6GOALS OF THE JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLICANS Calm political stormsConsolidate victoryPurge Federalist influences from the federal governmentDismantle the Federalist war programReduce the size of the federal government and the national debt
7REDUCE THE SIZE OF GOVERNMENT BY… Allowing the Alien and Sedition Acts to expireRepealing Naturalization ActReducing the size of the army and navyRepealing federal internal taxesCutting federal spending
9BUILDING AN AGRARIAN EMPIRE Jefferson believed that REPUBLICANISM (equality) could be destroyed by economic and social development; rapid western expansion would help preserve equality in America. The future of the country lay in the yeoman farmer (not to mention Jefferson’s political support).
11WESTERN EXPANSIONSecure western borders to protect against England, France, and SpainSecure the food supplySale of public land would decrease national debtNew western states would strengthen Jefferson’s political base
12THE FEDERAL COURT SYSTEM After Jefferson was elected (but before he took office), Adams appointed hundreds of federal judges under the Judiciary Act of He also appointed John Marshall as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. These actions assured Federalist control of the court system.
13THE MARSHALL COURT MARBURY v. MADISON McCULLOCH v. MARYLAND GIBBONS v. OGDEN
14MARBURY v. MADISONESTABLISHED THE PRINCIPLE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW
15JUDICIAL REVIEW The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. When there is a conflict between the Constitution and any other law, the Constitution MUST be followed.
16MARBURY v. MADISONThe judicial branch has the duty to uphold the Constitution.IT IS THE DUTY OF THE JUDICIAL BRANCH TO DETERMINE WHEN A FEDERAL LAW CONFLICTS WITH THE CONSTITUTION AND cancel unconstitutional laws.
21SOUTH—With the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793, southern plantations began growing less tobacco and more cotton.
22WESTWARD EXPANSION Louisiana purchase Lewis and Clark and the Corps of DiscoveryZebulon PikeMilitary posts established1801 Land Act
23LOUISIANA PURCHASE 1800—Louisiana territory belonged to Spain 1802—Spain refused to allow Americans to ship goods down the Mississippi River or trade in New Orleans.1802—Spain gave Louisiana territory back to France.
24The French leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, wanted to create an American empire from a base in the French colony of Santo Domingo. A slave revolt (inspired by the French revolution), led to independence for the colony (now Haiti). Napoleon now had no use for Louisiana.
25Napoleon needed to raise money to finance the war he was planning against Britain, so he decided to sell the Louisiana territory to the U.S.
26THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 1803James Monroe was sent to France to make the purchase from foreign minister Talleyrand.$15 millionDoubled the size of the U.S.Jefferson worried that the purchase might be unconstitutional.
32ZEBULON PIKE1805 AND 1806—explored the sources of the Mississippi River and the southern Rocky Mountain (Pike’s Peak).
33MILITARY POSTS ESTABLISHED To secure the frontierPromote the fur tradeSupport white settlement
34GOALS OF JEFFERSON’S LAND POLICY Produce revenue to reduce the national debtSettle people quickly on federal land1801 Land Act—increase the purchase of federal land by 4x.
35GOALS OF JEFFERSON’S FOREIGN POLICY Protect America’s interests on the high seasSecure America’s western territories against foreign threatsBreak free from dependence on Europe
36PRINCIPLES OF JEFFERSON’S FOREIGN POLICY No entangling alliances with EuropeOverseas commerce emphasized (import and export)Most importantly, MAINTAIN PEACE!
37Why did Jefferson think it was important to maintain peace? According to Jefferson, war inflames politics, stifles free speech, increases the national debt, and expands governmental power.
38In 1803, war resumed in Europe. The U. S In 1803, war resumed in Europe. The U.S. attempted to maintain neutrality, but Britain began seizing American ships and impressing American sailors.
39AMERICAN ATTEMPTS TO MAINTAIN NEUTRALITY Non-Importation Act (1806)—prohibited the importation of British goods; the British replied by blockading the European coast and cutting off American trade to European nations.
401807—British warship attacked an American ship (Leopard vs 1807—British warship attacked an American ship (Leopard vs. Chesapeake), killing American crew members. To avoid war, Jefferson withdrew American ships from the Atlantic and the Embargo Act (1807) was passed.
41EMBARGO ACTAmerican vessels were forbidden from sailing to foreign ports.Had little effect on BritainWas a severe blow to American commerceMany Americans ignored the embargoFederalist party made a comeback because of the economic effect of the embargo