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Chapter 11 Notes Marbury vs. Madison, Thomas Jefferson, Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark Expedition, Embargo Act, Non-Intercourse Act, and James Madison.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Notes Marbury vs. Madison, Thomas Jefferson, Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark Expedition, Embargo Act, Non-Intercourse Act, and James Madison."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Notes Marbury vs. Madison, Thomas Jefferson, Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark Expedition, Embargo Act, Non-Intercourse Act, and James Madison

2 Write your answer down on a separate piece of paper.
What is Marbury vs. Madison? What is the significance of this court case? Write your answer down on a separate piece of paper. Include the following in your answer: John Adams Midnight judges Marshall Judicial Review Jefferson

3 Thomas Jefferson

4 Thomas Jefferson Jefferson is known as a Intellectual, statesman, and third president of the United States. Although Jefferson served as Governor of Virginia, Minister to France, Secretary of State, Vice President, and President, he is remembered in history less for the offices he held than for what he stood for: his belief in the natural rights of man as he expressed them in the Declaration of Independence and his faith in the people's ability to govern themselves. He left an impact on his times equaled by few others in American history. He was introduced to the ideas of the Enlightenment as a student at the College of William and Mary. Jefferson displayed throughout his life an optimistic faith in the power of reason to regulate human affairs. On the eve of his inauguration as vice president in 1797, Jefferson had been elected president of the American Philosophical Society, a post he retained until In many ways he found more pleasure in holding that office than in being president of the United States. A boundless intellectual curiosity fueled his interests in science and natural history, the classics, music, and the arts. He once reflected: "Nature intended me for the tranquil pursuits of science, by rendering them my supreme delight. But the enormities of the times in which I have lived have forced me to take a part in resisting them, and to commit myself on the boisterous ocean of political passions." Jefferson translated his intellectual pursuits into action. His study of natural law and political thought informed his commitment to republican government. His devotion to science inspired numerous agricultural pursuits. His interest in architecture and the arts was manifest in the design of his home at Monticello. His concern about education led to proposals for public education in his state and to the founding of the University of Virginia, for which he was champion, architect, and academic planner. The most versatile intellectual to occupy the presidential office, Jefferson was a complex man. He opposed an aristocracy and slavery, yet he enjoyed a life of privilege and owned slaves, optimistically hoping that the next generation would end that violation of natural law. Jefferson's sense of priorities was strikingly revealed when he instructed that his tombstone be inscribed only with the words that he was the author of the Declaration of Independence and the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, and the father of the University of Virginia.

5 The Louisiana Purchase

6 The Louisiana Purchase
Since achieving independence, the United States had repeatedly sought free access down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. Terms had been negotiated in 1795 with the Spanish, who then held the territory, but in 1801 President Thomas Jefferson learned that Spain had secretly ceded Louisiana to France. Jefferson instructed the American minister in Paris, Robert R. Livingston, to negotiate either for a port at the mouth of the Mississippi or, as a second choice, for permanent trading rights in New Orleans. In January 1803, James Monroe was sent to join Livingston, armed with an appropriation of $2 million to buy New Orleans and West Florida (the southern portions of Alabama and Mississippi); secretly, Monroe was told he could go as high as $10 million. Napoleon had acquired Louisiana in hopes of building an empire in North America, but a Haitian slave revolt and an impending war with England had led him to abandon his plans. On April 11, Livingston and Monroe were offered all of Louisiana. The price agreed upon was $15 million. For approximately four cents an acre, the United States acquired about 828,000 square miles, doubling the size of the nation.

7 Louisiana Purchase… The Mississippi River formed the eastern boundary, and the Gulf of Mexico, the southern; later treaties defined the northern boundary as reaching to Canada, and the western, as running generally northwest to the middle of present-day Montana. The Federalists, argued that American law made no provision at all for buying foreign territory. Jefferson, who usually favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution, took the broadest view on this occasion, and the Senate approved the purchase on October 20, 1803. American expansion westward into the new lands began immediately. A territorial government was established in 1804, and in 1812 the first of thirteen states to be carved from the territory—Louisiana—was admitted to the Union.

