2Democratic-Republican Election of 1800Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr both tie with 73 votes. It goes to the House and Hamilton controls the outcome and chooses Jefferson! Why?He hates Burr more than Jefferson!Thomas Jefferson became our 3rd presidentThe Democratic-Republicans took control of CongressThe Twelfth Amendment was added to the ConstitutionPres and VP run as a ticket"We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists." (Appealing to both Parties)The pre-election atmosphere in 1800 was colored by the Alien and Sedition Acts controversy, which had created much ill feeling between the contending parties. The Jeffersonian Republicans triumphed. Since 1796, they had control of New York State thanks largely to Aaron Burr's political skills; he had wrested control of the legislature from Alexander Hamilton.The bad news, however, was that the two Democratic-Republican candidates, Jefferson and Burr, garnered the same number of electoral votes; according to the Constitution, the matter was to be resolved in the House of Representatives. (See Article II, Section 1, Clause 3.)The Election of 1800 CandidatePartyElectoral VotePopular VoteThomas Jefferson (VA)Democratic-Republican73*Aaron Burr (NY)<John Adams (MA)Federalist65C.C. Pinckney (SC)64John Jay (NY)1*Popular vote totals were not recorded until the Election of 1824.Thirty-six ballots were cast over five days to reach a decision. Once again Hamilton played a pivotal role, throwing his support to Jefferson, whom he disliked, rather than Burr, whom he truly hated.This election is sometimes referred to as the "Revolution of 1800" because it marked the transition from the Federalists, the only party to have held the presidency to that point, to the Democratic-Republicans of Jefferson. It appeared that major changes were in the offing.The dilemma posed by two candidates receiving an equal number of electoral votes was later addressed in Amendment XII.
3Election of 1800 Referred to as constituting “another revolution” the party in power (Federalist) stepped down after losing the electionChanges made by JeffersonSize of the military reduced (Why?)Number of Federal employees increasedAmount of national debt reducedAlien and Sedition Acts repealed (Why?)Lowered Government Expenses, Cut TaxesIncreased the power of Agricultural in the South.Free Trade w/o Government ControlReduced the size of the National Bank (Why?)
4Judiciary Act 1801Increases the Number of Federal Judges to 16.
5The Midnight JudgesJohn Adams filled all open positions with Federalist Judges!Adams appoints one right before Jefferson takes office. (Why?) Hence the midnight judge.This causes some problems for the Supreme Court… Stay tuned!
6Marbury Vs. Madison (1803)William Marbury – A Supreme court judge appointed by Adams on his last night of Office.Jefferson ordered the Secretary of state (James Madison) not to deliver the official papers to Marbury the next day.Marbury Sued Madison over this matter.What does the Supreme court do? Does Marbury win? Take a guess in your notes!
7Marbury Vs. Madison Continued Supreme court rules against Marbury!Why?Jefferson was going to ignore the appointment & therefore ignore the supreme court.So…The Supreme Court protects their power keeping judicial review.Judicial Review- Gives the SC the power to decide which laws are Constitutional.Now Write in your own words!
8Hamilton Vs. BurrDuel (1804) When two gentleman cannot settle an argument and ones honor is in question they use Pistols to settled it.Hamilton Supported Burr’s Opponent in the New York Governors race.Burr Challenges Hamilton and Kills him.Hamilton Never fires a shot.Burr is still upset that Hamilton outwardly support Jefferson for President.Hamilton never fires a shot because it was a tactic that is his opponent missed he would be able to take aim and get a good shot off. It didn’t work
10TOUSSAINT L’ OUVERTURE LEADS A SLAVE REVOLT AGAINST THE FRENCHNAPOLEON SENDS 20,000 TROOPSYELLOW FEVER AND L’OUVERTURE’S ARMY DEFEAT THE FRENCHSlaves earn their freedom in France! Unfortunately Takes longer in the US!Because of trouble in France Napoleon needs Money and Allies! Which leeds to….?Toussaint was reputedly descended from the Arrada people of the Dahomey Coast. His father, Gaou-Guinou, had been brought by the slave traders to the French colony of Saint-Domingue, and sold as a slave to the Count de Bréda. Toussaint was the eldest son and his date of birth is given as either May 20 or November 1 (All Saints' Day procuring the name Toussaint). He also took the surname Breda from his owner.De Breda was relatively humane and happy to encourage Toussaint to learn to read and write. He became a coachman of the count and was already a noted horse rider and herbalist before his subsequent military and political career. Free black priest Pierre Baptiste taught him to read. He married a woman named Suzan Simone and they had a son, named Placide.Though it was not widely known during his lifetime, Toussaint was in fact a free man by the time of the great slave uprising he would eventually help lead. He was freed from slavery at about the age of 33, and colonial records show that he leased a field of about 15 hectares with 13 slaves to grow coffee. At the time of this lease, he was still unable to sign, or write, though he would learn these skills before the revolution.The French Revolution of 1789 had a powerful impact on the island. Inspired by the new philosophies of The Enlightenment, "Liberté, égalité, fraternité", the French proclaimed the Rights of Man to include all free men. When this promise was withdrawn under pressure from the plantation owners it sparked widespread slave uprisings.Rebellion and negotiationsToussaint did not participate in the campaign of Vincent Ogé, a wealthy free man of color whose attempt to claim voting rights for this group in October 1790 was brutally crushed. In August 1793, he helped his former owners to flee to the United States, and became an aide to Georges Biassou in his insurgency after the Night of Fire. He rose rapidly in rank and the Black army proved to be surprisingly successful against the fever-ravaged and poorly-led European troops. In 1793, after the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars, Toussaint allied with the Spanish to fight against French troops and gained the moniker L'Ouverture ("opening") because he exploited openings in the defenses of the opposition; he adopted this as his surname. Later that year the British occupied most of the coastal settlements of Haïti, including Port-au-Prince.In 1793 Léger Félicité Sonthonax and Étienne Polverel, representatives of the French revolutionary government in Paris, offered freedom to slaves who would join them as they struggled to defeat counter-revolutionaries and fight the foreign invaders. On February 4, 1794, the largely Jacobin National Convention in Paris ratified these emancipation orders, that abolished slavery throughout all territories of the French Republic. In early May 1794, Toussaint left the Spanish and joined the French Revolutionary Army, bringing thousands of Black soldiers with him. He received the rank of Général de Brigade.
12Louisiana PurchaseJefferson’s purchase of Louisiana had its origins in his desire toGive the United States control over the Mississippi RiverAcquire a port to provide an outlet for western cropsHoped to preserve an agricultural (agrarian) society by making abundant lands available to future generationsTo prevent war with France over control of the Louisiana Territory and secure American commerce
13JEFFERSON WANTS NEW ORLEANS JEFFERSON SENDS JAMES MONROE & ROBERT LIVINGSTON TO PARIS.THEY ARE TO BUY NEW ORLEANS- CAN PAY AS MUCH AS $10 MILLION
14Louisiana Purchase April 30, 1803 Robert Livingston & James Monroe signed the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in ParisThe United States paid $15 million for the land, roughly 4 cents per acreThe purchase added 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi to the United StatesJuly 4 the Louisiana Purchase is publicly announcedOriginal treaty can be found at:
15MORE…IF THE FRENCH REFUSE, MONROE IS TO FORM AN ALLIANCE WITH BRITAIN AGAINST FRANCE.
16Maps of the Louisiana Purchase The original maps can be found at:
17JEFFERSON’S PRINCIPLES GET IN THE WAY. JEFFERSON IS A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST.MUST USE IMPLIED POWERS TO JUSTIFY THE DEAL.FEDERALIST ATTACK JEFFERSON FOR STRETCHING THE CONSTITUTION.
