Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 11 The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic, 1800–1812."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 11 The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic, 1800–1812
I. Federalist and Republican Mudslingers Hamiltonians (Federalists) were hurt because they were all dressed up for war with France, but Adams said “No”… the $$$ that they raised ended up looking like extravagance Jeffersonians (Republicans) faced a scandal with the rumors of Sally Hemings.
II. The Jeffersonian “Revolution of 1800” Jefferson wins election 73 electoral votes to Adams 65. Largely because of the 3/5 compromise… white southern voters received a bonus (via electoral college numbers.) Jefferson was the “Negro President” Jefferson and his VP candidate Burr unexpectedly tie with 73 votes.
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Under the Constitution the House of Representatives broke the tie. The majority of Federalists preferred Burr because of their hate for Jefferson, however, in the end a few decided that a moderate Jefferson was better than a crazy Burr and refrained from voting to allow Jefferson the win. “Revolution of 1800” refers to bring the country back to the spirit of 1776 under Jefferson.
III. Responsibility Breeds Moderation The first party overturn in American history. Jefferson - “we are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” Jefferson denies patronage which made it hard for the Democratic-Republicans to build a loyal political following. Their hatred for the Federalists was all that was holding them together… and as the Federalists faded, so did Democratic- Republican unity.
IV. Jeffersonian Restraint Jefferson pardons those serving sentences under the Sedition Act He enacted the Naturalization law of 1802, which reduced the 14 years of residency to 5 years. Except for the excise tax, Jefferson left the Hamiltonian framework intact. By absorbing the major Federalist programs, he showed that changing regimes didn’t need to be disastrous for the defeated group.
V. The “Dead Clutch” of the Judiciary Judiciary Act of 1801 – created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. “Midnight judges” – last minute appointments of the outgoing President. Chief Justice John Marshall – (Appointed by Adams) dominated the Supreme Court for over 34 years. Marbury vs. Madison
VI. Jefferson, a Reluctant Warrior Jefferson downsizes military and hopes to win over the world through “peaceful coercion.” Reality soon set in… Pirates of the North African Barbary States were upset with the amount of America’s tribute payment and informally declared war. Jefferson dispatches infant navy to shores of Tripoli. After four years of fighting Jefferson secures peace treaty for $60,000 – the cost of the ransom for captured Americans during the war.
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VII. The Louisiana Godsend Napoleon fails to reconquer the sugar-rich island of Santo Domingo (Haiti) because of war and yellow fever He is also about to end a lull in the conflict between France and Britain. Napoleon sells the louisiana territory to America hoping to pull America away from Britain’s side, and pocket some cash for his conflict against Britain.
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VIII. Louisiana in the Long View Jefferson’s deal with Napoleon for the Louisiana Purchase avoided a rupture with France and an entangling alliance with Britain. – Acquiring foreign territory and peoples by purchase and incorporating them into the Union as equal members, put a new democratic face on imperialism. – It also contributed to making the isolationist principles of Washington operational. By removing the last significant European power from North America, the U.S. could now almost entirely pull away from Old World rivalries.
The spring of 1804, Jefferson sent his personal secretary, Meriwether Lewis, and an Army officer named William Clark to explore the Louisiana Purchase. – The Corps of Discovery set out from St. Louis, and wintered in North Dakota with the Mandans. – The 33 adventurers moved across the prairies and through the Rockies, finally hoping on the Columbia River and making their way to the Pacific coast. – The expedition produced: scientific observations, maps, and knowledge of the natives.
IX. The Aaron Burr Conspiracies Dropped from Jefferson’s second term, Burr joined up w/Federalist extremists and plotted the secession of New England and New York. Hamilton (who’s no friend of Jefferson) foils the conspiracy… Burr challenges him to a duel. Hamilton can’t stand the idea of duels but goes along w/it any gets shot and killed.
Burr’s political career now over, he strikes up an allegiance with Military governor of Louisiana Territory James Wilkinson. It has been said that Burr and Wilkinson plotted to break off the western part of the U.S. and invade Spanish held Mexico for their own Confederacy. Wilkinson, believing Jefferson knows of the plot betrays Burr, who then ends up getting arrested and tried for treason.
John Marshall rules that the Constitution states there needs to be overt “acts” of treason, not simply treasonous intentions. Burr is acquitted and fleas to Europe; where he later tries to convince Napoleon and Britain to unite and attack America.
