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The Road to War: Renewed Conflict with England & France.

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Presentation on theme: "The Road to War: Renewed Conflict with England & France."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Road to War: Renewed Conflict with England & France

2 The Embargo of 1807 When England & France resumed war in 1803 & violated U.S. neutrality, Jefferson approved the unpopular Embargo of 1807 To enforce the embargo, Jefferson contradicted his principles of individual liberty & weak gov’t: – He mobilized the military to enforce the blockade – He declared regions of NY (near Canada) in a state of insurrection


4 The Embargo of 1807 For 15 months the embargo proved ineffective; Congress repealed the embargo in 1809 Jefferson’s decision to not run for a third term meant that these problems fell to his hand-picked successor, James Madison In 1808, Madison was elected president & the Republicans maintained control of the gov’t "Never did a prisoner, released from his chains, feel such relief as I shall on shaking off the shackles of power.'‘—TJ Congress repealed the embargo just 3 days Jefferson left office But it produced economic hardship, evasion of the law, & political dissension in America The embargo gained no political concessions from France or Britain


6 The Road to the War of 1812 The focus of Madison’s presidency was foreign policy: Non-Intercourse Act – In 1809, the Non-Intercourse Act promised the U.S. will resume trade with England & France once U.S. neutrality is respected Macon’s Bill #2 – In 1810, Congress replaced this with Macon’s Bill #2 offering exclusive trade to whichever nation 1 st honored U.S. neutrality Madison eagerly reopened trade with England …but England continued to seize U.S. ships France agreed to end all trade restrictions (but never stopped seizing ships or impressing sailors)

7 Which region would have supported a declaration of war the most? Most calls for war centered on British interference with U.S. trade rights. "Free Trade & Sailors' Rights" was a popular battle cry NE Federalists thought war with Britain as a mistake: they feared the U.S. could not defeat England & a war would bankrupt the country Americans in the West & South wanted war to gain Canada & Spanish Florida By 1810, War Hawks in Congress, led by Henry Clay (KY) & John C. Calhoun (SC), demanded war with England Madison eventually gave in & asked Congress for a declaration of war in June 1812 Patriotism surged as War Hawks claimed the War of 1812 the “Second American Revolution”

8 The War of 1812

9 War of 1812 Despite increased patriotism, the U.S. was unprepared for war: – Congress refused to raise taxes – The army was small & state militias were inadequate – The government was incapable of directing a full-scale war The U.S. goal for the war was to attack British Canada & force England to respect U.S. rights The U.S. did not fare well against the better-trained British troops The U.S. navy was a little more successful but only because the bulk of British navy was still fighting Napoleon in Europe

10 The War of 1812 In 1814, the British took the offensive in a 3-pronged attack British were turned back at Plattsburg on Lake Champlain & gave up their Canadian offensive The British attacked the undefended Chesapeake & burned Washington, DC & laid siege to Baltimore The American army under Andrew Jackson defeated the British at New Orleans (after a peace treaty was drawn up ending the war)


12 Hartford Convention Federalists opposed the war by not paying taxes or sending troops In 1814, Federalists met at the Hartford Convention to discuss altering the U.S. Constitution to: – Restrict Congress’ war powers – Supported a one-term president – Abolish the 3/5 clause They discussed seceding from the USA if they did not get their way The War of 1812 is still going on!! In order to reduce southern control of Congress In order to break the Virginia presidential dynasty

13 Treaty of Ghent Treaty of Ghent Treaty of Ghent did not address U.S. neutrality but was ratified unanimously by the Senate Effects of the war: – Ended all Indian-British alliances in western lands – Scared Spain into signing the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819 – The lack of Federalist loyalty was the fatal blow to the party Spain ceded Florida to the USA

14 Effects of the War of 1812 Though the US might not have gained any lands or major concessions from the war, the War of 1812 did have a number of significant effects on the young nation… – The US gained incredible respect from foreign nations for fighting the world’s greatest power, England, to two stalemates – There was an incredible growth in nationalistic feelings across the US, especially in the west – The idea that the future of the US lay in westward expansion – The death of the Federalist party

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