Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WI TH THANKS TO TONY MILLER & SUSAN POJER.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WI TH THANKS TO TONY MILLER & SUSAN POJER."— Presentation transcript:

1 EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WI TH THANKS TO TONY MILLER & SUSAN POJER

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS TODAY: WHAT WERE THE CAUSES OF THE WAR OF 1812? WAS JAMES MADISON A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST? WERE FEDERALISTS REALLY LIBERAL CONSTRUCTIONISTS? BROAD: HOW AND WHEN DID U.S. NATIONALISM ARISE? WHAT CAUSED THE CIVIL WAR?

3 FRQ PROMPT: WITH RESPECT TO THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION, THE JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLICANS ARE USUALLY CHARACTERIZED AS STRICT CONSTRUCTIONISTS WHO WERE OPPOSED TO THE BROAD CONSTRUCTIONISM OF THE FEDERALISTS. TO WHAT EXTENT WAS THIS CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TWO PARTIES ACCURATE DURING THE PRESIDENCIES OF JEFFERSON AND MADISON? YOUR “OI” MUST INCLUDE: ALL RELEVANT PRIMARY SOURCES ASSIGNED ALL ASSIGNED READINGS AND MY LECTURES/ PPS NO INTERNET CRAP

4  BACKGROUND/ REVIEW  FROM 1807, NAPOLEONIC WARS PUT U.S. IN MIDDLE OF WAR BETWEEN ENGLAND AND FRANCE (AGAIN!)  1807, BRITISH ORDERS IN COUNCIL  NAPOLEON’S EDICT OF MILAN  BOTH ENGLISH AND FRANCE SEIZED U.S. MERCHANT SHIPS o 1807 – 11 BRITAIN IMPRESSED > 6,000 U.S. SEAMEN  ALSO 1807, CHESAPEAKE-LEOPARD AFFAIR

5  1807 – JEFFERSON’S EMBARGO ACT DEVASTATED U.S. ECONOMY IN THE SHORT RUN, BUT IN THE LONG RUN  INDUSTRIALIZATION N.E., OHIO DEVASTATED U.S. ECONOMY IN THE SHORT RUN, BUT IN THE LONG RUN  INDUSTRIALIZATION N.E., OHIO JEFFERSON’S POLICIES  HAMILTON’S JEFFERSON’S POLICIES  HAMILTON’S 1808 – MADISON (D-R) ELECTED PRESIDENT, DESPITE UNPOPULARITY OF EMBARGO 1808 – MADISON (D-R) ELECTED PRESIDENT, DESPITE UNPOPULARITY OF EMBARGO 1809 – NON-INTERCOURSE ACT – EMBARGO ONLY ON TRADE WITH BRITAIN AND FRANCE 1809 – NON-INTERCOURSE ACT – EMBARGO ONLY ON TRADE WITH BRITAIN AND FRANCE NEITHER BRITAIN NOR FRANCE CAPITULATED TO EITHER EMBARGO ACT OR NON-INTERCOURSE ACT NEITHER BRITAIN NOR FRANCE CAPITULATED TO EITHER EMBARGO ACT OR NON-INTERCOURSE ACT

6  JAMES MADISON – “FATHER OF THE CONSTITUTION,” AUTHOR OF BILL OF RIGHTS, FEDERALIST PAPERS, AND VIRGINIA RESOLVES, SECRETARY OF STATE, FOURTH PRESIDENT  IN THE VIRGINIA RESOLVES, MADISON ADVOCATED COMPACT THEORY AND STRICT CONSTRUCTION

7 MADISON’S ECONOMIC POLICY:  MADISON’S ECONOMIC POLICY:  SUPPORTED NON-INTERCOURSE ACT  DID NOT SUPPORTED MACON’S BILL NO. 2 – LIFTED EMBARGO ENTIRELY BUT THREATENED TO RESTORE IT IF BRITAIN OR FRANCE DIDN’T STOP SEIZING U.S. SHIPS  NAPOLEON’S PLOY  MADISON RESTORED EMBARGO ON BRITAIN  STRICT CONSTRUCTION?  BRITAIN KEPT SEIZING U.S. SHIPS

8  PROVOCATIONS ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER (?)  RECALL PONTIAC’S UPRISING, NORTHWEST INDIAN WAR – REALLY ONE LONG WAR BETWEEN INDIANS IN N.W. AND WHITE INVADERS  RECALL TREATY OF GREENVILLE – 1795 EVERYTHING N.W. OF THIS LINE = INDIANTERRITORY

9 BUT WESTWARD HO! WHITE FOLKS!

10  1809 – TREATY OF FORT WAYNE. WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, GOVERNOR OF INDIANA TERRITORY INVITED SELECTED INDIAN CHIEFS TO FT. WAYNE TO SIGN TREATY CEDING 3 MILLION ACRES TO U.S  MADISON OPPOSED THIS!  TECUMSEH, SHAWNEE GENERAL, AND HIS BROTHER TENKSWATAWA (“THE PROPHET”)  TECUMSEH: ALL INDIAN LANDS OWNED BY ALL TRIBES IN COMMON (JOSEPH BRANT)  TENKSWATAWA = INDIAN “PURITAN” – URGED REJECTION OF WHITE CULTURE (INCLUDING X’IANITY AND LIQUOR)

