Presentation on theme: "The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Companies (OPEC) OPEC Adapted from various sources by Scott Townsend Scott Townsend Woodstock Middle School."— Presentation transcript:
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Companies (OPEC) OPEC Adapted from various sources by Scott Townsend Scott Townsend Woodstock Middle School
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Companies (OPEC) was created in 1960 to unify and protect the interests of oil-producing countries. OPEC allows oil-producing countries to guarantee their income by coordinating policies and prices among them. This unified front was created primarily in response to the efforts of Western oil companies to drive oil prices down. The original members of OPEC included Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela. OPEC has since expanded to include six more countries, making a total membership of 11.
OPEC represents a considerable political and economical force. Two- thirds of the oil reserves in the world belong to OPEC members; likewise, OPEC countries are responsible for half of the world's oil exports. The fact that OPEC controls the availability of a substance so universally sought after by modern society renders the organization a force to be reckoned with.
The first display of the effect OPEC power could have on the world's politics was in the 1970s. When the Yom Kippur War exploded in the Middle East, the United States assisted Israel in defending itself against the Egyptian and Syrian armies. In what may have been a response to this interference in the war, OPEC instituted an oil embargo that targeted the United States and its European allies. The embargo lasted from October 19, 1973 to March 17, Yom Kippur Middle EastUnited StatesIsraelYom Kippur Middle EastUnited StatesIsrael
The effects of the OPEC oil embargo were widespread. Immediate effects included inflation and economic recession in the United States and other countries targeted by the embargo. Car owners in the United States were restricted to specific days on which they could purchase gasoline: even dates for cars with even-numbered license plates, and odd dates for cars with odd-numbered license plates.
A national law introducing more restrictive speed limits was instituted, as well as a year-round Daylight Savings Time. The OPEC oil embargo also drove auto manufacturers to produce smaller and more fuel-efficient vehicles. Even after the embargo ended, oil prices continued to rise, and the United States economy continued to suffer. oil pricesoil prices
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