Presentation on theme: "Lesson 16 WW II: America Enters the War. Lesson Objectives Understand the Japanese and American strategies for the war in the Pacific and Asia. Analyze."— Presentation transcript:
Lesson Objectives Understand the Japanese and American strategies for the war in the Pacific and Asia. Analyze the impact of the military revolution during the interwar years on the war in the Pacific theater. Become familiar with the timeline of events in the Pacific war. Understand the significance of the Battle of Midway and the role of signals intelligence in the outcome.
Japanese Situation 1936: Army began to gain upper hand in government of Japan Ref: Morton: Japans Decision for War Return to Japan’s Decision Goal: Make Japan preeminent in Asia Objectives : Conquer China Expand into SE Asia for bases & raw materials Strengthen military Build war industry Improve air & sea transportation
Japanese Situation Driving Concern: Strategic Resources Morton: Japans Decision for War US, Britain, Netherlands controlled Japan’s oil (particularly oil) Problem:
Events December 7, 1941 US Pacific Fleet attacked at Pearl Harbor
Japanese Decision to War Calculated risk? Risky calculation? or
Japanese Decision to War "One can search military history in vain for an operation more fatal to the aggressor." Samuel Eliot Morison, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Vol. III, The Rising Sun in the Pacific
Timeline 1910 1921 1931 1932 1936: Nov 25 1937: Jul 7 Nov 6 Dec 12 Japan colonizes Korea League of Nations awards Japan control of former German possessions in Micronesia Japan invades Manchuria Japan establishes a puppet state, Manchukuo, in Manchuria Japan & Germany sign Anti-Comintern Pact Japan provokes incident with China, declares war Italy joins Germany, Japan in Anti-Comintern Pact Japanese planes sink gunboat USS Panay in Yangtze River Ken Polsson: Chronology of World War II ( Review )
Attack on USS Panay December 12, 1937 Source: U San Diego Local
Timeline 1937: Dec 14 Ludlow Amendment introduced in Congress Video Proposed Constitutional amendment to require popular referendum prior to entry into war Rep. Louis L. Ludlow (D-Indiana)
Timeline 1937: Dec 14 Ludlow Amendment introduced in Congress Ken Polsson: Chronology of World War II 1938: May 17US Naval Expansion Act Proposed Constitutional amendment to require popular referendum prior to entry into war Japanese cabinet increases military presence Goal: Full-strength two-ocean navy in 10 years May 28 Dec 22 Japan: New Order in East Asia replaces Open Door
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere History Open Door Policy Discouraged Japan & European powers from carving up China U.S.-sponsored initiative to open China to all imperial powers New Order in East Asia (Dec 1938) Idealistic initiative to free just Northeast Asia from colonialism Usurped by nationalist & militarists as tool for war resources (1899) Proposed by liberal prime minister Fumimaro Konoe
Timeline 1937: Dec 14 Ludlow Amendment introduced in Congress Ken Polsson: Chronology of World War II 1938: May 17US Naval Expansion Act Proposed Constitutional amendment to require popular referendum prior to entry into war Japanese cabinet increases military presence Goal: Full-strength two-ocean navy in 10 years May 28 Sep Nov 18 Aug Japan: New Order in East Asia replaces Open Door 1939: Jul 26 US: Will not renew 1911 trade pact with Japan Japanese forces defeated by Soviets at Khalkin Gol (Manchuria) War in Europe begins
Timeline 1940: Jun 29 Ken Polsson: Chronology of World War II Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere proclaimed by Foreign Minister Hachirō Arita
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere History Open Door Policy Discouraged Japan & European powers from carving up China U.S.-sponsored initiative to open China to all imperial powers New Order in East Asia Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (Nov 1938) Idealistic initiative to free just Northeast Asia from colonialism Usurped by nationalist & militarists as tool for war resources (1899) Proposed by liberal prime minister Fumimaro Konoe a.k.a Japanese Imperialism Jun 1940
Timeline 1940: Jun 29 New Japanese government discusses ways to exploit weakness of European powers in Asia Ken Polsson: Chronology of World War II Jul 25 Aug Roosevelt announces restrictions on shipment of petroleum & scrap iron to Japan Japan occupies northern French Indochina Sep US embargoes shipment of av gas, scrap iron, steel to Japan Sep 26 US analysts begin to crack Japanese codes Jul Great East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere proclaimed by Foreign Minister Hachirō Arita
Embargo On Trade Japanese propaganda poster Depicts US embargo of Japanese trade from bases in Philippines
Timeline 1940: Jul Jul 25 Aug Sep Sep 26 New Japanese government discusses ways to exploit weakness of European powers in Asia Roosevelt announces restrictions on shipment of petroleum & scrap iron to Japan US analysts crack Japanese codes Japan occupies northern French Indochina US embargoes shipment of av gas, scrap iron, steel to Japan Ken Polsson: Chronology of World War II Sep 27 Nov 11 Japan, Germany, Italy sign Tripartite Pact Royal Navy aircraft attack Italian fleet at Taranto, Italy
Attack on Taranto November 11, 1940 Source Italian fleet at Taranto threaten British supply routes in Med Problem: How to neutralize fleet? battleships? bombers? carrier-based air?