19Lewis and Clark Expedition January 18, 1803Jefferson asks Congress for funds to explore the land west of the MississippiHis goal is to find a water route to the PacificMay 1804Meriwether Lewis and William Clark depart on the expeditionMap of Lewis and Clark’s RouteOriginal map can be found at:
20Lewis and Clark Expedition January 18, 1803Jefferson sends a secret message to congress regarding the Lewis and Clark ExpeditionIn this message Jefferson asks for permission to establish trading with the Indians
21LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION 1804-1806 ASCEND THE MISSOURI RIVER AND CROSS TO THE PACIFICSURVEY THE AREA AND ESTABLISH RELATIONS WITH THE INDIANSClark made most of the preparations, by way of letters to Jefferson. He brought two large buckets and five smaller buckets of salt, a ton of dried pork, and medicines.The group, initially consisting of 33 members, departed from Camp Dubois, near present day Hartford, Illinois, and began their historic journey on May 14, They soon met-up with Lewis in Saint Charles, Missouri, and the approximately forty men followed the Missouri River westward. Soon they passed La Charrette, the last white settlement on the Missouri River. The expedition followed the Missouri through what is now Kansas City, Missouri, and Omaha, Nebraska. On August 20, 1804, the Corps of Discovery suffered its only death when Sergeant Charles Floyd died, apparently from acute appendicitis. He was buried at Floyd's Bluff, near what is now Sioux City, Iowa. During the final week of August, Lewis and Clark had reached the edge of the Great Plains, a place abounding with elk, deer, buffalo, and beavers. They were also entering Sioux territory.The first tribe of Sioux they met, the Yankton Sioux, were more peaceful than their neighbors further along the Missouri River, the Teton Sioux, also known as the Lakota. The Yankton Sioux were disappointed by the gifts they received from Lewis and Clark—five medals—and gave the explorers a warning about the upriver Teton Sioux. The Teton Sioux received their gifts with ill-disguised hostility. One chief demanded a boat from Lewis and Clark as the price to be paid for passage through their territory. As the Indians became more dangerous, Lewis and Clark prepared to fight back. At the last moment before fighting began, the two sides fell back. The Americans quickly headed upriver until winter stopped them at the Mandan tribe's territory.In the winter of 1804–05, the party built Fort Mandan, near present-day Washburn, North Dakota. There, the group found themselves trapped in their shelter without food when a violent rainstorm hit. The Shoshone/Hidatsa native woman Sacagawea and her husband, French Canadian Toussaint Charbonneau, joined the group, and saved the corp group's lives by bringing the starving men fish. Unfortunately, the men were not used to the fish, and became ill. However, the group recovered and met Sacagawea. She enabled the group to talk to her Shoshone tribe from further west (she was daughter of the chief's brother), and trade food for gold and jewelry. (As was common during those times, she was taken as a slave by the Hidatsa at a young age, and reunited with her father on the journey.) She was able to aid them in translation, and she had some familiarity with the native tribes as they moved further west. The inclusion of a woman with a young baby (Sacagawea's son Jean Baptiste Charbonneau was born in the winter of ) helped to soften tribal relations since no war-party would include a woman and baby.In April 1805, some members of the expedition were sent back home from Mandan in the 'return party'. Along with them went a report about what Lewis and Clark had discovered, 108 botanical specimens (including some living animals), 68 mineral specimens, and Clark's map of the United States. Other specimens were sent back to Jefferson periodically, including a prairie dog which Jefferson received alive in a box.Lewis and Clark on the Lower Columbia by C.M. RussellThe expedition continued to follow the Missouri to its headwaters and over the Continental Divide at Lemhi Pass via horses. In canoes, they descended the mountains by the Clearwater River, the Snake River, and the Columbia River, past Celilo Falls and past what is now Portland, Oregon. At this point, Lewis spotted Mt. Hood, a mountain known to be very close to the ocean. On a big pine, Clark carved"William Clark December 3rd By land from the U.States in 1804 & 1805"Clark had written in his journal, "Ocian [sic] in view! O! The Joy!". One journal entry is captioned "Cape Disappointment at the Enterance of the Columbia River into the Great South Sea or Pacific Ocean". By that time the expedition faced its second bitter winter during the trip, so the group decided to vote on whether to camp on the north or south side of