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Chapter 11: The American Pageant

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1 Chapter 11: The American Pageant
The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic

2 Jefferson defeats Adams in the Electoral College 73-65.
ELECTION OF 1800 Jefferson defeats Adams in the Electoral College Problem: Jefferson & Burr received 73 votes each and both were Democratic-Republicans Therefore election decided by House of Representatives

3 ELECTION OF 1800 1. Election of 1800: The rise of political parties caused flaws in the electoral college Parties chose their candidates and electors would vote for them 2. Led to a tie between Jefferson and Burr----House of Representatives chose Jefferson. 3. To eliminate future problems 12th Amendment: Requires electors to specify which person they want for President and VP on separate ballots so there would never be a tie. Federalists Democratic Republicans Adams--Pres Jefferson---Pres Pinckney---VP Burr---VP----73

4 Significance of Election of 1800
REVOLUTION OF 1800 John S. Adams Thomas Jefferson Federalist Democratic/Republican Significance of Election of 1800 peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another “revolutionary” achievement

5 Restraint Helps Revolution
FEDERALIST FINALE Restraint Helps Revolution Jefferson axed a few Federalist policies Pardoned those convicted under expired Sedition Act Reduced residency requirement for citizenship back to 5 years Repealed hated excise tax Made efforts to eliminate debt

6 Restraint Helps Revolution
FEDERALIST FINALE Restraint Helps Revolution Yet Jefferson showed restraint by leaving most of Federalist program Did not attack tariff, Bank, funding at par, or assumption of debt Helped 2-party system by showing that defeat (for Federalists) didn’t mean disaster

7 Champion for the common man For now, educated should rule…
JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY Many historians look at this time period as the beginning of the true democracy. Champion for the common man Believed education would prepare them for participation in government….. For now, educated should rule… Believed National Government became too powerful during Adams’ Presidency Kept most Federalist programs. WHY? Washington/Adams laid a solid foundation for USA. Pardoned those arrested with Sedition Act Repealed the Whiskey tax Kept Hamilton’s financial policies—Bank of the US Eliminated Alien Act

Visualized an agrarian society Feared industrialization and its effects …. Farmers were the chosen class. Laissez faire--govt. stays out of people’s lives Against Bank of the United States but did not repeal it. Owned slaves but believed it was evil….Slavery would end but predicted it would divide U.S…Ultimate goal, Blacks would assimilate into American society Native Americans, co-existence a long range goal but would have to learn agricultural ways and become self-sufficient…For that time, Indians and whites could not co-exist and worked towards voluntary removal of tribes to western lands Believed education the key to social mobility

9 MARBURY VS MADISON Although the Supreme Court, which had a Federalist majority, denied Marbury, also a Federalist, his commission (appointment to become a judge), the Court established a far more important principle. THE SUPREME COURT INTERPRETS WHAT THE CONSTITUTION MEANS AND CAN DECLARE A LAW UNCONSTITUTIONAL WHICH IS CALLED JUDICIAL REVIEW. THE CONSTITUTION IS THE SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND AND THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT IS OVER THE STATES.

10 Chief Justice John Marshall stated,
MARBURY VS MADISON Chief Justice John Marshall stated, “The Constitution is either a superior paramount law, unchangeable by ordinary means, or it is on a level with ordinary legislative acts, and like other acts, is alterable when the legislature shall please to alter it. If the former part of the alternative be true, then a legislative acting contrary to the constitution is now law; if the latter part be true, then written constitutions are absurd attempts, on the part of the people to limit a power in its own nature illimitable. It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is If, then, the courts are to regard the Constitution and the Constitution is superior to any ordinary act of the legislature, the Constitution and no such ordinary act, must govern the case to which they are both applicable”.

