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Chapter 10: The Jefferson Era

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1 Chapter 10: The Jefferson Era
This PowerPoint discusses all the important people, things, and events that happened in America during the years … A time we call The Jeffersonian Era

2 1801 Thomas Jefferson is elected president.
1803 Louisiana Purchase is made. 1804 Jefferson is reelected. Lewis and Clark expedition begins. 1807 Embargo Act is passed. 1808 James Madison is elected president. 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe is fought. 1812 War of 1812 begins. 1814 British attack Washington, D.C. 1815 Battle of New Orleans is fought. To World

3 Big Ideas: Section 1 Main Idea:
When Jefferson became president in 1801, his party replaced Federalist programs with it’s own. Why It Matters Now: Our Democratic Party traces it’s roots to Jefferson’s party, the Democratic Republicans. When new presidents take over they can decide to change many things about how our nation is run.

4 Thomas Jefferson 3rd President: 1801-1809
Wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776… Belonged to the Democratic Republican party and believed in a STRICT interpretation (construction) of the Constitution. Preferred the idea of a WEAK federal government.

5 Thomas Jefferson 3rd President: 1801-1809 cont.
He was the President who bought the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 He also commissioned the Lewis and Clark expedition. Wanted a nation of independent farmers.

6 The Two Sides of Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson 3rd President: What do you observe?

7 Marbury v. Madison John Marshall: Leadership Qualities
Appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by President Adams. Presided over the Supreme Court for over 30 years. Increased the power of the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison (gave the court the ability to decide if a law passed by Congress is unconstitutional: Principle of Judicial Review) Helped decide other important cases about the powers of the federal government Gibbons v. Ogden, and McCullough v. Maryland (tested the National Bank). some of this for Pre-AP

8 Marbury v. Madison Significance:
Allowed the Supreme Court to decide if a law passed by Congress is Unconstitutional Unconstitutional: if a law is made that says something that goes against something the constitution says, it is considered “unconstitutional. The Constitution is THE SUPREME LAW OF THE LAND so it must come before ANY OTHER LAWS!!! This power is called the principle of Judicial Review (the judges can review!) “If two laws conflict with each other, the courts must decide on the operation of each.” Marbury v. Madison, 1803


10 Marbury v. Madison Draw an illustration to help you remember the significance of this court case. What is the impact of this court case to the US then and now? What do you think Jefferson’s response was to the decision?

11 McCullough v. Maryland The United States Supreme Court said:
Congress DID have the power to make a National Bank, and Upheld the power of the federal government (the power of Congress) by saying states could NOT put a tax on branches of the National Bank because it would give the states too much power over the federal government.

12 Big Ideas: Section 2 Main Idea:
Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory in 1803 and doubled the size of the United States. Why It Matters Now: 13 more states were developed on the land obtained from the LA Purchase. It gave us control over the Port of New Orleans which increased our wealth through trade.

13 Louisiana Purchase: 1803

14 Louisiana Purchase: 1803 Purchased from France.
Included most of the land in the central part of the US. Doubled the size of the nation! Gave the US complete access to the Mississippi River for trade Gave us control of the Port of New Orleans allowed us to send stuff down the Mississippi & right out to sea for trade -or- bring imported goods into the port from the sea and send it right up the Mississippi so that our people could have quick access to the goods! Western settlers who shipped goods through the Port of New Orleans benefitted MOST from this purchase!

15 Thomas Jefferson’s response

16 The Lewis & Clark Expedition 1803-1805
Hired by Thomas Jefferson to explore the territory we gained in the Louisiana Purchase During their exploration L&C got help from the natives Traveled up the Missouri River, explored the Rocky Mountains, and the Columbia River Went through the territory that would eventually become the states of Missouri, Montana, and Washington (M-M-W). Add

17 The Lewis & Clark Expedition 1803-1805
Brought back lots of information about the territory Accurate maps were created Found out that an all water route across the US didn’t exist Caused the growth of the US fur trade Caused some tension between our people & French and British traders and fur trappers who were afraid we would challenge them for goods.

18 Louisiana Purchase Map…Use pages 304 and A7 as your guide
Label: States that Lewis and Clark went through All territories Rivers: Mississippi Missouri Arkansas Mountains Rocky Appalachian Note to me…Find Lewis and Clark Map

19 Big Ideas: Section 3 Main Idea:
Jefferson tried to avoid involvement in the problems of other nations. Why it Matters Now: British interference in our business led to the War of 1812.

20 Thomas Jefferson: Foreign Policy Problems Between Britain & France
Both nations wanted to stop the US from trading with the other. Britain began interfering with US shipping by taking our ships and kidnapping our sailors (impressment) for the British Navy. Britain also created a partial blockade to keep our ships away from France. France was angered and set their own laws to try to control US shipping. We were in a tough spot, if we disobeyed either side the other could take our ships!!!

21 Thomas Jefferson: Foreign Policy Problems Between Britain & France…
This angered Jefferson who asked Congress to pass an Embargo Act (1807) to STOP ALL FOREIGN TRADE!! The Embargo Act was a disaster… it really hurt American trade and merchants and most merchants ignored it altogether.

22 Big Ideas: Section 4 Main Idea:
The US went to war with Britain (again) because Britain wouldn’t stay out of our business. Why It Matters Now: The War of 1812 showed that the US was willing and able to protect out new nation.

23 James Madison 4th President: 1809-1817
Known as the “Father of the Constitution” (wrote the Constitution) Co-Wrote the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay Fought for ratification of the Constitution WAS A MEMBER OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICAN PARTY Biggest issue of presidency: War of 1812

24 War of 1812 (with Britain) Cause of Economic Change in America
Causes of the war with Britain British support the Native Americans who are trying to oppose white settlement on their lands in the west. British sailors kidnapped our merchants and ships and MADE them enter the British Navy!! (Impressment) British interfere with American shipping and trade. War blocked British goods from being imported Many Americans called War Hawks wanted to kick Britain out of Canada so we could have that land

25 War of 1812 (with Britain) Cause of Economic Change in America
Effects of the war with Britain Renewed patriotism and love for the USA!! (Star Spangled Banner!) Weakened the Native American resistance once Britain was kicked out of the west. Increase in American manufacturing because we started refusing to buy British goods and they were harder to get. New Tariffs (protection of American industry by taxing imported goods) Creation of canals and new roads to move troops and supplies during war and trade during peace time.

26 Facts You Need to Know: Fact from the war:
The Treaty of Ghent ended the war on December 24, 1814. Fact from John Adams Presidency: The Judiciary Act of 1801 led Adams to appoint many Federalist judges (which became a challenge for Jefferson later). Fact from Thomas Jefferson Presidency: 1. He was an architect and helped to design Washington D.C. 26

27 War of 1812 As a class, select the three that are the most important. I’m having my kids write in own words and draw a picture

28 War of 1812 (with Britain) Cause of Economic Change in America
Answer the following questions on the back of your cause and effect chart: Why do you think trade issues and interference with American shipping were important to the United States at this time? Sometimes the War of 1812 is called the Second War for American Independence, explain why this could be? Looking at the effects of the war, how would you define the legacy of the war? (What it should it be remembered for) If you rename this war, what would you name it?

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