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CHAPTER 11 The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic, 1800–1812.

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1 CHAPTER 11 The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic, 1800–1812

2 I. Federalist and Republican Mudslingers
Hamiltonians (Federalists) were hurt because they were all dressed up for war with France, but Adams said “No”… the $$$ that they raised ended up looking like extravagance Jeffersonians (Republicans) faced a scandal with the rumors of Sally Hemings.

3 II. The Jeffersonian “Revolution of 1800”
Jefferson wins election 73 electoral votes to Adams 65. Largely because of the 3/5 compromise… white southern voters received a bonus (via electoral college numbers.) Jefferson was the “Negro President” Jefferson and his VP candidate Burr unexpectedly tie with 73 votes.

4 Map 11.1 Presidential Election of 1800 (with electoral
vote by state) New York was the key state in this election, and Aaron Burr helped swing it away from the Federalists with tactics that anticipated the political “machines” of a later day. Federalists complained that Burr “travels every night from one meeting of Republicans to another, haranguing . . . them to the most zealous exertions. [He] can stoop so low as to visit every low tavern that may happen to be crowded with his dear fellow citizens.” But Burr proved that the price was worth it. “We have beat you,” Burr told kid-gloved Federalists after the election, “by superior Management.” Map 11-1 p204

5 Under the Constitution the House of Representatives broke the tie.
The majority of Federalists preferred Burr because of their hate for Jefferson, however, in the end a few decided that a moderate Jefferson was better than a crazy Burr and refrained from voting to allow Jefferson the win. “Revolution of 1800” refers to bring the country back to the spirit of 1776 under Jefferson.

6 III. Responsibility Breeds Moderation
The first party overturn in American history. Jefferson - “we are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” Jefferson denies patronage which made it hard for the Democratic-Republicans to build a loyal political following. Their hatred for the Federalists was all that was holding them together… and as the Federalists faded, so did Democratic-Republican unity.

7 IV. Jeffersonian Restraint
Jefferson pardons those serving sentences under the Sedition Act He enacted the Naturalization law of 1802, which reduced the 14 years of residency to 5 years. Except for the excise tax, Jefferson left the Hamiltonian framework intact. By absorbing the major Federalist programs, he showed that changing regimes didn’t need to be disastrous for the defeated group.

8 V. The “Dead Clutch” of the Judiciary
Judiciary Act of 1801 – created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. “Midnight judges” – last minute appointments of the outgoing President. Chief Justice John Marshall – (Appointed by Adams) dominated the Supreme Court for over 34 years. Marbury vs. Madison

9 John Marshall on Assuming the Chief Justiceship,
1801 Depicted here as a young man, Marshall was destined to serve on the Supreme Court for thirty-four years and deeply molded constitutional law. Born in a log cabin on the Virginia frontier, he attended law lectures for just a few weeks at the College of William and Mary—his only formal education. Yet Marshall would go on to prove himself a brilliant chief justice. One admiring lawyer wrote of him, “His black eyes possess an irradiating spirit, which proclaims the imperial powers of the mind that sits enthroned therein.” p209

10 VI. Jefferson, a Reluctant Warrior
Jefferson downsizes military and hopes to win over the world through “peaceful coercion.” Reality soon set in… Pirates of the North African Barbary States were upset with the amount of America’s tribute payment and informally declared war. Jefferson dispatches infant navy to shores of Tripoli. After four years of fighting Jefferson secures peace treaty for $60,000 – the cost of the ransom for captured Americans during the war.

11 Map 11.2 The Barbary States of North Africa and the Burning of the Frigate Philadelphia, 1804 The Tripolitan pirates had captured the U.S. ship Philadelphia (see p. 195) and were preparing to use it against the Americans. In a daring exploit that ensured his lasting fame, twenty-four-year-old U.S. naval officer Stephen Decatur slipped into the harbor of Tripoli and burned the frigate to the waterline, denying it to the pirates. Map 11-2 p211

12 VII. The Louisiana Godsend
Napoleon fails to reconquer the sugar-rich island of Santo Domingo (Haiti) because of war and yellow fever He is also about to end a lull in the conflict between France and Britain. Napoleon sells the louisiana territory to America hoping to pull America away from Britain’s side, and pocket some cash for his conflict against Britain.

