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Jeffersonian Republic

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1 Jeffersonian Republic 1800-1812

2 The Big Ideas Of This Chapter
Jefferson’s effective, pragmatic policies strengthened the principles of two-party republican gov’t - even though Jeffersonian “revolution” caused sharp partisan battles Despite his intentions, Jefferson became deeply entangled in the foreign-policy conflicts of the Napoleonic era, leading to a highly unpopular and failed embargo that revived the moribund Federalist Party James Madison fell into an international trap, set by Napoleon, that Jefferson had avoided. The country went to war against Britain. Western War Hawks’ enthusiasm for a war with Britain was matched by New Englanders’ hostility.

3 Cultural Nationalism Education  The “Virtuous Citizen”
An American form of English Noah Webster

4 “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”
Is that true? Economically? Some historians say they are the same b/w Jefferson and Hamilton both dealt with rich people - be they merchants or southern planters Some historians say they are the same b/c Jefferson did not hold to his “Strict Constructionist” theory because Louisiana purchase Allowing the Nat’l bank Charter to expire rather than “destroying it” as soon as he took office

5 1800 Election Results

6 1800 Election Results (16 states in the Union)
Thomas Jefferson Virginia Democratic-Republican 73 52.9% Aaron Burr New York John Adams Massachusetts Federalist 65 47.1% Charles Pinckney South Carolina 64 46.4% John Jay 1 0.7% Total Number of Electors 138 Total Electoral Votes Cast 276 Number of Votes for a Majority 70

7 1800 Election Results (Into the House of Representatives!!)
 1 vote for each State  Thomas Jefferson Virginia Democratic-Republican 10 62.5% Aaron Burr New York 4 25.0% Blank 2 12.5% Despite their political differences, Hamilton knew that Jefferson was the better man for the job. Much more qualified than Burr This deadlock pointed out a flaw in Constitution – as a result 12th amendment was passed, requiring separate ballots be cast for President and VP

8 2004 Election Headlines Outreach effort and moral values theme pays off for Bush with Hispanics Nov. 3, 2004 [FOX News] Election Reinforces USA’s Religious Schism Nov. 4, 2004 [USA Today] 'It's a Victory for People Like Us' Bush Emphasis on Values Drew Ohio Evangelicals Nov. 5, 2004 [Washington Post]

9 2004 Election Poll Data Kerry Bush Nader
Which One Issue Mattered Most in Deciding How You Voted for President? (Check only one) Kerry Bush Nader Taxes Percentage of Electorate: 5 43% 57% 0% Education Percentage of Electorate: 4 73% 26% -- Iraq Percentage of Electorate: 15 Terrorism Percentage of Electorate: 19 14% 86% Economy/Jobs Percentage of Electorate: 20 80% 18% Moral Values Percentage of Electorate: 22 1% Health Care Percentage of Electorate: 8 77% 23%

10 Attend Religious Services
2004 Election Poll Data Attend Religious Services Kerry Bush Nader More Than Once a Week Percentage of Electorate: 16 35% 64% 1% Once a Week Percentage of Electorate: 26 41% 58% 0% A Few Times a Month Percentage of Electorate: 14 49% 50% -- A Few Times a Year Percentage of Electorate: 28 54% 45% Never Percentage of Electorate: 15 62% 36%

11 A New Style Of Gov’t Jefferson tried to cutback on government
He appealed to the common man (even wearing slippers and work clothes in the office!) He reduced the size of the army Halted an expansion of the navy Cut back on costs of govt social functions

12 Significance First party overturn in history of the country
Significance: demonstrated the efficacy of a two-party system

13 Significance Jefferson surprisingly kept most of Hamilton’s Financial Plan intact Kept most of go’vt officials Did get rid of excise tax Kept the B-FAT As a president, Jefferson is pragmatist rather than an idealist Alien and Sedition Act expires Congress enacted new naturalization law *Succeeded in cutting nat’l debt and balancing budget by cutting gov’t spending. Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin gov’t that governs least, governs best Gov’t for the people

Federalists are very important in the courts Adams appointed John Marshall as Chief Justice; Marshall served for 30 years - Marshall’s decisions strengthened the power of SC and of federal government - he solidified the federalist position in the court

15 THE “MIDNIGHT JUDGES” As Adams is about to leave office, he pushes through Congress the Judiciary Act of 1801 He adds 16 new federal judges! All the new judges are – you guessed it – Federalists. (Adams hopes to influence future federal judiciary decisions this way.) As he signed their appointments late on his last day in office they are called the Midnight Judges.

