Presentation on theme: "Debating the War Read the handout and Analyze arguments for and against war. –Who makes a better case? Why? –Should the US become involved? –What were."— Presentation transcript:
Debating the War Read the handout and Analyze arguments for and against war. –Who makes a better case? Why? –Should the US become involved? –What were Madison’s reasons? Answer the following questions. –Why is this called America’s 2 nd war of independence? –Which causes were most important for beginning the War of 1812? –Who was more responsible for the war, Jefferson or Madison? –Which effects were most significant from the war? –What were some examples of America’s new nationalism?
What were the causes, main events and consequences of the War of 1812? “Mr. Madison’s War”
Honor and the second war of independence “The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; [Andrew] Jackson, who still bore scars from the first war of independence held that view with special conviction. The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but was it also about vindication of American identity". H.W. Brands 2006
1. Napoleonic Wars 1806 Berlin Decrees [“Continental System”] 1806 Britain issued the “Orders in Council.” 1807 Milan Decrees – no trade with GB 1808-1811 Britain impressed over 6,000 American sailors.
2. Chesapeake-Leopard “Affair” -June 21, 1807. -Brit. Captain fired on the USS Chesapeake. -3 dead, 18 wounded. -Brit.Foreign Office said it was a mistake. -Jefferson’s Response: Forbade British ships to dock in American ports. Ordered state governors to call up as much as 100,000 militiamen.
Embargo - 1807 Imposed in response to violations of neutrality Americans saw the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair as a particularly egregious example of a British violation of American neutrality Was meant to provide economic hardships on GB and France Backfired – hurt US more The embargo undermined national unity in the U.S., provoking bitter protests, especially in New England commercial centers Jefferson also undermined the DR commitment to a limited government Sectional interests and individual liberties were violated by his authorization of heavy-handed enforcement by federal authorities. The embargo had the pernicious effect of simultaneously undermining American citizens' faith that their government could execute its own laws fairly; and strengthened the conviction among America's enemies that her republican form of government was inept and Revoked in final days of Jefferson’s presidency in 1809
4. The Non-Intercourse Act (1809) -Replaced the Embargo Act. -Remained U. S. policy until 1812. -Unexpected Consequences: N. Eng. was forced to become self- sufficient again [old factories reopened]. Laid the groundwork for US industrial power. Jefferson, a critic of an industrial America, ironically contributed to Hamilton’s view of the US!!!
Macon's Bill no. 2 responded to the ineffectiveness of the Non-Intercourse Act (1809) and the Embargo Act before it became law in the United States on May 14, 1810 intended to motivate Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars The law lifted all embargoes with Britain and France (for three months). If either one of the two countries ceased attacks upon American shipping, the United States would end trade with the other, unless that other country agreed to recognize the rights of the neutral American ships as well. general consensus among historians is that this bill was effectively useless, as it was quickly seen that the European economies played upon the weaknesses this bill created. As a result, the bill's parameters were never enforced Ironically, Rep Nathanial Macon (NC) did not vote in favor of the finished draft of the bill
5. Br. Instigation of Indians British General Brock Meets with Tecumseh
“The white race is a wicked race. Since the days when the white race first came into contact with the red men, there has been a continual series of aggressions. The hunting grounds are fast disappearing, and they are driving the red man farther and farther to the west. Such has been the fate of the Shawnees, and surely will be the fate of all tribes if the power of the whites is not forever crushed.” - Tecumseh
-General William Henry Harrison governor of the Indiana Territory. -Invited Native Indian chiefs to Ft. Wayne, IN to sign away 3 mil. acres of land to the US government. -Tecumseh organized a confederacy of Indian tribes to fight for their homelands. -Tecumseh’s brother (the Prophet) fought against Harrison and was defeated at Tippecanoe. -This made Harrison a national hero! [1840 election Tippecanoe & Tyler, too!] Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811
Tecumseh and the Prophet Although the war is often considered to have climaxed with William Henry Harrison's victory at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, Tecumseh's War essentially continued into the War of 1812 and is frequently considered a part of that larger struggle. Tecumseh was killed by Americans at the Battle of the Thames in Canada in 1813 and his confederacy disintegrated The tribes remaining in the newly-expanded U.S. signed treaties and were forced to sell their lands and moved west by the 1830s. In long-term context, historians place Tecumseh's War as the final conflict of the Sixty Years' War resulting in the European conquest of the Great Lakes region.
“War Hawks” Henry Clay [KY] John C. Calhoun [SC]
Henry Letters The Henry Letters were created by a fraudster named John Henry. The letters reflected that the British government operating in Canada had employed him to try to persuade the New England states to leave the United States and join Canada. A bundle of letters was sold to President James Madison for $50,000. The letters were fraudulent, but both the President of the United States and the United States Congress were deceived, increasing tensions with the United Kingdom before the War of 1812
American Problems -The US was unprepared militarily: Had a 12-ship navy vs. Britain’s 800 ships. Americans disliked a draft preferred to enlist in the disorganized state militias. -Financially unprepared: Flood of paper $. Revenue from import tariffs declined. -Regional disagreements.
Outcome of the War of 1812 1. The “Second War for American Independence” Diplomatically, new respect for US Sectionalism, associated with New Eng, weakened Economically, manufacturing had been strengthened Internationally -- Continued suspicions between US & Britain Rush-Bagot agreement, 1817 The US increasingly looked west 2. A new spirit of nationalism in America 3. New Leaders emerge
The Great Triumvirate HENRY CLAY of Kentucky, JOHN C. CALHOUN of South Carolina, and DANIEL WEBSTER of Massachusetts dominated national politics from the end of the War of 1812 until their deaths in the early 1850s. Although none would ever be President, the collective impact they created in Congress was far greater than any President of the era, with the exception of Andrew Jackson. There was one issue that loomed over the nation throughout their time in power — slavery. They were continuously successful in keeping peace in America by forging a series of compromises. The next generation's leaders were not.