11 HARRISON, TECUMSEH AND TENSKWATAWA  BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE, NOV. 7, 1811 – WHO WON?

12 TECUMSEH ORGANIZED CONFEDERATION OF MOST TRIBES TO RESIST TREATY OF FT. WAYNE  TECUMSEH ORGANIZED CONFEDERATION OF MOST TRIBES TO RESIST TREATY OF FT. WAYNE  BRITAIN AIDED TECUMSEH (EXAMPLE – HE WAS IN CANADA WHEN BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE OCCURRED) NEWS OF BATTLE   NEWS OF BATTLE  ANGER AT BRITAIN FOR “INSTIGATING INDIANS”

13 THE WAR LASTED UNTIL 1813 = WESTERN FRONT IN WAR OF 1812

14  A BRANCH OF THE D-R PARTY – MADISON RESISTED THEM!  ARGUED FOR WAR ON BEHALF OF FRONTIER PEOPLE & IN DEFENSE OF U.S. SOVEREIGNTY THE TWO TO REMEMBER – HENRY CLAY (KY) AND JOHN C. CALHOUN (S.C.)

15 CLAY – “THE GREAT COMPROMISER” – 3 X SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE, SECRETARY OF STATE, SENATOR CALHOUN – SENATOR, HOUSE MEMBER, VICE PRESIDENT, SECRETARY OF WAR

16  THOMAS JEFFERSON, WAR HAWK? “THE ACQUISITION OF CANADA THIS YEAR, AS FAR AS THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF QUEBEC, WILL BE A MERE MATTER OF MARCHING, AND WILL GIVE US THE EXPERIENCE FOR THE ATTACK ON HALIFAX, THE NEXT AND FINAL EXPULSION OF ENGLAND FROM THE AMERICAN CONTINENT.“ JEFFERSON, 1812  WAS U.S. EXPANSIONISM A/ THE MOTIVE FOR THE WAR?

17

18  THE HENRY LETTERS – MADISON BOUGHT FOR $50, WAS MADISON TRULY DECEIVED?  JUNE 1, 1812 – MADISON SPEECH TO CONGRESS LISTS GRIEVANCES AGAINST BRITAIN, INCLUDING HENRY LETTERS   SAME DAY, CONGRESS DECLARED WAR ON GREAT BRITAIN  FIRST TIME U.S. DECLARED WAR  NARROWEST WAR VOTE IN U.S. HISTORY House= 79-49, Senate=  NO FEDERALISTS VOTED FOR THE WAR  BRITAIN HAD REVOKED ORDERS IN COUNCIL TWO DAYS EARLIER (HAD TAPERED OFF SEIZURES BEFORE

19 CANDIDATES P/ VPPARTYELECTORAL VOTES % ELECTORAL % POPULAR JAMES MADISON ELBRIDGE GERRY DR % 50.4% * DEWITT CLINTON JARED INGERSOLL FED8941.1%47.6% RUFUS KING FED002% ELECTION OF STATES – ONE OHIO ELECTOR DIDN’T VOTE * IN CONN., DEL., GA., N.Y., S.C. & VT., ELECTORS WERE STILL APPOINTED BY STATE LEGISLATURES

20

21  THE WAR -- JUNE 18, 1812 – FEBRUARY 18, 1815  U.S. UNPREPARED -- > 30,000 REGULAR ARMY, MADISON PLANNED TO USE MOSTLY STATE MILITIAS – NO DICE – MILITIAS RELUCTANT TO FIGHT OUTSIDE OWN STATES, N.E. STATES (FEDERALISTS) WOULDN’T SEND MILITIAS  FIRST TWO CAMPAIGNS = UNSUCCESSFUL INVASIONS OF CANADA (FROM MICHIGAN AND NEW YORK) SUMMER OF 1812 RESULT – BRITISH TOOK DETROIT, CONTROL OF LAKE ERIE RESULT – BRITISH TOOK DETROIT, CONTROL OF LAKE ERIE

22 N.B. BRITAIN DIDN’T TOTALLY CUT OFF NEW ENGLAND

23 OVERVIEW: ONLY CLEAR VICTORIES – AGAINST INDIANS IN N.W. AND SOUTH, AND AGAINST BRITISH ON LAKE ERIE + BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS WAR BECAME POINTLESS FOR BOTH SIDES BY 1815 BUT MANY AMERICAN LEGENDS, AND U.S. NATIONALISM RESULT

24 SIGNIFICANT BATTLES: WEST  SIGNIFICANT BATTLES: WEST  BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE AKA BATTLE OF PUT-IN BAY, SEPTEMBER 1813 – U.S. NAVY, UNDER OLIVER HAZARD PERRY, TOOK CONTROL OF LAKE ERIE – ENDED PROSPECT OF BRITISH INVASION IN N.W. “WE HAVE MET THE ENEMY AND HE IS OURS” HIS STANDARD WAS “DON’T GIVE UP THE SHIP” = DYING WORDS OF CAPTAIN JAMES LAWRENCE OF THE CHESAPEAKE – CAPTURED BY BRITISH H.M.S. SHANNON OFF NOVA SCOTIA, EARLIER IN 1813

25

26 SAMPLER - LAWRENCE = SENTIMENTAL HERO

27 BATTLE OF THE THAMES, OCTOBER 1813 – WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON DEFINITELY DEFEATED TECUMSEH HERE  BATTLE OF THE THAMES, OCTOBER 1813 – WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON DEFINITELY DEFEATED TECUMSEH HERE  NO MORE PROBLEMS WITH INDIANS IN N.W.!