Attack on Taranto November 11, 1940 HMS Illustrious Fairey Swordfish Solution: night carrier-based air attack
Attack on Taranto November 11, 1940 The Swordfish Attack At Taranto Robert Taylor Military-art.comFleet Air Arm Archive Video Link (First 1:45)
Attack on Taranto November 11, 1940 Consequences RN Conte di Cavour Three battleships sunk (one for duration) One heavy cruiser damaged Two Swordfish lost (crew: 2 dead, 2 POW) ANPA Action studied closely by Japanese naval attaché Served as prototype for Pearl Harbor attack
Japan’s Decision for War Japan’s Objective: Shortage of oil was the key to Japan's Grand Strategy Major consideration in preparing for war Key reason for going to war, yet “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” Preeminence in Asia
Japan’s Decision for War Japan saw a move to the south as its only option Realized this might force confrontation with US Would need to occupy, exploit Southeast Asia and East Indies By 1940, War in China had been dragging on for three years Growing size of Japanese military was draining scare resources Defeat at Khalkin Gol (1939) had discourage expansion into Siberia Planning for war with western powers began Summer 1940 Fall of Netherlands, France in May-June 1940 provided opportunity
Japan’s Decision for War Considered possibility of not going to war with US Initially believed: Finally convinced themselves US would go to war if they went south War in Europe favored Japan’s position Germany would never invade England US would not focus on Japan with European war in doubt, and
Japan’s Decision for War Japanese Strategy Neutralize US Pacific fleet and threats from the Philippines Felt US would be unwilling to pay cost of overcoming these defenses Felt US would compromise, allow Japan the dominant position in Asia Establish defensive perimeter Use new resources to build capability to defend indefinitely
Japan’s Decision for War Decision: Did not seek total defeat of US Had no intention of invading Planned to fight a war of limited objectives Having secured objectives, Japan would set up a defense in depth (Slide 4) Based on expectation that US would rather negotiate than fight Felt US would negotiate rather than fight a long, costly war Decisive preemptive attack on US Pacific fleet
Japan’s Decision for War Japanese Rationale Calculated Risk or Risky Calculation? Convinced by trade embargoes US was dedicated to thwarting Japan Felt Japan had no future without preeminence in Asia ( PM Tojo et al) Preeminence required going to war for resources Japan needed to go to war while it still had the power Believed defeat would be better than “humiliation and submission” (oil) Decision to go to war made July 2, 1941 by an Imperial Conference
Japan’s Decision for War Japanese Miscalculations Calculated Risk or Risky Calculation? One man’s limited war may be another man’s total war Did not anticipate US reaction to Pearl Harbor attack Assumed US would accept Japan’s limited war objectives Assumed they could keep the war limited
Japan’s Road to War Japan and the Quest for Oil Alternate Video 9:09 – 19:38
Pearl Harbor October 1941 Planning for attack began in January 1941 under Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto Story Behind the Movie
Timeline 1941: Jul 24 Jul 26 Oct 17 Nov 20 Japan occupies all of French Indochina US freezes all Japanese assets in US * General Hideki Tojo becomes Japanese Premier Sec State Hull, Japanese Ambassador Nomora begin talks: nations exchange final positions Ken Polsson: Chronology of World War II * Key turning point
Hull – Nomora Negotiations 1941: Nov 20 Japanese Proposal The US and the Coming of World War II 1. Japan to withdraw troops from South Indo-China into North Indo-China. 2. The United States to: 3. Upon establishment of peace in the Orient, Japan to remove all troops from Indo-China and agree not to make any armed advances into Southeast Asia or the South Pacific. a. refrain from measures that would prevent a Japanese victory over China in their war. b. resume full trade relations with Japan. c. lift the orders freezing Japanese assets in the United States d. supply Japan with a quantity of petroleum sufficient to meet most Japanese needs, either from its own stores or, through diplomatic pressure on the Netherlands, from the Dutch East Indies. e. cease American naval expansion in the Western Pacific.
Hull – Nomora Negotiations 1941: Nov 26 US Response The US and the Coming of World War II 1. The United States to: 2. Japan to: a. withdraw all troops from Indochina b. withdraw all troops from China c. support the Chinese government of Chiang Kai-Shek. d. sign a multilateral pact with the United States and other nations with Pacific interests guaranteeing the future territorial integrity and security of all East Asian nations. a. free frozen Japanese assets b. resume treaty-based commercial relations with Japan c. work with other nations toward the abolition of extra-territoriality in China. d. co-operate in stabilizing the rate of exchange between the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen.
Timeline 1941: Nov 25 Japanese naval task force sails for Hawaii Click for larger virew
Timeline 1941: Nov 25 Nov 27 Dec 1 Dec 4 Dec 7 Japanese naval task force sails for Hawaii US Pacific commanders warned to expect war at any time with attack likely in Philippines of SE Asia Japan rejects US counter but asks to continue talks Japanese naval task force directed to proceed with attack on Pearl Harbor, subject to recall US intercepts coded Japanese message indicating attack on US assets imminent 0755: Attack on US forces on Oahu begins The US and the Coming of World War II
Timeline 1941: Dec 7 0755: Attack on US forces on Oahu begins The US and the Coming of World War II
Attack on Pearl Harbor Japanese Attack Force: 6 carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 441 planes, 5 midget submarines
Attack on Pearl Harbor US Forces: 8 battleships, 6 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~390 planes
Lesson 17 WW II -- Combined Bomber Offensive Next:
Lesson Objectives Become familiar with the origin of strategic bombing Describe the differences between the airpower doctrine of the RAF and USAAF and that of the Luftwaffe Describe and analyze cost to the Allies and the impact on Germany of strategic bombing campaign in Europe. Discuss the legal, moral and ethical issues of the strategic bombing campaign as conducted against Germany.