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Washington through Jefferson

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1 Washington through Jefferson
First 11 Presidents Washington through Jefferson

2 Wednesday 1-28-09 Get a pencil out on your desk George Washington
Political Parties John Adams Thomas Jefferson Political Cartoon

3 Washington (1789-1797) Washington’s Farewell Address
National Hero Defined Presidential Powers Judiciary Act of 1789 Established courts Hamilton’s Economic Plan Paid states war debts Created excise tax on Whiskey Raised tariff on imported goods Whiskey Rebellion Proved federal government could enforce it’s laws Washington’s Farewell Address US should stay neutral in foreign affairs. AKA: Proclamation of Neutrality Dangers of forming political parties Jay’s Treaty Wanted to stop the impressment of sailors Looked on as a weak treaty Pinckney’s Treaty

4 Terms Washington

5 Judiciary Act of 1789 Established both the United States federal court system and the authority of the US Supreme Court. The first chief justice of the new Supreme Court was appointed by President Washington. His name was John Jay.

6 Hamilton’s Economic Plan
After the US government took power in 1789, the nation was deep in debt and the value of the new currency was low. Hamilton proposed that the federal government take on all state debts that were largely due to the war. To raise revenue, Hamilton wanted an excise tax on whiskey. He also want to raise tariffs on imported goods. Last he wanted to establish a national bank.

7 Whiskey Rebellion The whiskey tax was very unpopular among farmers in the western regions of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. Their protests eventually resulted in the Whiskey Rebellion where they refused to pay the tax and resorted to violence. Washington organized a military force that halted the rebellion. This event showed that the new national government could enforce laws with the states.

8 Tariff A tax on goods imported from other countries. Southerners opposed this part of Hamilton’s plan because it would help Northern factory but it would hurt southern export because other countries would raise tariffs on Southern goods.

9 Jay’s Treaty The treaty was between American and Great Britain. To the disappointment of many in the US, Jay returned with a treaty that primarily benefited Great Britain. The treaty also angered the French because they saw it as an alliance with Great Britain.

10 Impressement of Sailors
Taking US sailors captive and forcing them to serve the British. This process was meant to hurt France but they hurt US trade. In response John Jay was sent to London to broker an agreement with the British.

11 Pinckney’s Treaty IN 1795 Thomas Pinckney was able to negotiate Pinckney’s Treaty with the Spanish. Not only did it open up the Southern Mississippi and New Orleans, it also established the northern border between the Spanish colony of Florida and US territory.

12 Washington Questions

13 Which of the following did Alexander Hamilton favor as part of his economic plan?
1) prohibiting taxes on products like whiskey 2) closing the national bank 3) protective tariffs 4) requiring state governments to pay their own war debts

14 Did Washington like the idea of Political Parties?
1) NO 2) YES 3) MAYBE 4) IDK

15 What is the idea called that America should stay out of European affairs?
Embargo Aggressive Isolation Proclamation Neutrality Active involvement

16 What piece of legislation established the federal court system and defined the responsibilities of the Supreme Court? 1) Marbury v. Madison 2) the doctrine of judicial review 3) Hamilton’s plan 4) the Judiciary Act of 1789

17 Other than the US, the nation most affected by Pinckney’s Treaty was
1) Great Britain 2) France 3) Canada 4) Spain

18 What event established the federal government had the power to enforce its laws?
1) Judiciary Act of 1789 2)Doctrine of Nullification 3) Whiskey Rebellion 4) Revolutionary War

19 Washington Multimedia


21 Democratic-Republicans
First Two party System Democratic-Republicans Federalist Leader: Alexander Hamilton Favored a strong central government Wanted power in the hands of the wealthy and well educated Nation’s economy based on manufacturing, shipping Loose interpretation of the Constitution. Leader: Thomas Jefferson Favored states retaining authority Wanted power in the hands of the people Economy should be based on agriculture Had a strict interpretation of the Constitution.

22 First Political parties
Terms First Political parties

23 Strict Interpretation
The idea that the federal government must restrict itself to those powers specifically stated in the Constitution. Ex: Jefferson argued that the federal government had no authority to open a national bank because it was not specifically written in the Constitution.

24 Loose Interpretation The idea that the necessary and proper clause of the Constitution gave the government the right to established certain institutions in order to properly run the government. Ex: Hamilton thought the government had a right to charter a bank if it was necessary to exercise its constitutional duties like coining money.

25 First Political Parties

26 Which of the first political parties favored a strong central government?
1) Federalists 2) Democrats 3) Republicans 4) Democratic-Republicans

27 Which of the first political parties favored strong state governments?
1) Federalists 2) Democrats 3) Republicans 4) Democratic-Republicans

28 ______ means to follow the Constitution as it was written down.
1) loose interpretation 2) strict interpretation 3) word for word 4) hardcore interpretation

29 John Adams ( ) Adams wins the 1796 election. Jefferson finishes second and becomes Vice President. XYZ Affair US sends ambassadors to France to patch strained relations from Jay’s Treaty Bribes were demanded by the French US was outraged Nearly leads to war as France continues to impress US ships. Alien and Sedition Acts Limited freedom of speak by making it criminal to criticize the government and deported unpopular immigrants. Virginia & Kentucky Resolution is written by Jefferson and Madison Election of 1800 “Midnight Judges” John Marshall (Marbury v. Madison)

30 Terms John Adams

31 XYZ Affair Neutrality strained relations with France and Britain
U.S. sends ambassadors to France to patch up relations Bribes were demanded by the French before Americans could see anyone of importance US was outraged as story emerged Nearly leads to war Political Parties oppose each other Federalists align with British Dem-Republicans align with French

32 Alien & Sedition Acts Federalists passed laws to limit criticism of gov’t by those sensitive to the French (Dem-Republicans) and restrict citizenship rights Would have limited freedom of speech and allowed deportation of unpopular aliens Kentucky and Virginia Resolution is issued

33 Virginia and Kentucky Resolution
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison produced a response to the Alien and Sedition Acts in the form of the Virginia & Kentucky Resolution. These resolutions stated that if a state believed a federal law to be unconstitutional, then it did not have to obey or enforce it. This became known as the DOCRTINE OF NULLIFICATION because it claims that states can nullify a national law that they believe violates the Constitution.