Furious! – Jefferson argues that some of the documents authorizing the appointments had not been delivered by the time Adams left office, they were invalid THIS LED TO ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT COURT CASES OF ALL TIME: MARBURY v. MADISON

17 MARBURY v. MADISON 1803 This creates the case of
Marbury v Madison which is one of THE MOST IMPORTANT COURT DECISIONS in U.S. history to-be-judge Wm. Marbury never got his papers from J. Madison he takes it to court saying the Judiciary Act of 1789 required those papers to be delivered

18 MARBURY v. MADISON 1803 What did the Court say?
Did Marbury have the right to the commission? Pointing to law passed by Congress which told how justices of the peace should be appointed, the Court said he did 2. Was the gov’t required to make amends? The Court said when gov’t officials (like Madison) hurt people (like Marbury) by neglecting their legal duties (such as delivering the commission), our laws require that a remedy be found 3. If the gov’t was required to make amends, did that mean that Madison must be ordered to deliver Marbury’s commission as Marbury had requested? Here is the surprise: Marshal said: YES, a court could issue such an order, but NO, this was not the right court to issue it Why wasn’t this the right court to issue it? Marbury had taken advantage of a part of the Judiciary Act that allowed complaints such as his be taken straight to the Supreme Court instead of going through the lower courts. Chief Justice Marshall, however, said that this law was unconstitutional. The Constitution does say some cases can go straight to the Supreme Court but other cases must go through lower courts first. It did not matter that Congress had passed a law saying something different, because the Constitution is a higher law When two laws come into conflict, judges must obey the higher of them - in this case the Constitution

19 MARBURY v. MADISON 1803 In others words: The Supreme Court has power to rule a law by the Congress unconstitutional - Significance: established Judicial Review Importance: contrast w/ Va Ky resolutions which claimed states had the right of review…which is _______ theory

20 Impeachment of Samuel Chase
Jefferson threatens Supreme Court Impeachment voted on by House Senate did not impeach Henceforth, no attempts to reshape the Court by impeachment

21 Tripolitan War 1801-1805 Attack by pirates of N. Africa
Forced to buy protection Pasha of Tripoli declared war on U.S. U.S. Navy led by Stephen Decatur “mosquito fleet”

1800, Napoleon persuades Spain to return Louisiana to France. [Spain had gotten it from France in 1762.] Secret Transfer of Louisiana to France worries Jefferson – a strong French presence mid-continent may force US into an alliance w/ GB Jefferson offers to buy New Orleans and western Florida from the French

23 “Let’s Make a Deal” Jefferson sends Monroe to negotiate w/ Napoleon
Napoleon had tried to reconquer France’s most important island colony (Saint Dominque, now Haiti), but failed So Napoleon wants to sell all of Louisiana! Monroe and Livingston (US ambassador to France) close the deal for $15,000,000

24 Is the purchase constitutional?
Jefferson actually doubted that the government could legally buy Louisiana Especially for a “strict constructionist” – since no where in the Constitution does it say a president can buy land It will cost and the debt will rise Federalists dislike it b/c new western lands will be loyal to the Republicans But Senate ratified the treaty. Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the size of the US Western half of richest river valley in the world Guaranteed Mississippi waterway to the Gulf of Mexico including N.O. Paved the way for expansion Ended European expansion in North America Avoided war w/ France Boosted American nat’lism

25 LEWIS AND CLARK “The Corps of Discovery” – Jefferson appoints Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the new territory From St. Louis to the Pacific Information about unknown plants and animals Learn as much as possible about Native Americans as they travel through the region 2 years and 4 months resulting in acquisition of invaluable info about the western territories Sacajawea serves as interpreter and guide

26 Burr Conspiracy Burr vice president under TJ
Essex Junto: Small group of Federalist extremists plotted New England’s secession from the union and the creation of a seven-state northern confederacy Federalist-dominated New England felt threatened by Jefferson’s political dominance & the La. Purchase which would lead to western expansion Tried to get Hamilton to run for gov’nor of NY then lead the secessionist mov’t - Hamilton refused They then turned to Burr Hamilton defeated Burr in gov’nor election Burr challenged him to a duel

27 Burr Conspiracy 1806 Burr tried to separate western part of U.S. and unite it w/ to-be-conquered Spanish territory west of La. Territory Burr supported James Wilkinson, military gov’nor of upper La., who later told Jefferson Burr arrested John Marshall dropped the case when 2 witnesses for gov’t couldn’t be found

28 Jefferson reelected in 1804

29 France vs. Britain Seas ruled by Britain Britain at war w/ France
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair Br. Commander of the H.M.S. Leopard demanded surrender of four alleged Br. Deserters on the U.S.S. Chesapeake - American cap’t refused Leopard fired at the Chesapeake: 3 dead; 18 wounded American reaction was the most hostile since the XYZ Affair (Br. admitted its error) Jefferson called for action Forbade Br. Ships to dock at American ports Ordered st. gov’nor to bring up militia

30 Embargo Act 1807 Forbade export of all goods from the U.S.
Force Br. And Fr to respect its rights Loose construction of the Constitution Congress’ power to “regulate commerce” meant it could stop exports Undermined Jefferson’s states’ rights theory It was a disaster! 1807 U.S. exports = $108 million 1808 U.S. exports = $22 million NE trade most affected Mounds of goods unsold in South Jefferson gets Congress to pass tougher laws - NE thinks secession Repealed 1809

31 Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
Replaced Embargo Act Reopened trade with all nations of the world except Fr and Br Remain U.S. policy until 1812

32 Why did the Embargo fail. -He underestimated Br
Why did the Embargo fail? -He underestimated Br.(Order in Council) - Napoleon could afford to ignore the American trade (seized ships) - Difficult to enforce - costly, smuggling Why Should You Care? Shipping tied up and imported goods scarce, New England reopened old factories. *Real foundations of modern industrial industry were laid Weakened Jefferson’s party

33 Thomas Jefferson Presidential Charts
Jefferson’s legacy: Presidency Peaceful transfer of power 1801 Maintained many Federal programs: Nat’l bank, tariffs, funding at par, kept most public servants Reversed excise tax, pardoned martyrs from Sedition act, new naturalization law, reduced debt, balanced budget Supreme Court Marbury v. Madison Impeachment of Chase 5. Expansion: Louisiana Purchase 6. Tripolitan Wars 7. Embargo Act 8. “father of the 2-term presidency”

34 Thomas Jefferson Presidential Charts
Jefferson’s legacy: Expansionism Expansionism becomes prime goal of Jeffersonians Federalist like expansion too but: In Old Northwest not the South Northwest not subdued until Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794 Southern conquest difficult b/c Spanish presence La. Purchase changed all of that Historically stunning achievement - no society ever had indefinite expansion and hemisphere supremacy w/out building strong centralized state (big armies, big navies, big taxation)

35 Thomas Jefferson Presidential Charts
Jefferson’s legacy: Expansionism Hard side of Expansionism Removal of Amerindians, blacks, & Spanish in Florida Empire for liberty was for whites only 2. Barbary Wars - attempt to expand agriculture empire

36 Thomas Jefferson Presidential Charts
Jefferson’s legacy: Democratic non-aristocratic gov’t Gov’t that governs least, gov’ns best Lower debt, promote states’ rights 2. Feared more than 2 presidential terms might lead to dictatorship 3. Retained faith in democracy and common people

37 Thomas Jefferson Presidential Charts
Jefferson’s legacy: Total defeat of Federalists by 1816 “High Federalists” had been moving towards creation of European style aristocracy through creation of standing army and gov’t suppression of political opponents Most high-ranking officers were Federalists Burr tried to get ranking officer James Wilkinson, to support secession of western territory 2. The military victory in 1807 against Barbary pirates and in Europe meant officer corps became loyal to Jerrersonians

38 Thomas Jefferson Presidential Charts
Jefferson’s legacy: Kept the country out of damaging European war War of 1812 not until late in Madison’s terms

39 Thomas Jefferson Memory Aid Jeffersonian Democracy “G” I HATE LAMB
“G” allatin- secretary of the treasury who reduced the nat’l debt I mpeachment of Samuel Chase H amilton’s plan kept by Jefferson (except excise tax) A agrarian empire (westward expansion) T ripolitan War E embargo Act, 1807 L ouisiana Purchase 1803 A rmy reduced in size (Federalist lose major center of power) M arbury v. Madison 1803 B urr Conspiracies (1804 in NY, 1806 in the West)

40 Jefferson Essays To what extent were the Jeffersonians successful in achieving their goals b/w ? To what extent did President Jefferson stay true to the ideals he held in 1790? Evaluate the relative importance of domestic and foreign in issues during 1801 and 1809. By 1809, which party’s goals had prevailed in American politics: the Federalists or the Democratic -Republicans? To what extent and in what ways was Jefferson’s expansionist policies successful?

41 Presidential Election of 1808

42 James Madison Becomes President

43 Dolly Madison

44 Madison and War of 1812 To be continued…

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