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Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945–present QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line 33 CHAPTER MAP GRAPH Visual Summary SECTION Two Superpowers Face Off 1 SECTION.

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Presentation on theme: "Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945–present QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line 33 CHAPTER MAP GRAPH Visual Summary SECTION Two Superpowers Face Off 1 SECTION."— Presentation transcript:

1 Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945–present QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line 33 CHAPTER MAP GRAPH Visual Summary SECTION Two Superpowers Face Off 1 SECTION Communists Triumph in China 2 SECTION War in Korea and Vietnam 3 SECTION Cold War Around the World 4 SECTION The Cold War Thaws 5

2 HOME Chapter Overview After World War II, the Soviet Union and the United States emerge as rivals. This rivalry is mainly diplomatic and strategic, but also leads both to become involved in military actions around the world. The rivalry dominates world politics for four decades. 33 CHAPTER Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945–present

3 1945 United Nations formed Communists take control of China Soviets launch Sputnik Cuban Revolution overthrows Batista regime Vietnam War ends. 33 CHAPTER Time Line HOME Restructuring the Postwar World, 1945–present 1979 Nicaraguan Communists topple U.S.-backed dictatorship South Korea aids North Korea, but the two remain divided.

4 The Soviet Union builds a buffer zone in Eastern Europe, and the United States aids its Western European allies as it struggles to block Communist expansion. Overview Assessment Key Idea Two Superpowers Face Off 1 MAP HOME

5 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW The conflicting aims between the United States and the Soviet Union led to global competition. The conflicts between these two superpowers played a major role in reshaping the modern world. Overview Two Superpowers Face Off 1 Assessment United Nations iron curtain containment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Cold War NATO Warsaw Pact brinkmanship U-2 incident TERMS & NAMES HOME MAP

6 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the causes of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. Two Superpowers Face Off 1 Section 1 Assessment continued... HOME MAP Cold War Conflicting aims in Europe Desire for world domination Incompatible political and economic philosophies Berlin blockade Soviet defiance of Yalta agreement

7 2. What were Stalin’s objectives in supporting Communist governments in Eastern Europe? THINK ABOUT Section Two Superpowers Face Off 1 1 Assessment the effects of World War II the location of the Soviet Union U.S. aims in Europe ANSWER To protect borders To counteract U.S. influence in Europe To have access to raw materials to help rebuild war- ravaged country To keep Germany from rebuilding and attacking Russia again Possible Responses: HOME MAP End of Section 1

8 China splits into two nations—one Communist and one Nationalist. Mao Zedong expands the Communist state and launches ambitious, but often disastrous, programs to transform its society. Overview Assessment Key Idea Communists Triumph in China 2 HOME

9 Communists Triumph in China 2 After World War II, Chinese Communists defeated Nationalist forces and two separate Chinas emerged. China remains a Communist country and a major player on the world stage. Overview Assessment Mao Zedong Jiang Jieshi commune Red Guards Cultural Revolution MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME

10 Aspect of LifeReform Agriculture Industry Family Divided land among peasants Established collective farms Established communes Nationalized private companies Set high production goals Supported women workers Sponsored childcare Communists Triumph in China 2 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Summarize the reforms Mao Zedong proposed for China. Section 2 Assessment continued... HOME

11 Section Communists Triumph in China 2 2 Assessment ANSWER Won peasants’ loyalty Trained troops in guerilla techniques Promised land reform Possible Responses: HOME 2. What policies or actions enabled the Communists to defeat the Nationalists in their long civil war? THINK ABOUT the goals of each group the leaders of the Communists and the Nationalists foreign support continued...

12 Communists Triumph in China 2 3. What circumstances prevented Mao’s Great Leap Forward from bringing economic prosperity to China? THINK ABOUT Section 2 Assessment Mao’s strict socialism life in a commune environmental problems ANSWER Lack of privacy and personal life in the communes, lack of incentives for working hard, poor planning, crop failure HOME Possible Responses: End of Section 2

13 The United States fights bloody wars to prevent Communist takeovers in Korea and Vietnam. Korea remains split into Communist and non-Communist nations, and Vietnam becomes Communist. Overview Assessment Key Idea War in Korea and Vietnam 3 HOME

14 In Asia, the Cold War flared into actual wars supported mainly by the superpowers. Today, Vietnam is a Communist country and Korea is split into Communist and non- Communist nations. Overview Assessment 38th parallel Douglas MacArthur Ho Chi Minh domino theory Ngo Dinh Diem Vietcong Vietnamization Khmer Rouge War in Korea and Vietnam 3 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME

15 War in Korea and Vietnam 3 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare and contrast the causes and effects of the wars in Vietnam and Korea. Section 3 Assessment continued... HOME Korean War Vietnam War Neither side gained an advantage. Soviet-supported North Vietnamese won. Both American and Soviet involvement stemmed from Cold War. Land was destroyed. Millions of people died.

