Presentation on theme: "Cuba. Early History 3500 B.C. Fishers and hunters were first inhabitants from a variety of tribes in South America. They were descendants of the Arawak."— Presentation transcript:
Early History 3500 B.C. Fishers and hunters were first inhabitants from a variety of tribes in South America. They were descendants of the Arawak Indians, known as the Taino, an agricultural tribe. –Taino are believed to be the tribe that crossed from Asia via the Bering Strait to inhabit North and South America.
Christopher Columbus and the “Discovery” October 27, 1492 Columbus sighting of Cuba Diego Velazquez de Cuellar conquers the Taino. –claims the island in the name of Spain. –sets up seven settlements across Cuba. Taino chief burned at the stake for resistance. –1515 to 1542 approximately 95,000 natives killed either by disease or slave labor. –Spain begins African slave importation as replacement workers
Independence The beginning of the 1600’s saw Spain losing its control of the entire Caribbean. British forces captured the island of Jamaica (1655) and French forces took over Haiti (1697) Spain’s monopoly on tobacco ends. raising prices and spreading the crop all over the Caribbean and to North America. Sugar was the second leading crop under tobacco. British forces were constantly trying to take Cuba from Spain for these reasons
Domestic efforts to achieve Independence Carlos Manuel de Cespedes began Cuba’s first war of independence The Ten Years War ( ) Over 200,000 rebel and federal troops killed The rebel force is defeated, settles for a treaty - amnesty.
Jose Marti Jose Marti and General Maximo Gomez invade Eastern Cuba in Marti was killed on his horse in a battle with Spanish troops Martyr to the cause of independence. Jose Marti
The Spanish American War 1898 U.S.S. Maine explodes in Havana Harbor. The Spanish-American war begins January of 1898, ends December Peace treaty between the United States and Spain provisions: –U.S. retains Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam as territories captured from the Spanish –Cannot annex Cuba because of a law providing for the recognition of Cuba’s self-determination for independence. –U.S. gains Naval Base on Guantanamo Bay Cuba (1903)
U.S. domination? 1920 American businesses own 2/3 arable land, crippling food production, economic progress. –U.S. government historically viewed Cuba as extension of US economic interests in the Caribbean (U.S. Secretary of State James Blaine 1881) –1901 Platt Amendment – extension of Monroe Doctrine to Cuba/US military intervention if necessary. Great Depression era: –civil unrest develops/ violently repressed Army Sergeant, Fulgencio Batista, overthrows President Morales.
Background to Revolution Following the death of Eddy Chibas in 1951, Batista re-emerged in the political arena elections scheduled, Fidel Castro is a Congressional Candidate. Fulgencio Batista
Revolution March 10, 1952 Fulgencio Batista takes control in a bloodless coup d’etat. Cubans rally behind Castro - revolution begins. Fidel Castro
The Moncada Attack The Revolutionary armed struggle against the Batista Regime official began on July 26, Castro and 131 other fighters attacked the Moncada Barracks on July 26 –the attacks fail. –Castro was caught, imprisoned. –Castro exiled to Mexico elections to reinstate Batista as President General amnesty granted and Castro sent into exile.
Living in Exile In Mexico Castro studies guerrilla warfare and continues his attack on the Batista Regime by way of pamphlets and letters intended to rebuild the “July 26 Movement.” Castro and friends in Mexico
Return from Exile At the end of 1956, Castro bought a yacht called Granma, loaded it with weapons and as many supplies as he could find, as well as 82 followers and set sail for Cuba. On December 2, 1956 they beached at Las Coloradas Ambushed at landing – betrayal by insider, most of the group is killed. Survivors take control of the La Plata Army Barracks on January , enabling them to restocked their weapons supply. Then they took refuge in one of the most inaccessible places possible, the mountains. The Eisenhower administration has just cut funding to Batista for weapons. –U.S. state department advisor William Wieland famously laments: "I know Batista is considered by many as a son of a bitch... but American interests come first... at least he was our son of a bitch”.
The Sierra Maestra The July 26 Movement two elements: The Sierra and the Llano (the underground urban movement) which was led under Frank Pais. After a Llano movement strike, Pais was criticized and the Sierra group took control of its operations in the plains. Castro is named Commander in Chief for the first time on May 3rd Frank Pais
Revolutionary Success May 25 th 1958 Batista launches a major offensive with 10,000 armed soldiers. Rebels obtain hundreds of weapons from prisoners captured during the battle. Castro’s forces begin a counteroffensive in July. In the months that followed, the rebels were able to successfully divide the island in half and gain control of Santa Clara, the capital, in December. On January 1 st 1959, Batista flees Cuba and Rebels gain control. U.S. government recognizes the new Cuban government (Jan 7, 1959). On February 16th, Castro becomes Prime Minister.
