Presentation on theme: "BELLWORK: Unit 2 Intro Read pgs. 59-60 and answer the following: 1.What was a key issue the new nations had to deal with in the “nation building” period?"— Presentation transcript:
BELLWORK: Unit 2 Intro Read pgs and answer the following: 1.What was a key issue the new nations had to deal with in the “nation building” period? 2.What types of governments were present in the Americas? 3.Why was the political situation in Latin America and the Caribbean different than the US and Canada? 4.What was the difference between the Liberal and Conservative factions of government in LA & Caribbean? 5.How did revolutions in the Americas impact the treatment of slaves and natives? 6.THINKER: In one sentence, explain the main goal/objective of unit 2.
Discussion How did the Revolutionary period impact trade between countries in the Americas? Make a prediction How will relations between France, England and the US change post- revolution? When discussing war, historians often divide people into two groups – Hawks and Doves. What is the difference between the two?
The War of 1812 A war that neither side wanted, but both seemed incapable of stopping.
Foreign Relations post-Revolutionary Period In the early 1800’s France and Britain victimized the United States. Navies of both countries seized 1,500 American merchant ships. By 1807, the British had captured 10,000 American sailors. (Most were forced to serve in British military) Questions for notes! Questions for discussion!
The U.S.S. Chesapeake Explain the Chesapeake Incident. In 1806, Royal Navy deserters joined the crew of the USS Chesapeake British admiral issued orders that any warship could search the Chesapeake for deserters. On June 22, 1807, the British ship, Leopard, encountered it and requested a search Chesapeake captain, James Barron refused to allow a search The British fired, killing 3 Americans and wounding 20. The British arrested four men How did President Jefferson respond to the Chesapeake Incident? He passed the Embargo Act!
Route of the U.S.S. Chesapeake
H.M.S. Shannon Leading Her Prize, the American Frigate Chesapeake, into Halifax, Nova Scotia
Causes of the War of 1812 Describe the causes of the War of British blockade of US ships stopped flow of goods to Napoleonic Europe Search and seizure of neutral US trade ships & cargo by France and England Impressment of American sailors into the British Royal Navy British support of Natives against American expansion Possible American desire to annex Canada
Discussion In your opinion, why did the British enforce Impressment? Was there any way for the U.S. to stop this? In your opinion, which side do you support? Are you a hawk? (The U.S. should declare war to protect economic interests and territory) Or are you a dove? (war is unnecessary, compromise is achievable) Was there an alternative option to war?
Embargo Act Describe the purpose of the Embargo Act. Was it successful? President Jefferson signed the Embargo Act which stopped the export of goods and forbade American ships from sailing for foreign ports. Jefferson thought that by depriving European countries of American products they would stop harassing the young nation………… he was wrong. The Embargo Act had almost no effect on Britain and France. Instead, recession and unemployment swept the United States. Jefferson left office in 1809 but not before he convinced Congress to repeal the Embargo Act. It was now up to new president, James Madison, to solve foreign issues.
Discussion In your opinion, do you think an embargo is an effective way to punish or isolate a country? Are there any American embargoes in place today? Where? Mali - forced Juntas to give power back and re-install National Constitution. (April 2012) China – by EU & US; arms embargo (1989) Iran – embargo to ban nuclear, missile and many military exports; started in 1979, increased every year; height in North Korea – arms embargo (2006) Cuba – arms, consumer goods, money (1960) Japan – embargo of animal products due to radiation from 2011 earthquake Syria – EU and US ban on oil imports and arms (2012)
British aide to Native Americans In your opinion, why would the British want to aide Native Americans? Do you think they had an ulterior motive? During the process of colonization, British soldiers killed Natives, so why would the Natives side with them?
British Aide to Native Americans Who was Tecumseh? Leader of Shawnee Formed a confederation of other tribes and allied with British & British Canadians Goal was to establish an American Indian nation under British protection
Canadian Involvement How was Canada involved in this conflict?
Fighting the War of 1812 Napoleon still controlled parts of Europe. During the first two years, England focused on defeating Napoleon, so they fought a defensive battle in the Americas. This will eventually change in 1814, when Napoleon is defeated
Fighting the War of 1812 What was the Battle of Trafalgar? How did this effect the War of 1812? What fighting strategies were used by both sides in the War of 1812? Throughout the conflict, US proclaimed their “neutrality.” To what extent were they actually neutral?
