Presentation on theme: "THE JEFFERSON ADMINISTRATION. ELECTION OF 1800 Resulted in a tie between Jefferson and Burr Decided in the House of Representatives Adams lost because."— Presentation transcript:
THE JEFFERSON ADMINISTRATION
ELECTION OF 1800 Resulted in a tie between Jefferson and Burr Decided in the House of Representatives Adams lost because of a split in the Federalist party
12 th AMENDMENT Requires electors to vote for president and vice- president on separate ballots
12 th AMENDMENT Instead of : ADAMS PINCKNEY BURR JEFFERSON All running for Pres. Now: President…. ADAMS JEFFERSON Vice President… BURR PINCKNEY
GOALS OF THE JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLICANS Calm political storms Consolidate victory Purge Federalist influences from the federal government Dismantle the Federalist war program Reduce the size of the federal government and the national debt
REDUCE THE SIZE OF GOVERNMENT BY… Allowing the Alien and Sedition Acts to expire Repealing Naturalization Act Reducing the size of the army and navy Repealing federal internal taxes Cutting federal spending
BUILDING AN AGRARIAN EMPIRE Jefferson believed that REPUBLICANISM (equality) could be destroyed by economic and social development; rapid western expansion would help preserve equality in America. The future of the country lay in the yeoman farmer (not to mention Jefferson’s political support).
WESTERN EXPANSION Secure western borders to protect against England, France, and Spain Secure the food supply Sale of public land would decrease national debt New western states would strengthen Jefferson’s political base
THE FEDERAL COURT SYSTEM After Jefferson was elected (but before he took office), Adams appointed hundreds of federal judges under the Judiciary Act of He also appointed John Marshall as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. These actions assured Federalist control of the court system.
THE MARSHALL COURT MARBURY v. MADISON McCULLOCH v. MARYLAND GIBBONS v. OGDEN
MARBURY v. MADISON ESTABLISHED THE PRINCIPLE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW
JUDICIAL REVIEW The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. When there is a conflict between the Constitution and any other law, the Constitution MUST be followed.
MARBURY v. MADISON The judicial branch has the duty to uphold the Constitution. IT IS THE DUTY OF THE JUDICIAL BRANCH TO DETERMINE WHEN A FEDERAL LAW CONFLICTS WITH THE CONSTITUTION AND cancel unconstitutional laws.
McCULLOCH v. MARYLAND Broad Congressional authority Held that the ELASTIC CLAUSE allows the Congress to do more than the Constitution expressly authorizes it to do.
GIBBONS v. OGDEN Federal law supercedes state law in interstate transportation.
REGIONALISM IN 1800 NORTHEAST— SMALL FAMILY FARMS
SOUTH— With the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793, southern plantations began growing less tobacco and more cotton.
WESTWARD EXPANSION Louisiana purchase Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery Zebulon Pike Military posts established 1801 Land Act
LOUISIANA PURCHASE 1800—Louisiana territory belonged to Spain 1802—Spain refused to allow Americans to ship goods down the Mississippi River or trade in New Orleans. 1802—Spain gave Louisiana territory back to France.
The French leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, wanted to create an American empire from a base in the French colony of Santo Domingo. A slave revolt (inspired by the French revolution), led to independence for the colony (now Haiti). Napoleon now had no use for Louisiana.
Napoleon needed to raise money to finance the war he was planning against Britain, so he decided to sell the Louisiana territory to the U.S.
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE 1803 James Monroe was sent to France to make the purchase from foreign minister Talleyrand. $15 million Doubled the size of the U.S. Jefferson worried that the purchase might be unconstitutional.
LEWIS AND CLARK AND THE CORPS OF DISCOVERY GOALS— 1. Make contact with the Native population. 2. Establish the fur trade. 3. Bring back scientific information.
Lewis and Clark explored the center of North America, from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, north of Spanish territory. They were helped by Sacajawea.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE EXPEDITION Collected valuable information on people, plants, animals, and the geography of the West. Provided inspiration to a nation of people eager to move westward.
ZEBULON PIKE 1805 AND 1806— explored the sources of the Mississippi River and the southern Rocky Mountain (Pike’s Peak).
MILITARY POSTS ESTABLISHED To secure the frontier Promote the fur trade Support white settlement
GOALS OF JEFFERSON’S LAND POLICY Produce revenue to reduce the national debt Settle people quickly on federal land 1801 Land Act— increase the purchase of federal land by 4x.
GOALS OF JEFFERSON’S FOREIGN POLICY Protect America’s interests on the high seas Secure America’s western territories against foreign threats Break free from dependence on Europe
PRINCIPLES OF JEFFERSON’S FOREIGN POLICY No entangling alliances with Europe Overseas commerce emphasized (import and export) Most importantly, MAINTAIN PEACE!
Why did Jefferson think it was important to maintain peace? According to Jefferson, war inflames politics, stifles free speech, increases the national debt, and expands governmental power.
In 1803, war resumed in Europe. The U.S. attempted to maintain neutrality, but Britain began seizing American ships and impressing American sailors.
AMERICAN ATTEMPTS TO MAINTAIN NEUTRALITY Non-Importation Act (1806)— prohibited the importation of British goods; the British replied by blockading the European coast and cutting off American trade to European nations.
1807—British warship attacked an American ship (Leopard vs. Chesapeake), killing American crew members. To avoid war, Jefferson withdrew American ships from the Atlantic and the Embargo Act (1807) was passed.
EMBARGO ACT American vessels were forbidden from sailing to foreign ports. Had little effect on Britain Was a severe blow to American commerce Many Americans ignored the embargo Federalist party made a comeback because of the economic effect of the embargo
JEFFERSON’S FAILURES Embargo caused severe economic problems Failed to solve international problems Commitment to minimal government left the country militarily unprepared.
JEFFERSON’S SUCCESSES Lower taxes and national debt Smaller government Open doors to immigrants Peace Louisiana purchase
Thomas Jefferson followed the precedent set by George Washington and stepped aside after serving two terms as president.
Thomas Jefferson and John Adams died on the same day— July 4, 1826 on the 50 th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.