Presentation on theme: "33 Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945–present"— Presentation transcript:
133 Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945–present QUIT33CHAPTERRestructuring thePostwar World, 1945–presentChapter OverviewTime Line1Two Superpowers Face OffMAPSECTIONSECTION2Communists Triumph in ChinaSECTION3War in Korea and VietnamSECTION4Cold War Around the WorldGRAPHSECTION5The Cold War ThawsVisual Summary
233 Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945–present HOME33CHAPTERRestructuring thePostwar World, 1945–presentChapter OverviewAfter World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States emerge as rivals. This rivalry is mainly diplomatic and strategic, but also leads both to become involved in military actions around the world. The rivalry dominates world politics for four decades.
333 Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945–present HOME Time Line 1945 CHAPTERRestructuring thePostwar World, 1945–presentTime Line1945 United Nations formed.1957 Soviets launch Sputnik.1975 Vietnam War ends.1997 South Korea aids North Korea, but the two remain divided.194520021949 Communists take control of China.1959 Cuban Revolution overthrows Batista regime.1979 Nicaraguan Communists topple U.S.-backed dictatorship.
4Two Superpowers Face Off Key Idea 1 HOME1Two SuperpowersFace OffMAPKey IdeaThe Soviet Union builds a buffer zone in Eastern Europe, and the United States aids its Western European allies as it struggles to block Communist expansion.OverviewAssessment
5Two Superpowers Face Off Overview 1 • United Nations • iron curtain HOME1Two SuperpowersFace OffMAPTERMS & NAMESOverview• United Nations• iron curtain• containment• Truman Doctrine• Marshall Plan• Cold War• NATO• Warsaw Pact• brinkmanship• U-2 incidentMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe conflicting aims between the United States and the Soviet Union led to global competition.The conflicts between these two superpowers played a major role in reshaping the modern world.Assessment
6Two Superpowers Face Off 1 1 HOME1Two SuperpowersFace OffMAPSection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the causes of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.Cold WarConflicting aims in EuropeSoviet defiance of Yalta agreementDesire for world dominationBerlin blockadeIncompatible political and economic philosophiescontinued . . .
7Two Superpowers Face Off 1 1 HOME1Two SuperpowersFace OffMAPSection1Assessment2. What were Stalin’s objectives in supporting Communist governments in Eastern Europe? THINK ABOUT• the effects of World War II• the location of the Soviet Union• U.S. aims in EuropeANSWERPossible Responses:• To protect borders• To counteract U.S. influence in Europe• To have access to raw materials to help rebuild war-ravaged country• To keep Germany from rebuilding and attacking Russia againEnd of Section 1
8Communists Triumph in China Key Idea 2 HOME2CommunistsTriumph in ChinaKey IdeaChina splits into two nations—one Communist and one Nationalist. Mao Zedong expands the Communist state and launches ambitious, but often disastrous, programs to transform its society.OverviewAssessment
9Communists Triumph in China Overview 2 • Mao Zedong • Jiang Jieshi HOME2CommunistsTriumph in ChinaTERMS & NAMESOverview• Mao Zedong• Jiang Jieshi• commune• Red Guards• Cultural RevolutionMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAfter World War II, Chinese Communists defeated Nationalist forces and two separate Chinas emerged.China remains a Communist country and a major player on the world stage.Assessment
10Communists Triumph in China 2 2 HOME2CommunistsTriumph in ChinaSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Summarize the reforms Mao Zedong proposed for China.Aspect of LifeReformAgricultureIndustryFamilyDivided land among peasantsEstablished collective farmsEstablished communesNationalized private companiesSet high production goalsSupported women workersSponsored childcarecontinued . . .
11Communists Triumph in China 2 2 HOME2CommunistsTriumph in ChinaSection2Assessment2. What policies or actions enabled the Communists to defeat the Nationalists in their long civil war?THINK ABOUT• the goals of each group• the leaders of the Communists and the Nationalists• foreign supportANSWERPossible Responses:• Won peasants’ loyalty• Trained troops in guerilla techniques• Promised land reformcontinued . . .
12Communists Triumph in China 2 2 HOME2CommunistsTriumph in ChinaSection2Assessment3. What circumstances prevented Mao’s Great Leap Forward from bringing economic prosperity to China?THINK ABOUT• Mao’s strict socialism• life in a commune• environmental problemsANSWERPossible Responses:Lack of privacy and personal life in the communes, lack of incentives for working hard, poor planning, crop failureEnd of Section 2
13War in Korea and Vietnam Key Idea 3 HOME3War in Koreaand VietnamKey IdeaThe United States fights bloody wars to prevent Communist takeovers in Korea and Vietnam. Korea remains split into Communist and non-Communist nations, and Vietnam becomes Communist.OverviewAssessment
14War in Korea and Vietnam Overview 3 • 38th parallel HOME3War in Koreaand VietnamTERMS & NAMESOverview• 38th parallel• Douglas MacArthur• Ho Chi Minh• domino theory• Ngo Dinh Diem• Vietcong• Vietnamization• Khmer RougeMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWIn Asia, the Cold War flared into actual wars supported mainly by the superpowers.Today, Vietnam is a Communist country and Korea is split into Communist and non-Communist nations.Assessment
15War in Korea and Vietnam 3 3 HOME3War in Koreaand VietnamSection3Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare and contrast the causes and effects of the wars in Vietnam and Korea.Korean WarVietnam WarBothAmerican and Soviet involvement stemmed from Cold War.Land was destroyed.Millions of people died.Soviet-supported North Vietnamese won.Neither side gained an advantage.continued . . .