X. A Precarious Neutrality After unloading the Louisiana territory (1803), Napoleon engaged in an 11 year conflict with Britain. – Britain ends up with the largest, most powerful navy in the world. – France ends up with the most powerful army. After reaping the commercial benefits for the first couple years of the war (trading w/ both sides), American shipping took a hit.
1806 British issued Orders in Council – edicts closed European ports under French control to foreign shipping, unless they stopped at British ports first. Napoleon ordered the seizure of all ships that entered British ports. Impressment – the British would stop and force the enlistment of sailors (with a club and a stretcher) from ships they encountered.
XI. The Hated Embargo British and French tactics needed an American response, however, Jefferson had drastically weakened the military. – Left with few options, Jefferson reasoned that if he cut off exports, Europe would come hat in hand. Reminiscent of pre revolution times. – Congress quickly passed the Embargo Act (1807). It forbade the export of all goods from the U.S.. This is an example of Jefferson’s “peaceful coercion.” The problem was that it ended up hurting the U.S. more than Britain and France had combined. – From New England ship builders to Southern farmers, Jefferson seemed to be waging war on his citizens rather than on Europe.
Under enormous pressure by their constituents, Congress finally repealed the embargo in 1809. – It’s replacement was the Non-Intercourse Act. It formally reopened trade with all nations except Britain and France (which were probably the two most important.) Jefferson’s embargo ultimately failed because he overestimated the dependence of Britain and France on American goods. – Europe experienced bumper crops during the embargo, and Latin America unexpectedly opened up their ports for trade. – France even continued to seize American ships and steal their cargoes, claiming that they were simple trying to help America enforce its embargo.
America also saw some unexpected prosperity from the embargo. – Do to the lack of any imported goods, factories sprung up over night to fill the need. – Jefferson, an open critic of factories, may have unwittingly laid the foundation for America’s industrial might.
XII. Madison’s Gamble As Jefferson left office after two terms, he was a strong advocate of James Madison for President. Madison won election and although he was an exceptional legislator, he was crippled as a president by factions in his party as well as his cabinet. The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 was due to expire in 1810. Congress however, dismantled the embargo completely with Macon’s Bill No. 2.
– Macon’s Bill No. 2 reopened American trade with the whole world. Congress hoped to dangle a carrot… If either Britain or France repealed its commercial restrictions, America would restore its embargo against the nonrepealing nation. Napoleon offered a deal to Madison, implying that they would lift their restrictions, which led America to resume its blockade against Britain. Madison knew better than to trust Napoleon, but he hoped that Britain would lift their restrictions once they saw America trade exclusively with France… they did not. Britain now dominated the seas and they figured that since France was at war with them, America could trade exclusively with Britain or nobody at all. Madison had no choice but to reestablish the embargo against Britain alone.
XIII. Tecumseh and the Prophet During the 12 th Congress, many of the elections had replaced older statesmen for young war hawks that were tired of hearing how their fathers had “whipped” the British. – They detested the man-handling of American sailors and the Orders in Council that hindered American trade. Western war hawks also wanted to wipe out the native threat to the pioneer settlers who were streaming into the trans-Allegheny wilderness.
As the war hawks pushed the natives further and further west, two Shawnee brothers, tecumseh and tenskwatawa (the prophet,) concluded that it was time to make a stand. – The brothers began to unit all the tribes east of the Mississippi. – The tribes swore off all “paleface” traditions. – While Tecumseh was off gathering more recruits, William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana Territory, advanced on Tecumseh’s headquarters at the junction of the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers. The Prophet attacked Harrison’s army, but they were routed and their settlement was burned.
The Battle of Tippecanoe made Harrison a national hero. – The prophet discredited Tecumseh’s cause with the natives and forced him to form an alliance with Britain. When America’s war with Britain came, Tecumseh fought for the redcoats until his death at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
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XIV. Mr. Madison’s War Madison now faced the British arming of hostile natives, as well as the calls to arms from the war hawks within his own party. Madison ended up turning to war to restore the republican experiment. – If America could not fight to protect itself, its experiment in republicanism would be discredited. Madison asked Congress to declare war with Britain on June 1, 1812. – Pro-British New England Federalists were very much against “Mr. Madison’s War.”