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Unit 2 - Free Response Essay Questions A.P. US History.

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1 Unit 2 - Free Response Essay Questions A.P. US History

2 # 2 - Andrew Jackson’s election as President marked the beginning of a new age in American political history. Assess the validity of this generalization. The “Age of the Common Man” –Expansion of voting rights to non property holders Election of 1824 –Jackson wins popular vote, losses electoral –Corrupt Bargain Election of 1828 –“Mudslinging” –Character Debate (Jackson v. J.Q. Adams) –Establishment of the Democratic Party 1 st Term –“Kitchen Cabinet” –The Spoils System –Indian Removal Act –Favored “Small Government” but Not Afraid to use the Power of the Presidency –Nullification Crisis Tariff of 1828 Force Act nd Term –The Bank Crisis Panic of 1837 –Emergence of the Whig Party Election of 1836 –Martin Van Buren hand picked successor

3 # 3 - Early U.S. foreign policy was primarily a defensive reaction to perceived or actual threats from Europe. Assess the validity of this generalization with reference to U.S. foreign policy on TWO major issues during the period from French Revolution 1789 & Napoleonic Wars / –American Neutrality challenged (Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison) –XYZ Affair / Alien & Sedition Acts –Creation of the American Navy (Adams) –Quasi War (1794) –Louisiana Purchase (1803) –Embargo Act 1807 & Non- Intercourse Acts 1808 The War of 1812 –Impressment of American Ships & Sailors –Federalists Opposed War / Republicans Demanded War “War Hawks’ The War of 1812 Continued… –Tecumseh & Native American “Threat” in the West –1814 Washington Burns –Treaty of Ghent (Ended War, didn’t address impressment or trading rights) –Battle of New Orleans 1814 The Monroe Doctrine (1823) –Caused by successful revolutions in Latin America between –Written by J.Q. Adams but attributed to James Monroe –Stated that the Western Hemisphere (North / South America) was off limits to European colonization

4 # 4 - Although Americans perceived Manifest Destiny as a benevolent movement, it was in fact an aggressive imperialism pursued at the expense of others. Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to American expansionism in the 1840’s. Manifest Destiny = Americans had a God given right to the Western Territory to the Pacific Ocean The Louisiana Purchase (1803) –Constitutionality of the purchase –Lewis & Clark Expedition –Missouri Compromise Line = Land for expansion of slavery Indian Removal Act (1830) –All Native American tribes east of the Mississippi will be relocated –Worchester v. Georgia –Trail of Tears (1838) The Texas Revolt (1836) –Land Grants (Emprasarios) for Catholicism / Citizenship in Mexico –Slavery brought into territory –Battle of the Alamo (1836) –Republic of Texas until 1845 when annexed by the United States Oregon Country –“54 40 or Fight”= American northwestern border should be extended to the latitude deep in Canadian territory –Oregon Treaty 1846 = Signed with Great Britain / established a more reasonable border (Obtains OR, WA, ID, WY, MT) The Mexican-American War ( ) –Disputed border lines between Mexico (Nueces) and U.S. (Rio Grande) –U.S. / Mexican Army sent to guard the Rio Grande –Matamoros Skirmish – “American Blood… spilt on American Soil” –Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo –The Case of California

5 # 5 - Analyze the ways in which supporters of slavery in the nineteenth century used legal, religious, and economic arguments to defend the institution of slavery. Southern Paternalism –Belief that slavery benefited everyone –Slaves could not care for themselves, therefore white owners had to be responsible for them The Southern Economy –Centered on agriculture (Cotton & Tobacco) –75% of worlds cotton from American South (1850) = Global Impact –Transition from slave to free labor would not be worth the initial impact it would cast on the economy. The “Religious” Argument –Biblical interpretation –Bible lacked a clear and concise admonition against slavery, the institution was surely deemed appropriate. –Precedence Argument = forced servitude was acceptable. –“Saving Souls” Through Christianity Protection of “Property” under the Constitution –Slaves were considered property – Supreme Court Supports this idea with the “Dred Scott Decision” –Focusing their argument on the rights of slave-holders to transfer their "property" (in other words, their slaves), to the new territories, Avoiding Civil War –Constitutional Convention 1787 –Missouri Compromise 1821 –Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Compromise of 1850


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