Presentation on theme: "Causes of the War of 1812 J.A.SACCO. Causes of the War of 1812 Jefferson foreign policy based on three principles: “No entangling alliances”- England."— Presentation transcript:
Causes of the War of 1812 J.A.SACCO
Causes of the War of 1812 Jefferson foreign policy based on three principles: “No entangling alliances”- England principle enemy, but Napoleon can’t be trusted. Need overseas commerce to promote agrarian dream- hoped to keep manufacturing in Europe- Avoid concentration of wealth in U.S. and a dependent working class. Shortsighted? Maintain peace- war creates death and destruction, as well as political disunity, crushes free speech, increases debt, and expands gov’t power.
The Napoleonic Wars-( ) U.S. caught between Br./Fr. –wanted to remain neutral. Key to victory was to stop the others trade. Battle of Trafalgar (1805) Lord Nelson defeats Fr/Sp fleet Gives England control of the seas. France defeats Austria And Russia -Gives Napoleon control of Europe U.S. would be eventually caught in the Middle!
U.S Caught in the Middle Br. -1 st Orders in Council (Essex Pledge)- seize U.S. vessels trading with France U.S.- Non-Importation Agreement- forbid U.S. from importing British goods that could be bought elsewhere/or made in U.S Br.- England begins to blockade European cost Fr.- France outlaws all trade with England Br.- Second Orders in Council- demand neutral shipping trading in Europe must first stop in England for inspection/ licensing in British port Fr.- Milan Decree- if neutral ship follows British decrees, ship would be seized by French navy Why is the U.S. in a dilemma?
U.S Reacts to Violations! Embargo Act (1807)
Embargo a Bust! Believed Br/Fr need U.S. goods- force them to recognize U.S. neutrality. Why did the Embargo Act not work? Goods smuggled by discontented New England merchants American merchants already at sea disregarded the law and functioned as part of British merchant marine Loophole in act- allowed U.S. merchant ships to leave port to pick up property in other nations, then remain at sea- 6,000 set sail under this excuse Napoleon seize U.S. ships in European ports- since Embargo forbid U.S. from trading, those ships in foreign ports flying an American flag must be a British ship in disguise
Embargo a Bust! U.S. exports(1807) $108 million/ $22 million. Unemployment increase.
The Election of 1808 James Madison wins election but Federalists gain seats in Congress and key state legislatures.
Madison Takes Control Madison continues neutral policy of Jefferson. Repeals Embargo Act in 1809.
Madison Takes Control Non-Intercourse Act (1809)- just as ineffective as Embargo Act Macon’s Bill #2 (1810)- tried to play one nation against the other. Napoleon sets a trap. Says he will repeal his decrees. U.S. gives a chance for Britain to repeal its Orders in Council. Not wanting to fight both France and the U.S., Britain complies but too late. U.S. declares war on Britain.
War with Britain- A Second Time Why was war with Britain a greater possibility than with France? Democratic-Republicans historically anti-British. Violation U.S. neutrality.
War with Britain- A Second Time Impressment of U.S. sailors 6,000 Americans impressed between
War with Britain- A Second Time “The Chesapeake Affair” (1807) Looking for British deserters HMS Leopard fires on Chesapeake. 3K/18W. Then boarded and got four deserters.
War with Britain- A Second Time Native-American resistance led by Tecumseh. U.S. felt Tecumseh and his confederation being aided by British to stir up trouble on the frontier. Tecumseh flees to Canada after Battle of Tippecanoe (1811). Victory by Gen. William Henry Harrison. Tecumseh- Shawnee chief
War with Britain- A Second Time Henry Clay-(KY) John C. Calhoun- (SC) War Hawks wanted U.S. expansion in Florida and Canada. End Indian resistance and monopolize fur trade. Control Florida would end Spanish influence, remove border disputes, and end refuge for runaway slave.