1960’s-The Cuban Revolution Knowledge of socialism and communism spread within 2 years of revolution Fidel used television to discuss major national problems, to orient the masses, or make public decisions During half of 1960’s politics was a cause of family polarization 1965-Fidel let Cubans leave
The Revolution in the 60s 1959-Agrarian Reform Law Food rationing; ration books Cubans pay no taxes, almost nothing for medical care, electricity, entertainment, transportation, or education 1960-Castro creates the Federation of Cuban Women- (meets infrequently in 1962, 1974,1980)
Revolution in the 70’s Projected sugar harvest of 10 million tons “ New Economic Calculus” Castro saw his party to be “a party of men, a state of men, and a government of men.” Cuban family code - “shared housework”
Education Improvement of literacy Elite schools Education is free monetarily, but it is tightly controlled as to what is learned Emphasis on medicine, pharmacy
US/Cuba Relations History The relationship between the United States and Cuba for the last 40 years has been marked by tension and confrontations. The United States initially recognized the new Cuban government (January 7, 1959) Relations deteriorated as the regime engaged in land reform and expropriated U.S. properties as part of its movement toward adoption of a one-party Marxist-Leninist system. United States institutes a trade embargo on Cuba in October 1960 and breaks diplomatic relations the following January. Tensions between the two governments peaked during the April 1961 "Bay of Pigs" invasion and the October 1962 missile crisis.
US/Cuba Relations Cuba established close ties with the Soviet Union which fueled cold war tensions and kept the bilateral relationship distant during the 1960s. In the 1970s, during the Nixon administration, the United States and Cuba began to explore normalizing relations, but the talks were suspended in 1975 when Cuba launched a large-scale intervention in Angola. The United States and Cuba attempted to establish and facilitate consular relations and provide a venue for dialogue, but Cuban international entanglements in the 1970s, such as deploying troops to Ethiopia and allowing Soviet forces on the island, continued the strain.
US/Cuba Relations In the 1980s the focus of friction in U.S.-Cuban relations shifted to also include immigration migration crisis unfolded. In April 1980 an estimated ten thousand Cubans stormed the Peruvian embassy in Havana seeking political asylum. Eventually, the Cuban government allowed 125,000 Cubans to illegally depart for the United States from the port of Mariel, an incident known as the "Mariel boatlift." A number of criminals and mentally ill persons were involuntarily included. Quiet efforts to explore the prospects for improving relations were initiated in under the Reagan administration, but ceased as Cuba continued to intervene in Latin America. In 1983, the United States and regional allies forced the withdrawal of the Cuban presence in Grenada
Mariel Boat Lift April 1, September 25, ,776 Cuban Migrants (60% Men, 22% Women, 18% Children) 3,784 intercepted by USCG in one day alone 27 Migrants died including 14 aboard a single capsized vessel Average Weekly Cost to USCG- $650,000
US/Cuba Relations In 1984, the United States and Cuba negotiated an agreement to resume normal immigration and to return to those persons to Cuba who had arrived during the boatlift who were "excludable" under U.S. law. Cuba suspended this agreement in May 1985 following the U.S. initiation of Radio Marti broadcasts to the island. –reinstated in November –March 1990, TV Marti transmissions began to Cuba.
US/Cuba Relations In the ‘90s another migration crisis set back U.S.-Cuban relations food shortages/blackouts leads to demonstrations in Havana. The Cuban Government responded by allowing some 30,000 Cubans to set sail for the United States. – which resulted in a number of deaths at sea. –Massive US Coast Guard rescue effort.
US/Cuba Relations This resulted in both countries signing migration accords in September 1994 and May 1995 to ensure safe, legal, and orderly migration.
US/Cuba Relations On February 24, 1996 the Cuban military shot down two U.S. registered civil aircraft in international airspace, killing three U.S. citizens and one U.S. resident. In response to this violation of international aviation law, Congress and President Clinton passed the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act, also known as the Libertad Act, which codified the U.S. trade embargo into law and imposed additional sanctions on the Cuban regime.
US/Cuba Relations Present Policy Our present policy has two fundamental components: –maintaining pressure on the Cuban Government for change through the embargo and the Libertad Act while providing humanitarian assistance to the Cuban people –working to aid the development of civil society in the country.
US/Cuba Relations U.S. policy also pursues a multilateral effort to press for democratic change by urging allies to actively promote a democratic transition and respect for human rights. It opposes consideration of Cuba’s return to the OAS or inclusion in the Summit of the America’s process until there is a democratic Cuban government. The U.S. has made clear however that it is prepared to respond if the Cuban government initiates fundamental, systematic democratic change and respect for human rights.