Divisions within the U.S. Southern “War Hawks” –free trade –Annexation of Ohio- Wabash country –Blamed the British for providing Natives with weapons –Some argue their real support was to gain valuable land in Canada New England “War Doves” –Impressment was exaggerated –merchants were still making money from British trade –Sympathy with British against Napoleon –Federalists opposed acquisition of Canada (afraid it would strengthen Republican party) Explain the difference in United States’ opinions regarding the War of 1812.
Politics within the War of 1812 In your opinion, why did the U.S. focus their fighting on England, when France was also attacking American ships? How did the war change when President Madison was elected in 1810? Would begin trade with either country if they respected U.S. neutrality. If either accepted, the U.S. would forbid trade with the other. France ended blockade England refused until Lord Liverpool became Prime Minister. Liverpool did not support war and ended search and seizure orders. If England agreed to end the war, why did President Madison still declare war? It took three weeks for the message to get to the U.S. On June 18, 1812 – Madison declared war.
Fighting the War of 1812 Explain America’s “three-pronged invasion.” Was it successful? General Hull would attack at Detroit and head east Second invasion would cross Niagara The third would secure Montreal (here, they would stop British forces fighting in Upper Canada) Operation was a failure; Hull surrendered
Fighting the War of 1812 Describe the efforts of the American navy in the War of Early defeats signified U.S. naval superiority, but they were still no match for the British battleships. Royal Navy blockaded U.S. coast and ports US Navy defeated England in their defense of the Great Lakes. How does England’s military strategy change after the defeat of Napoleon? The British launched a three-pronged invasion against the U.S. (burned the White House)
Painting of combat between U.S.S. Constitution & H.M.S. Guerriere by: Michael Corne
The Battle of Thames: Battle between the Americans and American Indians in Ontario, Canada. Tecumseh is killed in battle which marked the end of any threat from the Native Americans
Damage to the Capitol (Washington D.C.)
End of the War of 1812 What did the Treaty of Ghent declare? Signed on Christmas Eve, 1814 Ended the war (acted more as an armistice than a treaty) Both sides agreed to return to pre-1812 borders War ended in a stalemate Why do you think the Treaty did not include anything about Native territory or impressment?
Battle of New Orleans Explain the causes/effects of the Battle of Orleans. British attempted to capture New Orleans and seize control of Mississippi River. Americans under command of General Andrew Jackson Greatest U.S. victory of the war (U.S. only suffered 100 casualties, compared to England’s 2,000) Important because it ended British operations in the U.S., and marked the start of Jackson’s march to presidency.
Before he became the 7 th president of the U.S., Jackson was a successful military general. He led forces that stopped Native American uprisings in the South in 1814 He also led the Battle of Orleans Became President 14 years later…….
Effects of the War of 1812 List three effects of the War of British kept Canada Britain realized they needed to improve relations with the U.S. Rush-Bagot Treaty reduced naval forces on the Great Lakes Britain fortified border (the U.S. never invaded)
Effects of the War of 1812 Why did this conflict, even though it was considered a stalemate, improve relations between the U.S. and England? How do you think the Native Americans were affected by the War of 1812?
Questions in the reading: Explain the Chesapeake Incident 2.How did President Jefferson respond to the Chesapeake Incident? 3.Describe the purpose of the Embargo Act. Was it successful? 4.Describe the causes of the War of Who was Tecumseh? 6. How was Canada involved in this conflict? 7.What was the Battle of Trafalgar? How did this effect the War of 1812? 8.What fighting strategies were used by both sides in the War of 1812? 9.Explain the difference in United States’ opinions regarding the War of How did the war change when President Madison was elected in 1810? 11.Explain America’s “three-pronged invasion.” Was it successful? 12.Describe the efforts of the American navy in the War of How does England’s military strategy change after the defeat of Napoleon? 14.What did the Treaty of Ghent declare? 15.Explain the causes/effects of the Battle of Orleans. 16.List three effects of the War of 1812.
DISCUSSION 1.One cause of the War of 1812 France & England's search/seizure of American merchant ships. Why did the countries do this? (Especially France - who was formerly our ally!) 2.What is Impressment? Why did the British use this? 3.Make a prediction how will Native Americans become involved in this conflict? 4.What was the Embargo Act? Was it successful? 5.THINKER: In your opinion, was there an alternative option to war? Could the U.S. remain neutral?