28  SIGNIFICANT BATTLE: ATLANTIC JULY 1812 – U.S.S. CONSTITUTION “OLD IRONSIDES” – DEFEATS AND BURNS H.M.S GUERRIERE

29  SIGNIFICANT BATTLES, CHESAPEAKE  BATTLE OF BLADENSBURG, AUGUST, 1814 – MILTIA COULDN’T STOP BRITISH INVASION OF WASHINGTON  SACK OF WASHINGTON, BURNING OF WHITE HOUSE

30 FIRST LADY DOLLEY MADISON SAVED MANY WHITE HOUSE VALUABLES, SUCH AS G. STUART PORTRAIT OF WASHINGTON A HEROINE! AND SO WE HONOR HER BY NAMING CHEAP SNACK CAKES AFTER HER

31  “BATTLE” OF BALTIMORE (FT. MC HENRY), AUGUST, 1814 – “BOMBS BURSTING IN AIR” INSPIRED FRANCIS SCOTT TO WRITE “THE DEFENSE OF FT. MC HENRY”

32 SET TO THE TUNE OF THE ANACREONTIC SONG, IT BECAME OUR NATIONAL ANTHEM IN 1931 “And long may the sons of Anacreon intwine the myrtle of Venus with Bacchus' vine.”

33

34

35  SIGNIFICANT BATTLES – SOUTH  BATTLE OF HORSESHOE BEND, MARCH 1814  REALLY A SEPARATE WAR WITH CREEKS  GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON DEFEATED CREEK “RED STICKS” - INSPIRED BY TECUMSEH  TREATY OF FORT JACKSON – CREEKS CEDED THEIR LANDS IN ALABAMA AND GEORGIA

36 JACKSON ACCEPTING SURRENDER OF CREEK GENERAL WILLIAM WEATHERFORD

37

38

39  BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS, JANUARY 1815  TREATY OF GHENT, ENDING WAR, HAD BEEN SIGNED DECEMBER 23, 1814 – BUT NEWS HADN’T REACHED AMERICA  TROOPS UNDER JACKSON DEFEATED BRITISH SIEGE OF NEW ORLEANS  IN FACT, A SMALL BATTLE (ONLY ≈ 4,000 BRITISH SAILORS AND MARINES INVOLVED)  BUT JACKSON’S PR = > 25,000 BRITISH TROOPS

40 “THE HERO OF NEW ORLEANS”

41 JACKSON SQUARE, NEW ORLEANS

42  POLITICS – THE HARTFORD CONVENTION, DECEMBER 1814 – JANUARY 1815  NEW ENGLAND FEDERALISTS CONSIDERED SECESSION – OPPOSED TO “MR. MADISON’S WAR AND EMBARGO

43  HARTFORD CONVENTION OFFICIAL PROPOSALS INCLUDED REPEAL 3/5 CLAUSE (REDUCE SOUTHERN REPRESENTATION IN HOUSE OF REP.) REPEAL 3/5 CLAUSE (REDUCE SOUTHERN REPRESENTATION IN HOUSE OF REP.) NO SUCCESSIVE PRESIDENTS FROM SAME STATE (BREAK “VIRGINIA DYNASTY”) NO SUCCESSIVE PRESIDENTS FROM SAME STATE (BREAK “VIRGINIA DYNASTY”) NO MORE EMBARGOES NO MORE EMBARGOES  ALAS FOR THE FEDERALISTS, NEWS OF JACKSON’S “MAJOR VICTORY” AT NEW ORLEANS (AND TREATY ENDING WAR  ENORMOUS POPULAR ENTHUSIASM FOR THE WAR

44 FEDERALIST PARTY DISCREDITED

45  EFFECTS OF WAR OF 1812  2260 BATTLE DEATHS, 4,505 WOUNDED  OUR CAPITAL IN RUINS  U.S. TREASURY DEPLETED  NO TERRITORY GAINED FROM BRITAIN  BUT...

46  POPULAR PERCEPTION = “WE WON A WAR AGAINST GREAT BRITAIN” – “SECOND WAR OF INDEPENDENCE  U.S. IDENTITY AND NATIONALISM  FEDERALIST PARTY – DONE – NO MORE LINGERING LOYALTIES TO BRITAIN

47 NATIONALISM:  NATIONALISM:  HEROES AND HEROINES, LEGENDS, MYTHS  TWO HEROS  PRESIDENTS: JACKSON & WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON  NATIONAL ANTHEM


Download ppt "EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WI TH THANKS TO TONY MILLER & SUSAN POJER."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google