Three Major Waves of Cuban Migrants 1965 Camarioca 1980 Mariel Boatlift 1994 Balseros (Boat People) –1999 Elián González z%C3%A1lez z%C3%A1lez
US Immigration Policy for Cuban Migrants The Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966 Treated Cuban migrants as political refugees and granted them universal political asylum. Entitled Cuban refugees to government welfare programs that other immigrant groups were excluded from. Migratory Agreement of 1994 and Joint Declaration of 1995 US agrees to formally process 20,000 Cuban migrants a year in order to stop the flow of migrants across the Florida Straits.
Officially Processed Number of Cuban Refugees by Year 19956, , , , , , ,944
Cuban Exile Groups Cuban American National Foundation Cuban Liberty Council Brothers to the Rescue
Cuba’s Branches of Government
Judicial System—Governing Council of the Courts President of Supreme Court, Vice President, Secretary, Presidents of the 5 chambers 5 chambers = criminal, civil and administrative, labor, crimes against state security and military. Makes sure that all court decisions from all 3 tiers are uniform Intermediary for Council of Ministers and Supreme Court
Judicial System—Municipal Courts 169 municipal courts, one per municipality –Judges are elected by respective municipal assembly after nomination by the Ministry of Justice. –Lay judges outnumber professional judges
Judicial System— Provincial Courts 14 provincial courts, one per province –Elected by provincial assemblies after nomination by Ministry of Justice –justices serve a 2 ½ year term –5 chambers
Judicial System—Supreme Court Consists of a President, Vice President, members of the countries 5 chambers –Each chamber consists of a President, 2 professional judges, and 2 lay judges Judges elected by National Assembly –26 professional judges serve 2 ½ year terms –126 lay judges serve 2 months per year over 2 ½ year terms
Council of Ministers Includes agriculture, education, interior and other various ministries Executive and administrative organ Conducts foreign policy Submits state budget and bills for Council of State and National Assembly to approve Members are elected by National Assembly
Council of State 31 members, elected by National Assembly Takes over all power from NAPP while they are out of session President of council is the Head of State and Government as well as President of Council of Ministers Vice President of Council of State would take over if President died or was unable to serve
National Assembly of People’s Power Legislative representative authority Powers: –to declare war –approve state budget –approves general outline of foreign/domestic policy Discusses plans for national economic and social development Oversees other state organs Members voting in the National Assembly of People’s Power
National Assembly of People’s Power Elects members to serve on Council of State and Council of Ministers Elects president, Vice President Elects judges of People’s Supreme Court Rules whether laws are constitutional or not Members serve 5 year terms, elected by municipal assemblies, serve on part time basis
President of Cuba The highest post in the Cuban government is decided by the Council of State, whose members are chosen by members of congress amongst themselves. Members of congress are elected in a popular ballot every five years. In order to win a congressional seat, however, a candidate must be a member of the Cuban Communist Party and his/her candidacy must have been put forward by local councils. These councils are also elected in a popular ballot. This system has allowed Fidel to retain Cuba's presidency since In July 2006, however, ill-health forced him to hand over day- to-day power to his younger brother, Raúl, who has since been acting as interim president. It is likely that Raúl will be picked to replace his brother in March (of 2008). Like Fidel, Raúl is also a candidate in the 20 January (2008) congressional election
The Communist Party of Cuba The solely recognized political party since the 1960’s, also known as the PCC The Cuban nation has been under the current government rule since January 1, 1959 Current constitution since 1976.
The Communist Party of Cuba The structure of the P.C.C. Is as follows: –A first secretary general of the central committee –A second secretary general of the central committee –Members of the central committee, which include secretaries, presidents of political organizations, etc.
The Communist Party of Cuba The government is a totalitarian dictatorship There are very few checks and balances For example, Fidel Castro serves as the first Secretary General of the central committee of the Communist party, as well as President of the State Council (legislative power), and President of the Ministry Council (executive power), and Commander in Chief of the Armed forces The national economy is entirely a function of the state
US/Cuba Relations President William J. Clinton "(Our policy) demonstrates the United States' compassion for the Cuban people, our strong interest in building bonds between the citizens of our nations, and our determination to provide the people of Cuba with hope in their struggle against a system that for four decades has denied them even basic human rights." March 20, 1998
US/Cuba Relations "The policy of the United States is clear. We want a peaceful transition to democracy in Cuba. It is that simple. It is that unshakable. And towards that goal, we will never compromise our principles, nor cease our efforts." February 27, 1998 Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright