Presentation on theme: "The Early Republic, 1789-1815 Federalist Era: 1789-1800 (within larger historical era) Dominated politics Hatred of political parties/ but still emerged."— Presentation transcript:
The Early Republic, 1789-1815 Federalist Era: 1789-1800 (within larger historical era) Dominated politics Hatred of political parties/ but still emerged Fiscal military state vs. rural agricultural state By 1815 (historian Gordon S. Wood) Culture= popularized and vulgarized End of slavery in North/ remained in South Wanted to avoid war/ became embroiled in war
The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson, 1801-1809 Personal Spoke six languages Copy of Qu’ran (1764- 2 volume) Widowed Conflicted about slavery Opposed slave trade/only freed seven of hundreds of slaves/anti-Black sentiment 6,487 books- sold to Library of Congress 1819- Founded the University of Virginia. Political Agenda: Overview Promotion of political democracy and expansion Yeoman farmer/ artisans, tradesman Political democracy=economically independent citizenry Decrease Executive branch Legal precedent: Marbury vs. Madison (1803) Judicial review Foreign Policy Impulse: Expansion vs. Avoiding War Haiti, Napoleon, and the Louisiana Purchase Barbary States (North Africa) Embargo Act (1807)
Social Ideologies of Thomas Jefferson Social Education Amendment/ failed Six goals of Education Jeffersonian Democracy Narrow interpretation of Constitution Opposed Federalist Party supported The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth Razor and glue. New Testament 1803 Letter about convo with Dr. Benjamin Rush (Natchez, MS) Composed it for himself Notes of the State of Virginia. (1785) Inherent inferiority OR Decades of degrading enslavement. Anti-Slavery Actions vs. Anti-Black Thought 1778- Virginia/ prohibit importation of slaves 1785-publically silent
A Hideous Monster of the Mind: American Race Theory in the Early Republic Anti-slavery/Pro-Black Thought English abolitionist- Granville Sharp American abolitionist- Lemuel Haynes Alaudah Equiano and John Marrant Phillis Wheatley Emergence of Race Theory Assumptions of fundamental variations in humanity (physiology) Protection of social institutions: Exclusion from social contract and civil society. Differences rooted in Nature. Nature itself was cast as the enemy of Black freedom. Undid 18 th century abolitionism (End of slave trade vs. acceptance into society) Ideology- served as a way to remove Blacks from American society. Blackness becomes innate. Development Via: Political thought, natural science, moral philosophy, responses to Haitian revolution, colonization to Liberia, abolitionism, and ethnology.
Setting the Precedent: Judicial Review, One Big Land Purchase, and the Corps of Discovery… Judicial Review Marbury v. Madison Problematic: John Adams Federalist “Midnight judges.” Federalist Judge: ruled against government End Result: Judicial Review. Prohibit actions of other two branches if contradict Constitution. The Louisiana Purchase Men of the Western Waters Napoleon’s Plans for Louisiana Jefferson’s Plan to Secure Louisiana The Lewis and Clark Expedition Corps of Discovery Sacajawea Incorporating Louisiana
Pirates in the Mediterranean: Northwest African Berber Muslim states and the United States Setting the Stage: The Berbers in North Africa The Barbary States: Tripoli, Algiers, Morocco=Piracy of Mediterranean shipping Extort ransom, pillage, enslavement of crews U.S.- No Navy/ Tribute to Barbary states Spain: 1784 suggested to offer tribute Envoys to Morocco and Algeria Peace treaty 12 June 1786: ended all Moroccan piracy/ Article 6/ Morocco Algeria: 25 July 1785- capture of schooners Maria and Dauphin Captive for a decade. $600,000 each state 1795: release of 115 sailors, over $1 million dollars Jefferson refusal: 1801. Pasha of Tripoli, $225,000/cut down flagstaff The First Barbary War 1801-1805 Second Barbary War: 1815. Algerian War, Ottoman Empire
Gossip and Conspiracies in the Early Republic The Case of Sally Hemings (The Revolutionary Period) Biracial: Enslaved Elizabeth Hemings and English Captain John Hemings 1774: property of Thomas Jefferson Paris, 1787. Six children Was not emancipated. The Burr Conspiracy: A Treasonous Cabal and Texas Territory 1805-1806: Travels to Texas Territory (Spanish). Planters, Politicians, Army Officials. Plans in Newspaper, August 1805. Arrest: 1806. Trial: Charge of Treason. Not Guilty Lack of Evidence Legacy: Privilege: Executive and States Independence of Investigation: Subpoenas: Issue of release of papers Executive independent of Judiciary President: Subject to Law
European Harassment and An Embargo Harassment by Britain Contest for world power: 1791-1815 Seized American citizens and property Impressment: 2 nd Jefferson Administration 1795 Jay Treaty: Did not address this issue Forcibly seizing ships and sailors to work in Royal Navy American warship the USS Chesapeake Growing pressure for war Embargo Act of 1807 Prohibited all foreign commerce/respect of American rights Failed to compel Jefferson-hypocrite- foe of excessive government/U.S. Navy patrols Stimulated domestic manufacturing Repealed: Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
Presidency of James Madison, 1809-1817 Characteristics 4 th president: War and Domestic Policy Term dominated by tensions with Britain Pressured towards war with Great Britain- War of 1812 (Theatre of Napoleonic Wars) Domestic Problems: War-hawks, the Indigenous, Frontier Era of Good Feelings Indigenous Policies Paternalistic Protected indigenous lands (military commander Andrew Jackson) Battle of Tippecanoe (1811)- Indiana Territory and Tecumseh Economic Policies Congress failed to re-authorize charter of first Bank of America 1816- signed act/ federal bank supported war Taxation: tariffs, professional military, internal improvements (Henry Clay) Vetoed Bonus Bill of 1817: financed roads, bridges, canals
The War of 1812 Causes Violation of American Rights: Increased British navy aggression U.S. neutral- against international law Royal Nay boarded ships/Impressed its seamen Expansion British armed indigenous in Northwest Territory to create “buffer zone” Economic Motivations: Unfinished business from American Revolution War or Absolute submission Incidents 1807: HMS Leopard boarded American warship USS Chesapeake Leander Affair: Jefferson banned ships in ports Napoleon’s Continental System (1806) and British Orders in Council (1807) 900 American ships seized- 1807-1812 1 June 1812: Madison outlines grievances against Britain
Course of War of 1812 Course of War Land, Coasts, and Waterways The War in the South Creek War: Andrew Jackson (1813-1814) Began as Civil War within Creek Nation Red Sticks Battle of Burnt Corn: U.S. Involvement Tecumseh Red Sticks Fort Mims Massacre: massacre against whites and biracial Creeks Treaty of 1814: Language. 20 million acres of Georgia land Battle of New Orleans The War in the Chesapeake British response to burning of York in Upper Canada Burned White House in 1814 Francis Scott Key: The Star Spangled Banner
Dolley Madison and Washington City National Capital Land given by Maryland Jefferson: “Dismal Indian swamp” Dolley Madison 17 years younger Social graces and hospitality Stand-in for First Lady of Jefferson Architect Benjamin Latrobe Burning of Washington, 1814 Statue of George Washington Organized enslaved to save valuables Paul Jennings: James Madison’s personal servant (15 years old) Purchased freedom from Dolley Madison Reconstruction 2009 Jennings reunion/ Enslaved Contributions/ White House
Treaty of Ghent: 24 December 1814 Key Points Conditions of pre-war status Arranged prior to Battle of New Orleans Status quo antebellum Released all prisoners Restored all war lands and boats British- return of freed Black slaves
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