Presentation on theme: "Washington through Jefferson"— Presentation transcript:
1Washington through Jefferson First 11 PresidentsWashington through Jefferson
2Wednesday 1-28-09 Get a pencil out on your desk George Washington Political PartiesJohn AdamsThomas JeffersonPolitical Cartoon
3Washington (1789-1797) Washington’s Farewell Address National HeroDefined Presidential PowersJudiciary Act of 1789Established courtsHamilton’s Economic PlanPaid states war debtsCreated excise tax on WhiskeyRaised tariff on imported goodsWhiskey RebellionProved federal government could enforce it’s lawsWashington’s Farewell AddressUS should stay neutral in foreign affairs. AKA: Proclamation of NeutralityDangers of forming political partiesJay’s TreatyWanted to stop the impressment of sailorsLooked on as a weak treatyPinckney’s Treaty
5Judiciary Act of 1789Established both the United States federal court system and the authority of the US Supreme Court. The first chief justice of the new Supreme Court was appointed by President Washington. His name was John Jay.
6Hamilton’s Economic Plan After the US government took power in 1789, the nation was deep in debt and the value of the new currency was low. Hamilton proposed that the federal government take on all state debts that were largely due to the war. To raise revenue, Hamilton wanted an excise tax on whiskey. He also want to raise tariffs on imported goods. Last he wanted to establish a national bank.
7Whiskey RebellionThe whiskey tax was very unpopular among farmers in the western regions of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Their protests eventually resulted in the Whiskey Rebellion where they refused to pay the tax and resorted to violence. Washington organized a military force that halted the rebellion. This event showed that the new national government could enforce laws with the states.
8TariffA tax on goods imported from other countries. Southerners opposed this part of Hamilton’s plan because it would help Northern factory but it would hurt southern export because other countries would raise tariffs on Southern goods.
9Jay’s TreatyThe treaty was between American and Great Britain. To the disappointment of many in the US, Jay returned with a treaty that primarily benefited Great Britain. The treaty also angered the French because they saw it as an alliance with Great Britain.
10Impressement of Sailors Taking US sailors captive and forcing them to serve the British. This process was meant to hurt France but they hurt US trade. In response John Jay was sent to London to broker an agreement with the British.
11Pinckney’s TreatyIN 1795 Thomas Pinckney was able to negotiate Pinckney’s Treaty with the Spanish. Not only did it open up the Southern Mississippi and New Orleans, it also established the northern border between the Spanish colony of Florida and US territory.
13Which of the following did Alexander Hamilton favor as part of his economic plan? 1) prohibiting taxes on products like whiskey2) closing the national bank3) protective tariffs4) requiring state governments to pay their own war debts
14Did Washington like the idea of Political Parties? 1) NO2) YES3) MAYBE4) IDK
15What is the idea called that America should stay out of European affairs? EmbargoAggressive IsolationProclamation NeutralityActive involvement
16What piece of legislation established the federal court system and defined the responsibilities of the Supreme Court?1) Marbury v. Madison2) the doctrine of judicial review3) Hamilton’s plan4) the Judiciary Act of 1789
17Other than the US, the nation most affected by Pinckney’s Treaty was 1) Great Britain2) France3) Canada4) Spain
18What event established the federal government had the power to enforce its laws? 1) Judiciary Act of 17892)Doctrine of Nullification3) Whiskey Rebellion4) Revolutionary War
21Democratic-Republicans First Two party SystemDemocratic-RepublicansFederalistLeader: Alexander HamiltonFavored a strong central governmentWanted power in the hands of the wealthy and well educatedNation’s economy based on manufacturing, shippingLoose interpretation of the Constitution.Leader: Thomas JeffersonFavored states retaining authorityWanted power in the hands of the peopleEconomy should be based on agricultureHad a strict interpretation of the Constitution.
22First Political parties TermsFirst Political parties
23Strict Interpretation The idea that the federal government must restrict itself to those powers specifically stated in the Constitution.Ex: Jefferson argued that the federal government had no authority to open a national bank because it was not specifically written in the Constitution.
24Loose InterpretationThe idea that the necessary and proper clause of the Constitution gave the government the right to established certain institutions in order to properly run the government.Ex: Hamilton thought the government had a right to charter a bank if it was necessary to exercise its constitutional duties like coining money.
26Which of the first political parties favored a strong central government? 1) Federalists2) Democrats3) Republicans4) Democratic-Republicans
27Which of the first political parties favored strong state governments? 1) Federalists2) Democrats3) Republicans4) Democratic-Republicans
28______ means to follow the Constitution as it was written down. 1) loose interpretation2) strict interpretation3) word for word4) hardcore interpretation
29John Adams ( )Adams wins the 1796 election. Jefferson finishes second and becomes Vice President.XYZ AffairUS sends ambassadors to France to patch strained relations from Jay’s TreatyBribes were demanded by the FrenchUS was outragedNearly leads to war as France continues to impress US ships.Alien and Sedition ActsLimited freedom of speak by making it criminal to criticize the government and deported unpopular immigrants.Virginia & Kentucky Resolution is written by Jefferson and MadisonElection of 1800“Midnight Judges”John Marshall (Marbury v. Madison)
31XYZ Affair Neutrality strained relations with France and Britain U.S. sends ambassadors to France to patch up relationsBribes were demanded by the French before Americans could see anyone of importanceUS was outraged as story emergedNearly leads to warPolitical Parties oppose each otherFederalists align with BritishDem-Republicans align with French
32Alien & Sedition ActsFederalists passed laws to limit criticism of gov’t by those sensitive to the French (Dem-Republicans) and restrict citizenship rightsWould have limited freedom of speech and allowed deportation of unpopular aliensKentucky and Virginia Resolution is issued
33Virginia and Kentucky Resolution Thomas Jefferson and James Madison produced a response to the Alien and Sedition Acts in the form of the Virginia & Kentucky Resolution. These resolutions stated that if a state believed a federal law to be unconstitutional, then it did not have to obey or enforce it. This became known as the DOCRTINE OF NULLIFICATION because it claims that states can nullify a national law that they believe violates the Constitution.
34Election of 1800President John Adams ran once again as the Federalist candidate. When the electoral college voted Jefferson and Burr were tied at 73 votes. Alexander Hamilton had to decide the elections. Although Hamilton did not agree with Jefferson’s politics, he hated Burr as a person. Hamilton voted for Jefferson. Burr never forgave Hamilton for his decision and eventually the two met in a duel, with Burr shooting and killing the former secretary of the treasury.
35“Midnight Judges”Just before leaving office in 1801, John Adams appointed a number of Federalists to be federal judges. However, although the Senate had confirmed these judges and Adams had signed their appointments, the documents had not yet been delivered when Jefferson took office. Jefferson told James Madison to withhold the documents preventing some judges from gaining office. This move was challenged in the supreme court case of Marbury v. Madison.
36Marbury v. MadisonChief Justice John Marshall, stated that the Federal Judges appointed by Adams were entitled to their commissions but that the US Supreme Court did not have the authority under the Constitution to force the president to issue them. This case established the courts authority of judicial review the power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.
38The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions had lasting impacts on the United State in that they did which of the following?1) assured that the balance of power between slave states and free states would remain consistent in Congress2) outlawed the formation of a national bank, thereby thwarting Hamilton’s plan3) prevented President Washington from seeking a third term4) introduced the “doctrine of nullification” in which states refuse to follow federal laws they feel are in violation of the Constitution.
39How did the U.S. respond to the “XYZ Affair,” and how did it affect relations between the U.S. and France?With outrage/it ended relations between the two nations for a time.With pleasure/ it began a new era in positive US-French relations.Irritated/ the U.S. went into debt paying money to France.With disappointment/ it meant that France and Great Britain would be allies against the U.S.
40The “midnight judges” controversy, the Supreme Court case of Marbury v The “midnight judges” controversy, the Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison, controversy over the Alien and Sedition Act, and the election of 1800, are all examples of which of the following?The conflicts between the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties.Major obstacles to the implementation of Hamilton’s economic plan.Efforts made to establish a federal court system.Acts which led to declaring war on Great Britain.
41The XYZ Affair, Jay’s Treaty, the Convention of 1800, and the Embargo Act all have what in common? They all concerned diplomatic relations between Great Britain and the U.S.They all led the U.S. into the War of 1812 with Great Britain.They all were the result of conflicts between the U.S. and European powers regarding free trade.They all addressed the tensions between France and the U.S. because the U.S. had not publicly supported the French Revolution.
42Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) Wins election of 1800 1st peaceable transfer of political power from one party to another in modern governmentLaissez-faire gov’tLouisiana Purchase (1803)Lewis and Clark ExpeditionSacajaweaForeign AffairsUS wants to remain neutral in war between Britain and FranceNeeded trade with both sidesBritish start impressing sailors againEmbargo Act of 1807 cuts of trade with Britain
44Laissez-faireit emerged as an economic ideology which advocates minimal state intervention in the economy. Therefore the government should not regulate the economy. If left to their own devices private industries will do what is best for the consumer because that is what is best for them.
45Louisiana PurchaseJefferson sent representatives to France to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans. Napoleon instead offered to not only sell New Orleans but the entire Louisiana region. The purchase was the United States’ largest land purchase, nearly doubling the country’s sixe. It marked the turning point for the new nation economically as it began to pursue prosperity from within its own borders rather than from foreign nations.
46Lewis and Clark Expedition Jefferson wanted Meriwether Lewis to find a water route to the Pacific Ocean. Lewis chose William Clark to help him lead the expedition that departed from St. Louis in May of They came back with valuable information about the Oregon and Louisiana territories. This exploration led to the rapid migration of settlers to the Pacific Northwest eventually the Oregon Trail was established.
47Embargo Act of 1807During Jefferson’s presidency touble between the US and Great Britain arose once more as the US tried to stay out of the troubles. British forces once again impressed US sailors. The US was not prepared for war so Jefferson convinced Congress to pass the Embargo Act. This law forbade trade between the US and foreign countries. It did little to hurt the British but it greatly damaged the US economy.
49It nearly doubled the size of the United States in 1803. What was it? The Virginia and Kentucky ResolutionsThe Adams-Onis TreatyPinckney’s TreatyThe Louisiana Purchase
50What did Thomas Jefferson do that stopped all trade with foreign countries? 1) issued the Embargo Act of 18072) went to war with Great Britain3) Started impressing French sailors into the US fleet4) Attacked Canada
51Political CartoonDraw a political cartoon illustrating the different beliefs of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican Parties.