, the opportunity cost of wheat isExhibit 11 a. 1/3 ton of potatoes in the United States and 1/2 ton of potatoes in Ireland. b. 2 tons of potatoes in the United States and 1 1/2 tons of potatoes in Ireland. c. 8 tons of potatoes in the United States and 4 tons of potatoes in Ireland. d. none of the above. A. U.S. 1 ton potatoes = 3 tons of wheat 1/3 ton of potatoes = 1 ton of wheat Ireland 1 ton potatoes = 2 tons of wheat 1/2 ton potatoes = 1 ton of wheat
70 7. In Exhibit 11, the opportunity cost of potatoes isExhibit 11 a. 1/2 ton of wheat in the United States and 2/3 ton of wheat in Ireland. b. 2 tons of wheat in the United States and 1 1/2 tons of wheat in Ireland. c. 16 tons of wheat in the United States and 6 tons of wheat in Ireland. d. none of the above. D. U.S. 1 ton potatoes = 3 tons of wheat Ireland 1 ton potatoes = 2 tons of wheat
71 8. If the countries In Exhibit 11 follow the principle of comparative advantage, the United States shouldExhibit 11 a. buy all of its potatoes from Ireland. b. buy all of its wheat from Ireland. c. buy all of its potatoes and wheat from Ireland. d. produce both potatoes and wheat and not trade with Ireland. A. The U.S. should specialize in the production of wheat when it has a comparative advantage (see question 6 for opportunity cost calculations).
72 9. A tariff increases the a. quantity of imports. b. ability of foreign goods to compete with domestic goods. c. prices of imports to domestic buyers. d. all of the above. C. A tariff is a tax, also called customs duties, on an import.
73 10. The infant industry argument for protectionism is based on the view that a. foreign buyers will absorb all of the output of domestic producers in a new industry. b. the growth of an industry that is new to a nation will be too rapid unless trade restrictions are imposed. c. firms in a newly developing domestic industry will have difficulty growing if they face strong competition from established foreign firms. d. none of the above. C. It is difficult to make this argument because there is an arbitrary line between an “infant” and a “grown up” industry.
74 11. The figure that results when merchandise imports are subtracted from merchandise exports is a. the capital account balance. b. the balance of trade. c. the current account balance. d. always less than zero. B. The capital account records payments for financial capital, such as stocks and bonds. The current account includes trade in currently produced goods and services.
75 12. Which of the following international accounts records payments for exports and imports of goods, military transactions, foreign travel, investment income, and foreign gifts? a. The capital account. b. The merchandise account. c. The current account. d. The official reserve account. C. The capital account records payments for financial capital, such as stocks and bonds. The merchandise account is the value of a nation’s merchandise imports subtracted from its merchandise exports. There is no official reserve account.
76 13. Which of the following international accounts records the purchase and sale of financial assets and real estate between the United States and other nations? a. The balance of trade account. b. The current account. c. The capital account. d. The balance of payments account. C. The balance of trade is the value of a nation’s merchandise imports subtracted from its merchandise exports. The current account includes trade in currently produced goods and services. Balance of payments in a bookkeeping record of all international transactions in a given period of time.
77 14. If a Japanese radio priced at 2,000 yen can be purchased for $10, the exchange rate is a. 200 yen per dollar. b. 20 yen per dollar. c. 20 dollars per yen. d. none of the above. A. X yen / dollar = 2,000 yen / 10 dollars = 200 yen / dollar.
78 15. The United States a. was on a fixed exchange rate system prior to late 1971, but now is on a flexible exchange rate system. b. has been on a fixed exchange rate system since 1945. c. has been on a flexible exchange rate system since 1945. d. was on a flexible exchange rate system prior to late 1983, but now is on a fixed exchange rate system. A. For most years between World War II and 1971, were based primarily on gold.
79 16. Suppose the exchange rate changes so that fewer Japanese yen are required to buy a dollar. We would conclude that a. the Japanese yen has depreciated in value. b. U.S. citizens will buy fewer Japanese imports. c. Japanese will demand fewer U.S. exports. d. none of the above. B. When the dollar is weak or depreciates, U.S. goods cost foreign consumers less and they buy more U.S. exports.
80 17. Which of the following would cause a decrease in the demand for French francs by those holding U.S. dollars? a. Inflation in France, but not in the United States. b. Inflation in the United States, but not in France. c. An increase in the real rate of interest on investments in France. d. None of the above. A. A rise in the French Franc relative price level causes the dollar to appreciate and demand for French Francs decreases.
81 18. An increase in the equilibrium price of a nation’s money could be caused by a (an) a. decrease in the supply of the money. b. decrease in the demand for money. c. increase in the supply of the money. d. increase in the quantity of the money demanded. A.
82 200 150 100 50 0 200 300 400500100 Price (yen per dollar) Quantity of dollars (millions per day) Supply and Demand for Dollars S of $ (U.S. citizens) D for $ (Japanese citizens) E
83 19. If the dollar appreciates (becomes stronger), this causes a. the relative price of U.S. goods to increase for foreigners. b. the relative price of foreign goods to decrease for Americans. c. U.S. exports to fall and U.S. imports to rise. d. a balance of trade deficit for the U.S. e. all of the above to occur E.
84 20. Which of the following would cause the U.S. dollar to depreciate against the Japanese yen? a. Greater popularity of U.S. exports in Japan. b. A higher price level in Japan. c. Higher real interest rates in the U.S. d. Higher incomes in the U.S. D. As a result of higher income, U.S. citizens buy more domestic products and imports. The supply curve for dollars shifts rightward and the equilibrium exchange rate decreases.