13 Map 11.3 Exploring the Louisiana Purchase and the West Seeking to avert friction
with France by purchasing all of Louisiana, Jefferson bought trouble because of the vagueness of the boundaries. Among the disputants were Spain in the Floridas, Spain and Mexico in the Southwest, and Great Britain in Canada. Map 11-3 p215

14 VIII. Louisiana in the Long View
Jefferson’s deal with Napoleon for the Louisiana Purchase avoided a rupture with France and an entangling alliance with Britain. Acquiring foreign territory and peoples by purchase and incorporating them into the Union as equal members, put a new democratic face on imperialism. It also contributed to making the isolationist principles of Washington operational. By removing the last significant European power from North America, the U.S. could now almost entirely pull away from Old World rivalries.

15 The spring of 1804, Jefferson sent his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis, and an Army officer named William Clark to explore the Louisiana Purchase. The Corps of Discovery set out from St. Louis, and wintered in North Dakota with the Mandans. The 33 adventurers moved across the prairies and through the Rockies, finally hoping on the Columbia River and making their way to the Pacific coast. The expedition produced: scientific observations, maps, and knowledge of the natives.

16 Meriwether Lewis Lewis is portrayed in this painting as
he looked on his return from the great expedition through the Louisiana Purchase and the West. p213

17 Gifts from the Great White Chief Among the objectives
of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to establish good relations with the Indians in the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase. The American explorers presented all chiefs with copies of these medals, showing President Jefferson on one side and the hands of an Indian and a white man clasped in “peace and friendship” under a crossed “peace pipe” and hatchet on the other. All chiefs also received an American flag and a military uniform jacket, hat, and feather. p214

18 Gifts from the Great White Chief Among the objectives
of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to establish good relations with the Indians in the newly acquired Louisiana Purchase. The American explorers presented all chiefs with copies of these medals, showing President Jefferson on one side and the hands of an Indian and a white man clasped in “peace and friendship” under a crossed “peace pipe” and hatchet on the other. All chiefs also received an American flag and a military uniform jacket, hat, and feather. p214

19 IX. The Aaron Burr Conspiracies
Dropped from Jefferson’s second term, Burr joined up w/Federalist extremists and plotted the secession of New England and New York. Hamilton (who’s no friend of Jefferson) foils the conspiracy… Burr challenges him to a duel. Hamilton can’t stand the idea of duels but goes along w/it any gets shot and killed.

20 Burr’s political career now over, he strikes up an allegiance with Military governor of Louisiana Territory James Wilkinson. It has been said that Burr and Wilkinson plotted to break off the western part of the U.S. and invade Spanish held Mexico for their own Confederacy. Wilkinson, believing Jefferson knows of the plot betrays Burr, who then ends up getting arrested and tried for treason.

21 John Marshall rules that the Constitution states there needs to be overt “acts” of treason, not simply treasonous intentions. Burr is acquitted and fleas to Europe; where he later tries to convince Napoleon and Britain to unite and attack America.

22 X. A Precarious Neutrality
After unloading the Louisiana territory (1803), Napoleon engaged in an 11 year conflict with Britain. Britain ends up with the largest, most powerful navy in the world. France ends up with the most powerful army. After reaping the commercial benefits for the first couple years of the war (trading w/ both sides), American shipping took a hit.

23 1806 British issued Orders in Council – edicts closed European ports under French control to foreign shipping, unless they stopped at British ports first. Napoleon ordered the seizure of all ships that entered British ports. Impressment – the British would stop and force the enlistment of sailors (with a club and a stretcher) from ships they encountered.