8 Lewis and Clark Expedition

9 Lewis and Clark Expedition
Early in 1803, President Thomas Jefferson commissioned Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, both experienced soldiers, to explore what is now the northwestern United States. He requested detailed observations about natural resources and transcontinental routes, also instructing the leaders to contact Indian tribes. The Louisiana Purchase soon gave the expedition new urgency; almost nothing was known about the vast addition of land west of the Mississippi River. In May 1804, Lewis and Clark's party of nearly fifty men set out from St. Louis. They headed up the Missouri River and at the onset of winter reached the site of present-day Bismarck, North Dakota, where they constructed a fort. At this time Sacagawea, a Shoshone woman, joined the expedition as a guide and translator. In 1805, the group followed the Missouri westward to its headwaters and then crossed the Rocky Mountains and proceeded along the Salmon, Snake, and Columbia rivers to the Pacific Ocean. On their return in 1806, Clark and Lewis separated and found two more passes over the Rockies. Once reunited, they continued down the Missouri to St. Louis, arriving with abundant painstaking notes and drawings of the geography of the region and the wildlife and inhabitants they had encountered.

10 Interactive Map
Interactive Trail…

11 Embargo Act This act was passed by Congress to protest British and French interference with American neutral shipping during the Napoleonic Wars. Before these acts, the British navy had already interfered with American shipping by stopping ships to draft sailors from their crews—a practice called impressment. The British claimed they were impressing British subjects, but often American citizens were taken. President Thomas Jefferson requested the action in response to the Chesapeake-Leopard Incident in which a British ship attacked an American naval vessel Jefferson responded by imposing the embargo, which prohibited all exports. Although the wars created a huge demand for goods, each side attempted to block the other's trade. In the spring of 1806 the British navy began to blockade Continental ports, and in reply, Napoleon, in the Berlin and Milan decrees, prohibited trade with the British Empire. The British retaliated with Orders in Council blocking all neutrals from trading with France and its allies. At that time France controlled most of continental Europe.

12 Embargo Act… Since foreign ships would be forced to depart empty, the act also effectively limited imports. The president hoped that economic pressure would persuade the British and French to moderate their maritime policies. Jefferson also believed that keeping ships in American ports would prevent further violations of national honor. Instead, the embargo caused costly disruptions of the American economy and forced no concessions. American merchants evaded it just as they had ignored British trade restrictions before the Revolution.

13 Non-Intercourse Act In the last days of Jefferson's presidency, Congress replaced the Embargo Act with the almost unenforceable Non-Intercourse Act of March 1809, which prohibited trade only with Great Britain and France. It failed to convince England and France that they should change their policies. Finally, in May 1810, Macon's Bill No. 2 removed all restrictions on commerce, but continued to bar foreign warships. The bill also empowered the president to reapply the ban on trade with either Britain or France if the other ceased to violate American neutral rights. After the passage of Macon's Bill, trade soon rebounded to prewar levels. The basic problem of violation of American sovereignty remained unsolved, however, and would lead to the War of 1812 with Great Britain.

14 James Madison

15 James Madison He was the fourth president of the United States and a political theorist. One of the less colorful but most important of America's Founding Fathers, Madison may rightly be considered the principal architect of the political system defined by the U.S. Constitution. Although he served in a number of high offices, including Secretary of State ( ) and President ( ), he is best remembered for his accomplishments as a political theorist and for his related role in launching the Constitution during the late 1780s and early 1790s. Historians generally recognize the soft-spoken, diminutive, and scholarly Madison as the best prepared and most influential of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. He hoped that by creating a new national government that rested directly on the people rather than on the states, the delegates could overcome the factional disorder, confusion, and injustice that prevailed during the post-revolutionary years without endangering liberty or compromising the American commitment to representative government. Elected to the First Congress under the new regime, Madison immediately became the pivotal figure in drafting laws and establishing precedents that gave tangible shape and force to the new Constitution. Most important, following the advice of his close friend Thomas Jefferson, he guided the process that would produce the first ten amendments, now known as the Bill of Rights. Then, fearful that the new government might be corrupted by aggressive nationalists—principally his collaborator on The Federalist Alexander Hamilton—Madison joined Jefferson in opposing the Federalist administrations of both Washington and his successor John Adams. After 1800, when the Jeffersonians defeated the Federalists in a watershed election, Madison served eight years as Jefferson's secretary of state. Most historians consider Madison to have been a weak chief executive, citing his leadership during the War of 1812 as particularly inept. Nevertheless, the young nation emerged from that "Second War for Independence" with a new measure of unity and self-confidence. Madison thus enjoyed tremendous popularity during his last years as president and his nineteen years in retirement, when he was widely revered for his role both in founding and in securing the first great modern republic. Although the document that emerged from the convention disappointed Madison in some respects, he worked tirelessly for its ratification. He coauthored the brilliant collection of essays explaining and defending the Constitution, The Federalist, that is today still studied as a masterpiece of political theory.

16 The END

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