16 War in Korea and Vietnam 3 Section 3 Assessment ANSWER Not justified—It was a civil war that did not involve the United States; war is not justified under any circumstances. Justified—It was the responsibility of a nation founded on democratic ideals to support democracy in other countries, especially those in danger of becoming Communist. Possible Responses: 2. Do you think U.S. involvement in Vietnam was justified? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT the U.S. policy of containment the domino theory U.S. public opinion HOME End of Section 3

17 The United States and the Soviet Union compete for influence throughout the developing world by supporting rival factions in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Overview Assessment Key Idea Cold War Around the World 4 HOME GRAPH

18 The Cold War superpowers supported opposing sides in Latin American and Middle Eastern conflicts. Many of these areas today are still troubled by political, economic, and military conflict and crisis. Overview Assessment Third World nonaligned nations Fidel Castro Anastasio Somoza Daniel Ortega Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini Cold War Around the World 4 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME GRAPH

19 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the main events of U.S. involvement in Cuba. Cold War Around the World 4 continued... Section 4 Assessment HOME GRAPH Castro leads revolution against Batista. Castro nationalizes U.S.-owned sugar mills. Eisenhower orders embargo on trade. Castro turns to Soviets for aid. Bay of Pigs invasion Cuban missile crisis

20 Section 4 Assessment ANSWER 2. What similarities do you see among U.S. actions in Nicaragua, Cuba, and Iran? THINK ABOUT the type of leader the United States supported in each country U.S. interests in these countries Cold War Around the World 4 The United States supported dictatorial leaders who were overthrown by popular uprisings. It intervened in all three countries to protect its own interests—a takeover by Communist Sandinistas in Nicaragua and by Castro in Cuba, and loss of vital oil supplies from Iran. HOME GRAPH continued... Possible Response:

21 Section Cold War Around the World 4 Assessment ANSWER Lift embargo—Cuba is no longer receiving aid from the Soviets; all Cubans—not only those who agree with Castro—are suffering. Retain embargo—Castro is still a threat to U.S. security; eventually embargo may cause the fall of the Communist regime. Possible Responses: HOME End of Section 4 GRAPH 3. Today, Cuba suffers a severe shortage of vital supplies, largely due to the U.S. trade embargo that has lasted for almost 40 years. Do you think the United States should lift that embargo? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT prior U.S. conflicts with Cuba human suffering Castro’s leadership 4

22 The Cold War begins to thaw as Khrushchev denounces Stalinism, and U.S. leaders adopt a foreign policy of lessened tensions. Overview Assessment Key Idea The Cold War Thaws 5 HOME

23 The Cold War began to thaw as the superpowers entered an era of uneasy diplomacy. The United States and the countries of the former Soviet Union continue to cooperate and maintain a cautious peace. Overview Assessment 5 Nikita Khrushchev destalinization Leonid Brezhnev John F. Kennedy Lyndon Johnson détente Richard M. Nixon SALT Ronald Reagan Star Wars MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME The Cold War Thaws

24 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Indicate each U.S. president’s contribution to Cold War tensions. Section 5 Assessment 5 continued... HOME The Cold War Thaws Tensions IncreasedTensions Decreased Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan

25 5 Section 5 Assessment ANSWER Wise—Nuclear war threatened the world and any efforts made to weaken the threat were good; Communist China was becoming a power that could not be ignored. Unwise—By meeting with officials in China and the Soviet Union, Nixon was condoning communism and undermining efforts to contain it. Possible Responses: 2. Do you think it was a wise political move for Nixon to visit Communist China and the Soviet Union? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT the Cuban missile crisis realpolitik public sentiment after the Vietnam War HOME The Cold War Thaws End of Section 5


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