Presentation on theme: "The Jeffersonians 1801-1824 Election of 1800 Mess in the electoral college Result of the development of political parties Bitter campaign Tie between."— Presentation transcript:
Election of 1800 Mess in the electoral college Result of the development of political parties Bitter campaign Tie between Burr and Jefferson (both Republicans) Broken by House of Representatives (36 th vote) Leads to 12 th Amendment (1804) Revolution of 1800 Many predicted the transfer of power to lead to conflict Jefferson proved this untrue Although the transfer of power was peaceful, Jefferson began immediately implementing Republican policies Significant ideological changes take place
Jeffersonian Ideals Limited Government Increased states rights Government run by the people Less aristocratic than the Federalists “Educated citizenry” Agrarian Economy Yeoman farmer Strict Constructionism
Reducing the size of the federal government National debt had increased by 10 million under Federalists TJ rejected Hamiltonian idea that debt was healthy Attempted to pay off national debt without raising taxes TJ’s measures Streamlines federal government Closed many overseas embassies Reduced size of the army Went to war with Barbary Pirates (cheaper than paying tributes) Actually increases size of the navy Virtually eliminates domestic taxes
Reducing Federalist influence Federalist party had previously dominated all three branches of government Attempted to secure federalist influence in judiciary Judiciary Act of 1801 Adams midnight appointments Marbury v. Madison Court ruled that Congress had exceeded its authority Establishes principle of judicial review Chief Justice Marshall clearly to opportunity to lecture TJ Marshall will become arch rival of future Republicans Attempt to impeach federalist justices Pickering (removed)/Chase (unsuccessful)
Why is Marbury v. Madison considered the most important Supreme Court case in our history?
Louisiana Purchase 1803 TJ strongly supported expansion of his agrarian nation Spain had ceded Louisiana territory to Napoleon TJ feared being sandwiched between Britain and France Also feared losing port of New Orleans France offered to sell Louisiana territory to US for 15 million Jefferson accepted the offer Doubled the size of the US (3 1/2 cents per acre) TJ feared the purchase was unconstitutional Violated Jeffersonian belief in strict constructionism TJ drew up an amendment (never submitted ) Popularity of purchase ensured TJ’s reelection Created the need to explore and map the new territory TJ dispatches Lewis and Clark
Problems for Jefferson TJ’s second term marked by difficulties Burr Conspiracy Yazoo Land Deal Collapse of peace between Britain and France British impressment Chesapeake Leopard affair Embargo Act of 1807 Stifled economic activity in America Enraged Federalists Despite unpopular embargo Republican James Madison easily won election of 1808 Modified by Non Intercourse Act later Macon’s Bill (Madison)
War of 1812 Major issue of James Madison’s 1 st term Causes of the War British impressment of American shipping Madison thought Britain was attempting to choke American trade Economic recession in the South and West Many Republicans blamed British policies for the recession Desire for geographic expansion North into Canada Incitement of Western Indian tribes British continued to sell arms to “belligerent” tribes
War of 1812 War Hawks Group of primarily young western Republican Congressmen who favored war with Britain Wanted expansion and economic growth for their regions Seized the opportunity to use the war to win support for Republican party and damage the Federalists
War of 1812 Madison successfully convinced the Republican dominated Congress to declare war on England War went poorly for the United States (with few exceptions) Ambitious American forces attempted to invade Canada Inept officers were soundly defeated by the British Major American success: defeat of British navy on the Great Lakes British reinforcements land in Chesapeake Bay 1814 Burn Washington D.C. Battle of New Orleans After official cease fire Andrew Jackson made a hero War ends in a unspectacular fashion
War of 1812 Treaty of Ghent 1814 British had nothing to gain despite superior position Restored pre war status quo Napoleon gone—impressment is a dead issue Primary importance: Establishes the United States as a world power Hartford Convention 1814 Federalists had strongly criticized the war Last attempt to organize Federalist party Propose New England secede (lacked support) Propose to amend the Constitution to aid New England End of the war took away their primary issue Irony: Federalist benefited most from the war
Madison Madison was a First Term Success/Second Term Failure Economic Depression following war/embargo Failures by Second Bank of the US Easy Credit Madison’s policies partially responsible for Panic of 1819 Clay’s American System (Goal: Increase Unity) Internal improvements Common currency Recharter of Bank (1816) Madison vetoes internal improvements (1817)
Why would a period of growing nationalism follow the War of 1812?
Monroe Era of Good Feelings Period of American nationalism following war Social/cultural nationalism Decrease in party politics (No Fed. Party) Rapid population growth/Westward expansion Adams Onis Treaty 1819 Economy boomed Embargo/War plus protective tariffs caused growth of American industry Panic of 1819 Ended by growing sectionalism and intraparty rivalries in the 1820’s
Monroe Missouri Compromise 1821 New states threatened balance of the Senate Equal # of slave and free states Compromise: Maine as a free state Missouri as a slave state Established 36 30 line Monroe Doctrine 1823 First official foreign policy Two parts: US stays out of European affairs No future colonization of Western Hemisphere
Why was the Monroe Doctrine an unnecessary statement in many ways?