2Prior to Presidency of Monroe Embargo Act, you say?The United States’ attempt to change the policies of the European powers by economic means.In 1807, after the British ship Leopard fired on the American frigate CHESAPEAKE, Jefferson urged and Congress passed an EMBARGO ACT.It banned all American ships from foreign trade.Result: The embargo failed to change British and French policies but devastated New England shipping. Later and weaker economic measures were also unsuccessful.Foreign policy of the US was neutral.Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality (1793)Washington’s FarewellJefferson’s Embargo Act (1807)1812 War was exceptionWar hawks sought expansion in Canada.
3Under Monroe James Monroe’s Presidency (1817-1825). He establishes a major foreign policy precedent that guides foreign policy throughout the 19th century:The Monroe Doctrine.How did it happen?
4Monroe Doctrine Origin 1823 Imperial Russia intruded on US’s Pacific territorial claims in Oregon region.At the same time….Alliance of European powers (Austria, France, Prussia, Russia) sought to reclaim Latin American colonies that declared independence during the Napoleonic Wars.
5In response…Monroe’s Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams, urged Monroe to warn Europenot to continue to colonize the Western Hemisphere.In exchange, the US would not interfere with existing coloniesAND the US would remain neutral in Euro affairs.
6Monroe Doctrine promulgated Monroe outlined this foreign policy in his 1823 December message to Congress.
7Did it work? Britain backed Monroe. They wanted to keep its trade with the new American republics flourishing.It successfully discouraged the European alliance.George Canning, GB For Min
8Could it have been enforced? It is unlikely that the US in the early 19th century could enforce it.Very small navy!Without Britain’s help, it would not have worked.