Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Notes Marbury vs. Madison, Thomas Jefferson, Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark Expedition, Embargo Act, Non- Intercourse Act, and James Madison."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 11 Notes Marbury vs. Madison, Thomas Jefferson, Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark Expedition, Embargo Act, Non- Intercourse Act, and James Madison
What is Marbury vs. Madison? What is the significance of this court case? Write your answer down on a separate piece of paper. –Include the following in your answer: John Adams Midnight judges Marshall Judicial Review Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson Jefferson is known as a Intellectual, statesman, and third president of the United States. Although Jefferson served as Governor of Virginia, Minister to France, Secretary of State, Vice President, and President, he is remembered in history less for the offices he held than for what he stood for: his belief in the natural rights of man as he expressed them in the Declaration of Independence and his faith in the people's ability to govern themselves. He left an impact on his times equaled by few others in American history. He was introduced to the ideas of the Enlightenment as a student at the College of William and Mary. Jefferson displayed throughout his life an optimistic faith in the power of reason to regulate human affairs.
Since achieving independence, the United States had repeatedly sought free access down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. Terms had been negotiated in 1795 with the Spanish, who then held the territory, but in 1801 President Thomas Jefferson learned that Spain had secretly ceded Louisiana to France. Jefferson instructed the American minister in Paris, Robert R. Livingston, to negotiate either for a port at the mouth of the Mississippi or, as a second choice, for permanent trading rights in New Orleans. In January 1803, James Monroe was sent to join Livingston, armed with an appropriation of $2 million to buy New Orleans and West Florida (the southern portions of Alabama and Mississippi); secretly, Monroe was told he could go as high as $10 million. Napoleon had acquired Louisiana in hopes of building an empire in North America, but a Haitian slave revolt and an impending war with England had led him to abandon his plans. On April 11, Livingston and Monroe were offered all of Louisiana. The price agreed upon was $15 million. For approximately four cents an acre, the United States acquired about 828,000 square miles, doubling the size of the nation.
Louisiana Purchase… The Mississippi River formed the eastern boundary, and the Gulf of Mexico, the southern; later treaties defined the northern boundary as reaching to Canada, and the western, as running generally northwest to the middle of present-day Montana. The Federalists, argued that American law made no provision at all for buying foreign territory. Jefferson, who usually favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution, took the broadest view on this occasion, and the Senate approved the purchase on October 20, 1803. American expansion westward into the new lands began immediately. A territorial government was established in 1804, and in 1812 the first of thirteen states to be carved from the territory—Louisiana—was admitted to the Union.
Early in 1803, President Thomas Jefferson commissioned Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, both experienced soldiers, to explore what is now the northwestern United States. He requested detailed observations about natural resources and transcontinental routes, also instructing the leaders to contact Indian tribes. The Louisiana Purchase soon gave the expedition new urgency; almost nothing was known about the vast addition of land west of the Mississippi River. In May 1804, Lewis and Clark's party of nearly fifty men set out from St. Louis. They headed up the Missouri River and at the onset of winter reached the site of present-day Bismarck, North Dakota, where they constructed a fort. At this time Sacagawea, a Shoshone woman, joined the expedition as a guide and translator. In 1805, the group followed the Missouri westward to its headwaters and then crossed the Rocky Mountains and proceeded along the Salmon, Snake, and Columbia rivers to the Pacific Ocean. On their return in 1806, Clark and Lewis separated and found two more passes over the Rockies. Once reunited, they continued down the Missouri to St. Louis, arriving with abundant painstaking notes and drawings of the geography of the region and the wildlife and inhabitants they had encountered.
Embargo Act This act was passed by Congress to protest British and French interference with American neutral shipping during the Napoleonic Wars. Before these acts, the British navy had already interfered with American shipping by stopping ships to draft sailors from their crews—a practice called impressment. The British claimed they were impressing British subjects, but often American citizens were taken. President Thomas Jefferson requested the action in response to the Chesapeake-Leopard Incident in which a British ship attacked an American naval vessel Jefferson responded by imposing the embargo, which prohibited all exports.
Embargo Act … Since foreign ships would be forced to depart empty, the act also effectively limited imports. The president hoped that economic pressure would persuade the British and French to moderate their maritime policies. Jefferson also believed that keeping ships in American ports would prevent further violations of national honor. Instead, the embargo caused costly disruptions of the American economy and forced no concessions. American merchants evaded it just as they had ignored British trade restrictions before the Revolution.
Non-Intercourse Act In the last days of Jefferson's presidency, Congress replaced the Embargo Act with the almost unenforceable Non- Intercourse Act of March 1809, which prohibited trade only with Great Britain and France. It failed to convince England and France that they should change their policies. Finally, in May 1810, Macon's Bill No. 2 removed all restrictions on commerce, but continued to bar foreign warships. The bill also empowered the president to reapply the ban on trade with either Britain or France if the other ceased to violate American neutral rights. After the passage of Macon's Bill, trade soon rebounded to prewar levels. The basic problem of violation of American sovereignty remained unsolved, however, and would lead to the War of 1812 with Great Britain.
James Madison He was the fourth president of the United States and a political theorist. One of the less colorful but most important of America's Founding Fathers, Madison may rightly be considered the principal architect of the political system defined by the U.S. Constitution. Although he served in a number of high offices, including Secretary of State (1801- 1809) and President (1809-1817), he is best remembered for his accomplishments as a political theorist and for his related role in launching the Constitution during the late 1780s and early 1790s.