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Geopolitics and the World Order. Geopolitics The ability of a state (or nation) to control territory and affect the foreign policy of states, nations,

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Presentation on theme: "Geopolitics and the World Order. Geopolitics The ability of a state (or nation) to control territory and affect the foreign policy of states, nations,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Geopolitics and the World Order

2 Geopolitics The ability of a state (or nation) to control territory and affect the foreign policy of states, nations, and international relationsThe ability of a state (or nation) to control territory and affect the foreign policy of states, nations, and international relations Examples of Geopolitics in action:Examples of Geopolitics in action: –Colonialism / (threat of) Military Intervention –Neocolonialism / Imperialism –Dependency and International Aid –Treaties, Organizations, Alliances, Agreements (EU, NAFTA, NATO, World Bank, UN, etc.)

3 Colonialism Organization(NATO) Militarily

4 Geopolitical Theories Heartland Theory (Halford Mackinder) East / West Theory Domino Theory New World Order Since 9/11?

5 If you control Eurasia, you control the world Prior to Russian revolution, WWI Perhaps Hitler bought into this theory? Heartland Theory

6 East / West Theory: “Cold War” 2 Options:2 Options: –Ally with the West: free, “good” –Ally with the East: Communist, Fascist “evil” Dominant perspective from ~1917 (Russian Revolution) through 1989 / 1991Dominant perspective from ~1917 (Russian Revolution) through 1989 / 1991

7 Cold War propaganda map: “Red menace”

8 Domino Theory If one country turns to communism, then the next one will, and the next one, and the next one, etc. (i.e. China, Korea, Vietnam, etc.)If one country turns to communism, then the next one will, and the next one, and the next one, etc. (i.e. China, Korea, Vietnam, etc.)

9 Cuba Cuba 90 miles Havana to Key West, FL FidelCastro

10 U.S. History with Cuba “Free” country up to 1959 Fulgencio Batista: MAJOR U.S. investment / influence (gambling, mafia, resorts: “Latin Las Vegas;” “Gambling Mecca of New World”) “America’s Paradise:” ~Cancun Lucky Luciano arranged Frank Sinatra act in Havana Batista loved by U.S., became corrupted by U.S. $$ Many Cubans wanted Cuba to be “free” of U.S. “influence” Cuban Revolution: 1959 (1/1/59)Cuban Revolution: 1959 (1/1/59) Batista Cuban Revolution

11 “Red Scare:” fear of spread of Communism around the world“Red Scare:” fear of spread of Communism around the world Since no longer part of “West” and no more U.S. influence, U.S. had fears of Cuba going Communist—only 90 miles away!Since no longer part of “West” and no more U.S. influence, U.S. had fears of Cuba going Communist—only 90 miles away! 1960: Eisenhower tried to influence Cuba: boycott sugar, no oil; all diplomatic relations cut off1960: Eisenhower tried to influence Cuba: boycott sugar, no oil; all diplomatic relations cut off 1961: Bay of Pigs invasion organized by CIA (largely composed of Cuban exiles living in U.S.)—failed1961: Bay of Pigs invasion organized by CIA (largely composed of Cuban exiles living in U.S.)—failed Castro in power ever sinceCastro in power ever since

12 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis Cuba allies with USSR (defense and trade) and Cuba agrees to allow Soviet Union to put missiles in Cuba (again, only 90 miles away) “Cuban Missile Crisis:” U.S. reacts; blockades Cuba; orders removal of missiles USSR tells Cuba if U.S. fires or invades, launch missiles 2 weeks go by… “Khrushchev blinked” Russia removes missiles 1963: JFK says trading with Cuba is ILLEGAL; tells other countries (i.e. Latin America) that U.S. will cut off aid to anyone who trades with Cuba: the EMBARGO begins the EMBARGO begins

13 Since 1963 After the USSR collapsed, Cuba left without superpower, no $$$After the USSR collapsed, Cuba left without superpower, no $$$ Economic Embargo still in effectEconomic Embargo still in effect Fidel: longest serving ruler in the world (48 years) until he “retired” in 2008Fidel: longest serving ruler in the world (48 years) until he “retired” in 2008 What (or who) happens after Raul?What (or who) happens after Raul?QUESTIONS: Is the embargo working?Is the embargo working? Fidel is gone: should we continue it?Fidel is gone: should we continue it? Who is it hurting / helping?Who is it hurting / helping? Who wants to be the president to be viewed as the one who gave in to Communism? Will Obama be the guy?Who wants to be the president to be viewed as the one who gave in to Communism? Will Obama be the guy?

14 Cuba

15 Travel! transactions Transactions related to tourist travel are not licensable. U.S. ENTRY / EXIT REQUIREMENTS / TRAVEL TRANSACTION LIMITATIONS: The U.S. Treasury Dept requires that persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction be licensed to engage in any travel- related transactions concerning travel to, from, and within Cuba. Transactions related to tourist travel are not licensable. This restriction includes tourist travel to Cuba from or through a third country such as Mexico or Canada. Travelers who fail to comply with Department of Treasury regulations will face civil penalties and criminal prosecution upon return to the United States and may face up to a $250,000 fine and up to 10 years in jail. This is a U.S. law! Not a Cuban law.

16 The UN Vote on the Embargo: (11/13/12) FOR AGAINST United States 186 countriesUnited States 186 countries Israel around theIsrael around the PalauworldPalauworld (3 abstentions) (3 abstentions) 21 consecutive years that the UN has voted overwhelmingly to end the embargo (but it’s not their embargo) against-cuba/2012/11/13/8c3b15b0-2dbb-11e2-b631-2aad9d9c73ac_story.html

17 Geopolitics of the Middle East Western influence in the Middle East 1948: Israel (re)created by U.N.*1948: Israel (re)created by U.N.* In a mostly Arabic region, most reject / resent the decision by Core countries to assist in creation of Israel in what they consider their homeland (culturally, historically, religiously) for ~3,000 years Cultural bias on part of Core countries? Palestinian Newspaper * Partition Plan: * Partition Plan: signifies the birth of what has come to be recognized as continuous trouble for the U.S. (mostly) in the Middle East

18 Jewish State Jewish State (Israel) (Israel) Arab State (Palestine) International Zone International Zone (Jerusalem) (Jerusalem)1948: UN Partition Plan

19 Jerusalem: Holy City to Jews, Muslims, and Christians

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21 20 th Century History of Israel / Palestine

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23 Nation? State? Nation-State? Concept? Occupied Lands? Palestine:

24 West Bank Gaza Strip Arab (ethnic) territoriality Palestinians are multi-religious: Mostly Muslims but many Christians -Mostly Muslims but many Christians Ethnic nationalist movement, but some newer Muslim groups Palestinians

25 The Main Issue: From Palestinian point of view:From Palestinian point of view: –Israel is made of land taken from the Arab World –Anyone who supports Israel is part of the problem (Western Countries: ethnocentrism?) From Israel’s point of view:From Israel’s point of view: –Israel is Jewish holy land, rightfully returned –Under constant threat / attack SOLUTIONS ANYONE?SOLUTIONS ANYONE?


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