34 Election of 1800 President John Adams ran once again as the Federalist candidate. When the electoral college voted Jefferson and Burr were tied at 73 votes. Alexander Hamilton had to decide the elections. Although Hamilton did not agree with Jefferson’s politics, he hated Burr as a person. Hamilton voted for Jefferson. Burr never forgave Hamilton for his decision and eventually the two met in a duel, with Burr shooting and killing the former secretary of the treasury.

35 “Midnight Judges” Just before leaving office in 1801, John Adams appointed a number of Federalists to be federal judges. However, although the Senate had confirmed these judges and Adams had signed their appointments, the documents had not yet been delivered when Jefferson took office. Jefferson told James Madison to withhold the documents preventing some judges from gaining office. This move was challenged in the supreme court case of Marbury v. Madison.

36 Marbury v. Madison Chief Justice John Marshall, stated that the Federal Judges appointed by Adams were entitled to their commissions but that the US Supreme Court did not have the authority under the Constitution to force the president to issue them. This case established the courts authority of judicial review the power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.

37 John Adams Questions

38 The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions had lasting impacts on the United State in that they did which of the following? 1) assured that the balance of power between slave states and free states would remain consistent in Congress 2) outlawed the formation of a national bank, thereby thwarting Hamilton’s plan 3) prevented President Washington from seeking a third term 4) introduced the “doctrine of nullification” in which states refuse to follow federal laws they feel are in violation of the Constitution.

39 How did the U.S. respond to the “XYZ Affair,” and how did it affect relations between the U.S. and France? With outrage/it ended relations between the two nations for a time. With pleasure/ it began a new era in positive US-French relations. Irritated/ the U.S. went into debt paying money to France. With disappointment/ it meant that France and Great Britain would be allies against the U.S.

40 The “midnight judges” controversy, the Supreme Court case of Marbury v
The “midnight judges” controversy, the Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison, controversy over the Alien and Sedition Act, and the election of 1800, are all examples of which of the following? The conflicts between the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties. Major obstacles to the implementation of Hamilton’s economic plan. Efforts made to establish a federal court system. Acts which led to declaring war on Great Britain.

41 The XYZ Affair, Jay’s Treaty, the Convention of 1800, and the Embargo Act all have what in common?
They all concerned diplomatic relations between Great Britain and the U.S. They all led the U.S. into the War of 1812 with Great Britain. They all were the result of conflicts between the U.S. and European powers regarding free trade. They all addressed the tensions between France and the U.S. because the U.S. had not publicly supported the French Revolution.

42 Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) Wins election of 1800
1st peaceable transfer of political power from one party to another in modern government Laissez-faire gov’t Louisiana Purchase (1803) Lewis and Clark Expedition Sacajawea Foreign Affairs US wants to remain neutral in war between Britain and France Needed trade with both sides British start impressing sailors again Embargo Act of 1807 cuts of trade with Britain

43 Terms Thomas Jefferson

44 Laissez-faire it emerged as an economic ideology which advocates minimal state intervention in the economy. Therefore the government should not regulate the economy. If left to their own devices private industries will do what is best for the consumer because that is what is best for them.

45 Louisiana Purchase Jefferson sent representatives to France to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans. Napoleon instead offered to not only sell New Orleans but the entire Louisiana region. The purchase was the United States’ largest land purchase, nearly doubling the country’s sixe. It marked the turning point for the new nation economically as it began to pursue prosperity from within its own borders rather than from foreign nations.

46 Lewis and Clark Expedition
Jefferson wanted Meriwether Lewis to find a water route to the Pacific Ocean. Lewis chose William Clark to help him lead the expedition that departed from St. Louis in May of They came back with valuable information about the Oregon and Louisiana territories. This exploration led to the rapid migration of settlers to the Pacific Northwest eventually the Oregon Trail was established.

47 Embargo Act of 1807 During Jefferson’s presidency touble between the US and Great Britain arose once more as the US tried to stay out of the troubles. British forces once again impressed US sailors. The US was not prepared for war so Jefferson convinced Congress to pass the Embargo Act. This law forbade trade between the US and foreign countries. It did little to hurt the British but it greatly damaged the US economy.

48 Thomas Jefferson Questions

49 It nearly doubled the size of the United States in 1803. What was it?
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions The Adams-Onis Treaty Pinckney’s Treaty The Louisiana Purchase

50 What did Thomas Jefferson do that stopped all trade with foreign countries?
1) issued the Embargo Act of 1807 2) went to war with Great Britain 3) Started impressing French sailors into the US fleet 4) Attacked Canada

51 Political Cartoon Draw a political cartoon illustrating the different beliefs of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican Parties.

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