24 XI. The Hated Embargo British and French tactics needed an American response, however, Jefferson had drastically weakened the military. Left with few options, Jefferson reasoned that if he cut off exports, Europe would come hat in hand. Reminiscent of pre revolution times. Congress quickly passed the Embargo Act (1807). It forbade the export of all goods from the U.S. . This is an example of Jefferson’s “peaceful coercion.” The problem was that it ended up hurting the U.S. more than Britain and France had combined. From New England ship builders to Southern farmers, Jefferson seemed to be waging war on his citizens rather than on Europe.

25 Under enormous pressure by their constituents, Congress finally repealed the embargo in 1809.
It’s replacement was the Non-Intercourse Act. It formally reopened trade with all nations except Britain and France (which were probably the two most important.) Jefferson’s embargo ultimately failed because he overestimated the dependence of Britain and France on American goods. Europe experienced bumper crops during the embargo, and Latin America unexpectedly opened up their ports for trade. France even continued to seize American ships and steal their cargoes, claiming that they were simple trying to help America enforce its embargo.

26 America also saw some unexpected prosperity from the embargo.
Do to the lack of any imported goods, factories sprung up over night to fill the need. Jefferson, an open critic of factories, may have unwittingly laid the foundation for America’s industrial might.

27 XII. Madison’s Gamble As Jefferson left office after two terms, he was a strong advocate of James Madison for President. Madison won election and although he was an exceptional legislator, he was crippled as a president by factions in his party as well as his cabinet. The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 was due to expire in Congress however, dismantled the embargo completely with Macon’s Bill No. 2.

28 Macon’s Bill No. 2 reopened American trade with the whole world.
Congress hoped to dangle a carrot… If either Britain or France repealed its commercial restrictions, America would restore its embargo against the nonrepealing nation. Napoleon offered a deal to Madison, implying that they would lift their restrictions, which led America to resume its blockade against Britain. Madison knew better than to trust Napoleon, but he hoped that Britain would lift their restrictions once they saw America trade exclusively with France… they did not. Britain now dominated the seas and they figured that since France was at war with them, America could trade exclusively with Britain or nobody at all. Madison had no choice but to reestablish the embargo against Britain alone.

29 XIII. Tecumseh and the Prophet
During the 12th Congress, many of the elections had replaced older statesmen for young war hawks that were tired of hearing how their fathers had “whipped” the British. They detested the man-handling of American sailors and the Orders in Council that hindered American trade. Western war hawks also wanted to wipe out the native threat to the pioneer settlers who were streaming into the trans-Allegheny wilderness.

30 As the war hawks pushed the natives further and further west, two Shawnee brothers, tecumseh and tenskwatawa (the prophet,) concluded that it was time to make a stand. The brothers began to unit all the tribes east of the Mississippi. The tribes swore off all “paleface” traditions. While Tecumseh was off gathering more recruits, William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana Territory, advanced on Tecumseh’s headquarters at the junction of the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers. The Prophet attacked Harrison’s army, but they were routed and their settlement was burned.

31 The Battle of Tippecanoe made Harrison a national hero.
The prophet discredited Tecumseh’s cause with the natives and forced him to form an alliance with Britain. When America’s war with Britain came, Tecumseh fought for the redcoats until his death at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.

32 Battle of the Thames, 1813 The Battle of the Thames, 1813 Here
the Shawnee leader Tecumseh stood his ground against the superior American force and died. A gifted organizer and military chieftain, he had denounced the tribal custom of torturing prisoners and opposed the practice of allowing any one tribe to sell land that, he believed, belonged to all Indians. p220

33 XIV. Mr. Madison’s War Madison now faced the British arming of hostile natives, as well as the calls to arms from the war hawks within his own party. Madison ended up turning to war to restore the republican experiment. If America could not fight to protect itself, its experiment in republicanism would be discredited. Madison asked Congress to declare war with Britain on June 1, 1812. Pro-British New England Federalists were very much against “Mr. Madison’s War.”

34 The Present State of Our
Country Partisan disunity over the War of 1812 threatened the nation’s very existence. The prowar Jeffersonian at the left is attacking the pillar of federalism; the antiwar Federalist at the right is trying to pull down democracy. The spirit of Washington warns that the country’s welfare depends on all three pillars, including republicanism. p221

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