16War in Korea and Vietnam 3 3 HOME3War in Koreaand VietnamSection3Assessment2. Do you think U.S. involvement in Vietnam was justified? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT• the U.S. policy of containment• the domino theory• U.S. public opinionANSWERPossible Responses:Not justified—It was a civil war that did not involve the United States; war is not justified under any circumstances.Justified—It was the responsibility of a nation founded on democratic ideals to support democracy in other countries, especially those in danger of becoming Communist.End of Section 3
17Cold War Around the World Key Idea 4 HOME4Cold WarAround the WorldGRAPHKey IdeaThe United States and the Soviet Union compete for influence throughout the developing world by supporting rival factions in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.OverviewAssessment
18Cold War Around the World Overview 4 • Third World HOME4Cold WarAround the WorldGRAPHTERMS & NAMESOverview• Third World• nonaligned nations• Fidel Castro• Anastasio Somoza• Daniel Ortega• Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi• Ayatollah Ruholla KhomeiniMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe Cold War superpowers supported opposing sides in Latin American and Middle Eastern conflicts.Many of these areas today are still troubled by political, economic, and military conflict and crisis.Assessment
19Castro leads revolution against Batista. HOME4Cold WarAround the WorldGRAPHSection4Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the main events of U.S. involvement in Cuba.Castro leads revolution against Batista.Castro nationalizes U.S.-owned sugar mills.Eisenhower orders embargo on trade.Castro turns to Soviets for aid.Bay of Pigs invasionCuban missile crisiscontinued . . .
20Cold War Around the World 4 4 HOME4Cold WarAround the WorldGRAPHSection4Assessment2. What similarities do you see among U.S. actions in Nicaragua, Cuba, and Iran? THINK ABOUT• the type of leader the United States supported in each country• U.S. interests in these countriesANSWERThe United States supported dictatorial leaders who were overthrown by popular uprisings. It intervened in all three countries to protect its own interests—a takeover by Communist Sandinistas in Nicaragua and by Castro in Cuba, and loss of vital oil supplies from Iran.Possible Response:continued . . .
21Cold War Around the World 4 4 HOME4Cold WarAround the WorldGRAPHSection4Assessment3. Today, Cuba suffers a severe shortage of vital supplies, largely due to the U.S. trade embargo that has lasted for almost 40 years. Do you think the United States should lift that embargo? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT• Castro’s leadership• prior U.S. conflicts with Cuba• human sufferingANSWERPossible Responses:Lift embargo—Cuba is no longer receiving aid from the Soviets; all Cubans—not only those who agree with Castro—are suffering.Retain embargo—Castro is still a threat to U.S. security; eventually embargo may cause the fall of the Communist regime.End of Section 4
22The Cold War Thaws Key Idea 5 HOME5The Cold War ThawsKey IdeaThe Cold War begins to thaw as Khrushchev denounces Stalinism, and U.S. leaders adopt a foreign policy of lessened tensions.OverviewAssessment
23The Cold War Thaws Overview 5 • Nikita Khrushchev • destalinization HOME5The Cold War ThawsTERMS & NAMESOverview• Nikita Khrushchev• destalinization• Leonid Brezhnev• John F. Kennedy• Lyndon Johnson• détente• Richard M. Nixon• SALT• Ronald Reagan• Star WarsMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe Cold War began to thaw as the superpowers entered an era of uneasy diplomacy.The United States and the countries of the former Soviet Union continue to cooperate and maintain a cautious peace.Assessment
24HOME5The Cold War ThawsSection5Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Indicate each U.S. president’s contribution to Cold War tensions.Tensions IncreasedTensions DecreasedEisenhowerKennedyJohnsonNixonFordCarterReagancontinued . . .
25HOME5The Cold War ThawsSection5Assessment2. Do you think it was a wise political move for Nixon to visit Communist China and the Soviet Union? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT• the Cuban missile crisis• realpolitik• public sentiment after the Vietnam WarANSWERPossible Responses:Wise—Nuclear war threatened the world and any efforts made to weaken the threat were good; Communist China was becoming a power that could not be ignored.Unwise—By meeting with officials in China and the Soviet Union, Nixon was condoning communism and undermining efforts to contain it.End of Section 5