the Columbia River. The party agreed to camp on the south side of the river (modern Astoria, Oregon), building Fort Clatsop as their winter quarters. While wintering at the fort, the men prepared for the trip home by boiling salt from the ocean, hunting elk and other wildlife, and interacting with the native tribes. The winter was very rainy, and the men had a hard time finding suitable meat. Surprisingly, they never consumed much Pacific salmon.The explorers started their journey home on March 23, On the way home, Lewis and Clark used four dugout canoes they bought from the Native Americans, plus one that they stole  in "retaliation" for a previous theft. Less than a month after leaving Fort Clatsop, they abandoned their canoes because portaging around all the falls proved too difficult.On July 3, after crossing the Continental Divide, the Corps split into two teams so Lewis could explore the Marias River. Lewis' group of four met some Blackfeet Indians. Their meeting was cordial, but during the night, the Blackfeet tried to steal their weapons. In the struggle, two Indians were killed, the only native deaths attributable to the expedition. The group of four—Lewis, Drouillard, and the Field brothers—fled over 100 miles (160 km) in a day before they camped again. Clark, meanwhile, had entered Crow territory. The Crow tribe were known as horse thieves. At night, half of Clark's horses were gone, but not a single Crow was seen. Lewis and Clark stayed separated until they reached the confluence of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers on August 11. Clark's team had floated down the rivers in bull boats. While reuniting, one of Clark's hunters, Pierre Cruzatte, blind in one eye and nearsighted in the other, mistook Lewis for an elk and fired, injuring Lewis in the thigh. From there, the groups were reunited and able to quickly return home by the Missouri River. They reached St. Louis on September 23, 1806.The Corps of Discovery returned with important information about the new United States territory and the people who lived in it, as well as its rivers and mountains, plants and animals. The expedition made a major contribution to mapping the North American continent.
22Embargo Act 1807 Forbade export of all goods from U.S. Jefferson got Congress to hastily pass the actReasoned that a U.S. embargo would force Britain & France to respect its rights.Loose construction of the ConstitutionCongress' power to "regulate commerce" meant it could stop exports.Undermined Jefferson’s states’ rights philosophyEmbargo Act was a disaster to the U.S. economy. Why? We need foreign business more than they do.Non Intercourse Act (ended Embargo Act)Formally reopened trade with all nations of the world except France and BritainRemained U.S. policy until War of 1812.The Embargo Act of 1807 was an American law prohibiting all export of cargo from American ports. It was designed to force Britain to rescind its restrictions on American trade, but failed, and was repealed in early Specifically, the Embargo act prohibited American goods from being shipped to foreign ports and all foreign vessels from taking cargo at American ports. Cargo for the coastal trade had to be bonded at double value. Foreign imports were not banned, but they mostly ceased because ships would have to return empty. It represented President Thomas Jefferson's response to the United Kingdom's Orders in Council (1807) and France's Continental System, which were severely hurting America's merchant marines. Although it was designed to force the British and French to change their commercial systems, neither country did, and the Act was repealed in Moreover, the Act failed to prevent the War of Historians in 2006 ranked it #7 of the 10 worst mistakes ever made by an American President.From the 1790s to 1807, American shippers enjoyed their status as the primary neutral carrier between France and Britain while both countries were engaged in the Napoleonic Wars, profiting as both Nations purchased American goods and ships. Before it passed, about $120 million in American ships and cargo were on the high seas on any one day. Jefferson thought that Britain needed the business so badly it would buckle on the impressment issue, where British warships stopped American commercial ships and seized sailors it said were British subjects. The vast British Royal Navy required a large workforce to keep a stranglehold on the oceans; a need which could not be provided for by volunteer enlistment. British warships stopped American merchant ships; inspected the papers of every crewmember, and carried off those they decided were British subjects. Over 6,000 sailors with American naturalization papers were also taken because Britain did not honor "naturalised citizenship" papers issued by American courts to men born in Britain.