11 New Orleans Spanish Land 1800 Great Britain after the Revolution.
United States after War Spanish land after Revolution New Orleans

12 New Orleans French Land in 1801 Great Britain after the Revolution.
United States after War Spanish land New Orleans

13 LOUISIANA PURCHASE 1800, France acquired Spanish Louisiana & New Orleans Because of pressure from the west and national security threats, Jefferson offered to buy New Orleans from France Offered Napoleon $10 million to buy New Orleans If sale fails, instructed to seek alliance with England

14 Forced him to abandon his dream of a French America.
Haitian rev HAITIAN REVOLUTION Toussaint L’Ouverture, former slave led a slave rebellion in French Haiti. Napoleon unable to put down this rebellion which he wanted to use this island as stepping stone into America…. Forced him to abandon his dream of a French America.

15 LOUISIANA PURCHASE Louisiana purchase Since Napoleon was at war with Great Britain he offered entire Louisiana Territory to US for $15 million Needed the money for his war with Great Britain Jefferson purchased Louisiana Territory for $15 million, about 3 cents an acre Doubled the size of the US Jefferson’s greatest accomplishment Why? Didn’t fight a war, no blood shed.

Does the President have the right to purchase land if it is not expressed in the US Constitution? Jefferson used implied powers or loose construction to justify his decision “It was for the best interest of the nation. It is the case of a guardian, investing the money of his ward in purchasing an important adjacent territory; and saying to him when of age, I did this for your good; I pretend to no right to bind you; you may disavow me, and I must get out of the scrape as I can: I thought it my duty to risk myself for you.” Madison to Jefferson “Mr. President, you are only extending this republic over a larger area of land.”

Does the President have the right to purchase land if it is not expressed in the US Constitution? Hamilton and Federalists were against this purchase (IRONY) Why? Population shift take Federalist power away in Congress Feared Jefferson’s vision of an “agrarian society” Jefferson referred to this as his “valley of democracy”

18 Expansion of the United States
Map 6 of 45

19 Expansion of the United States with Louisiana Purchase 1803
Map 7 of 45 Expansion of the United States with Louisiana Purchase 1803

20 LEWIS AND CLARK Spring, 1804: Jefferson sends personal secretary Meriwether Lewis and army officer William Clark to explore north Louisiana Corps of Discovery: 28 men who accompanied Lewis/Clark. Exploration yielded maps, knowledge of Indians, overland trail to Pacific President Jefferson wanted to find the Northwest Passage United States’ claim to the Pacific Northwest

21 Interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark
SACAJAWEA Interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark Her knowledge of trails and mountain passes helped with the success of the expedition. She was also a “diplomat” for Lewis and Clark. Many tribes had never seen white men before. Her presence with a baby was looked upon as good and Lewis and Clark were considered peaceful.

22 Burr planned to win the governorship of New York in 1804.
BURR CONSPIRACY Secretly forming a political pact with some radical New England Federalists. Burr planned to win the governorship of New York in 1804. Unite that state with the New England states, and then lead this group of states to secede from the nation Most Federalists followed Alexander Hamilton in opposing Burr, who was defeated in the New York election The conspiracy then disintegrated

23 Angered by an insulting remark attributed to Hamilton,
HAMILTON VS BURR Angered by an insulting remark attributed to Hamilton, Burr challenged the Federalist leader to a duel and fatally shot him Hamilton’s death in 1804 deprived the Federalists of their last great leader and earned Burr the hatred of many

24 BURR COMMITS TREASON In 1806, Burr planned to take Mexico from Spain and possibly unite it with Louisiana under his rule Jefferson learned of the conspiracy and ordered Burr’s arrest and trial for treason A jury acquitted Burr, basing its decision on Marshall’s narrow definition of treason and the lack of witnesses to any “overt act” by Burr

25 Barbary raids

1801: Pasha of Tripoli was not happy with his share of protection money Informally declared war on US. Pacifist Jefferson reluctantly dispatched navy, secured peace for $60,000 ransom for American sailors.

Small gunboats used with some success in Tripoli Jefferson interested in their cost savings. “Mosquito fleet” of 200 small gunboats constructed. War of 1812: these boats would prove to be ineffective.