23JEFFERSON VS THE PASHA OF TRIPOLI JEFFERSON OPPOSED LARGE ARMIES AND NAVIESA THREAT TO THE GOVERNMENTBarbary Pirates take bribe money from US ships so that they don’t take their cargo.Pirates demands increaseJefferson won’t pay them, and tries to over through the gov’t of Tripoli but does not succeed.Jefferson realizes that with out a real military our nation is at risk.AND EXPENSIVEBecause of the failed gov’t over through we pay $60,000 in ransom.Although Thomas Jefferson came to power determined to limit the reach of the federal government, foreign affairs dominated his presidency and pushed him toward Federalist policies that greatly contrasted with his political philosophy. The first foreign episode involved Jefferson's war with the Barbary pirates. For the previous century or so, Western nations had paid bribes to the Barbary states, which would later become Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and Tripolitania, to keep them from harassing American and merchant ships. When the Pasha of Tripoli raised his demands in 1801, Jefferson refused to pay the increase, sent warships to the Mediterranean, blockaded the small nation, and tried unsuccessfully to promote a palace coup in Tripoli. This was one of the first covert operations in American history. The war ended with agreements that involved one last payment of tribute, at least to Tripoli. Jefferson's action on this matter caused him to rethink the need for a well-equipped navy and halted his move to reduce the force to a mere token size.
24Evaluating Jefferson Positives Negatives Expands the size of the United States. “Louisiana Purchase”Keeps US out of a costly warPreserves neutralityNegativesContradicts his own interpretation of the constitution.~ Why? for the good of the country
25JEFFERSON’S NAVAL POLICY LEADS TO WEAKNESS. JEFFS ARE TOO SMALL TO BE USEFULWHEN THE WAR OF 1812 COMES WE MUST BUILD REAL SHIPS TO CONTEND WITH THE BRITISH.
261801 PASHA DECLARES WAR ON U.S. HOW WOULD JEFFERSON RESPOND?SENDS MARINES TO THE “SHORES OF TRIPOLI”1805 WAR ENDS - WE PAY $60,000 IN RANSOM.BUT SHOWED WE WOULD FIGHT.
27MORE…2500 MEN IN THE ARMYBUILT “JEFFS” TO DEFEND THE COAST. SMALL BOATS W 1 GUN.
28Louisiana Purchase cont’ Bought the land from Napoleon$15 millionAs a strict constructionist, the Constitution did not authorize the President to negotiate treaties incorporating huge new expanses of land into the union.
29THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE IN 1800 NAPOLEON GAINS CONTROL OF NEW ORLEANS FROM SPAIN.WITHDRAWS THE RIGHT OF DEPOSIT IN1802
30NAPOLEON OFFERS TO SELL ALL OF LOUISIANA PRICE $15 MILLION DOLLARS FOR ALL THE LAND BETWEEN THE MISSISSIPPI & THE ROCKY MTS.LIVINGSTON SIGNS THE DEAL APRIL 30, 1803828,000 SQ MILES (3CENTS AN ACRE.
31Louisiana Yet AgainJefferson reluctantly submitted the treaties to the Senate while privately admitting the purchase as unconstitutional.Senate promptly ratified the treatyLand-hungry Americans jubilantly supported the purchaseFederalist opposition (typical of "loyal opposition" up to the present)Ironically argued for strict construction: President did not have power to purchase LA.Ironically claimed LA would cost too much especially when balancing budget was a goalReal reason: worried that western lands would be loyal to Jefferson’s Republicans..
32Jefferson’s Legacy Expansion became prime goal Creation of a democratic non-aristocratic governmentTotal defeat of Federalists by 1816Jefferson kept the country out of a damaging European warWar of 1812 not until late in Madison’s first term.
33CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEAL DOUBLED THE SIZE OF THE UNITED STATES.GAINED A RICH RIVER VALLEYSECURED NEW ORLEANS AND THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER.JEFFERSON CALLED IT “THE VALLEY OF DEMOCRACY.”