28 Strict Construction of Constitution
JEFFERSON AND CONTRADICTIONS Anti-War and Anti-Navy (Pacifist) Went to war with Barbary Pirates in North Africa Built the “mosquito fleet” of naval ships Anti-British/Pro-French Almost allied with England and went to war with France to force Napoleon out of New Orleans. Against slavery Owned 200 slaves Strict Construction of Constitution Used loose construction of Constitution over purchase of Louisiana territory Jefferson realized that “ideas” are often hard to put into practice in a “realistic world”.

Berlin Decree (1806), Milan Decree (1807): These decrees issued by Napoleon dealt with shipping and led to the War of The Berlin Decree initiated the Continental System, which closed European ports to ships which had docked in Britain. The Milan Decree authorized French ships to seize neutral shipping vessels trying to trade at British ports.  Orders-in-council British laws which led to the War of Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods. 

30 IMPRESSMENT Impressment An act of kidnapping a ship, its contents, men and forcing them into your navy 1806: England closed ports under French control to foreign shipping (incl. US), seized US ships & impressed Americans. Napoleon ordered seizure of all merchant ships that entered British ports.

31 British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered
C H E S A P E A K E A F F A I R 1806, Chesapeake was a US merchant ship 10 miles off the coast of Virginia. A British ship in the region ordered it to stop. British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered 3 Americans were killed, 18 wounded and 4 sailors impressed

32 Regarding the Chesapeake Affair, the Washington Federalist reported,
“We have never, on any occasion, witnessed the spirit of the people excited to so great a degree of indignation, or such a thirst for revenge, as on hearing of the late unexampled outrage on the Chesapeake. All parties, ranks and professions were unanimous in their detestation of the dastardly deed, and all cried aloud for vengeance.”

33 EMBARGO ACT Jefferson’s response to the Chesapeake Affair was the Embargo Act of 1807…. Short of war, Jefferson attempted to defend our neutrality by stopping all American exports to the world. embargo1

34 It would have the reverse effect……
EMBARGO ACT Reasoning: Since England and France were at war with one another and traded for most of their natural resources with U.S., if we cut off our exports to them it would force them to respect our neutrality….THIS IS CALLED ECONOMIC COERCION. It would have the reverse effect…… The Embargo Act not only hurt France and Britain but it also hurt U.S. trade which was our economic survival as a nation. As a result, many Americans defied the law and began to smuggle goods from these countries as well as others. Hurt American businesses New Englander’s shift from trade to industry U.S. smuggled New England talked of secession….. Lasted 15 months, repealed in March of 1809 embargo2

35 EMBARGO ACT American people were hostile towards Jefferson
Referred to the Embargo as “Dambargo, Mobrage, Go Bar Em”…. Would be replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act by President Madison which allowed U.S. exports and trade but not with France and Great Britain…… A Federalist circular in Massachusetts against the embargo cried out, “Let every man who holds the name of America dear to him , stretch forth his hands and put this accursed thing, this Embargo from him. Be resolute, act like sons of liberty, of God, and your country; nerve your arms with vengeance against the Despot (Jefferson) who would wrest the inestimable germ of your Independence from you---and you shall be Conquerors!!!” “Our ships all in motion, Once whiten’d the ocean; They sail’d and return’d with a Cargo; Now doom’d to decay They are fallen a prey, To Jefferson, worms and EMBARGO.”

36 After the Embargo Act Non-Intercourse Act Replaced the Embargo of Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon’s Bill No. 2. Macon’s Bill No Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.

37 Dupe of Napoleon Madison’s Error in Judgment
August, 1810: in response, Napoleon (lying) announced decrees (stop impressing US ships) could be repealed if Britain ends the Orders in Council November, 1810: Madison announces nonimportation against Britain Results in political ties with France Major foreign policy mistake Napoleon

38 Tecumseh Tecumseh (Shawnee warrior) & the Prophet (brother) formed union of tribes east of Mississippi to fight white intrusion Supplied by the British led Indian cultural renewal 1809: General William H. Harrison appointed as governor of Indiana Territory by President Jefferson. President Jefferson instructed Harrison to convince Tecumseh to stop attacking American settlements. Battle of Tippecanoe makes Harrison a hero.

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