Presentation on theme: "The Early Republic The Jeffersonian Years 1788 - 1808."— Presentation transcript:
The Early Republic The Jeffersonian Years 1788 - 1808
Jefferson’s Inaugural Address Conciliatory “Every difference of opinion…not a difference of principle.” “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” Policy statements Economy in government Unrestricted trade Freedom of religion, the press, and person (habeas corpus) Friendship to all nations but “entangling alliances” with none America, “the world’s best hope,” would flourish if a limited government left men “free to regulate their own pursuits.”
Jefferson’s Goals Jefferson’s goals as president were to: Reduce Cost of government Size of government Repeal heinous acts passed by Adams administration Maintain international peace
Jefferson’s “wise and frugal” government Jefferson’s plan to reduce the national debt included: Reducing the number of government employees Slashing the army and the navy Repealing all taxes except the tariff Paying off national debt You might want to remember this slide
Attack on the Judges: Judiciary Act Judiciary Act of 1801 creates new circuit courts filled with loyal Federalists 1802--Jeffersonians repeal Judiciary Act of 1801 to abolish courts Federalists charge violation of judges’ Constitutional right of tenure
Attack on the Judges: Marbury v. Madison Marbury v. Madison (1803) rules Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional Federalist Marbury denied his judgeship Republicans claim victory Chief Justice John Marshall ensures Federalist influence through judicial review
Attack on the Judges: Impeachments 1803--Federalist John Pickering impeached, removed for alcoholism, insanity Republicans begin fearing the destruction of an independent judiciary Jefferson exacerbates fears by seeking to impeach Federalist Samuel Chase Republican Senate refuses to convict
The Lewis & Clark Expedition (1804 – 1806) Expedition had both scientific & commercial purposes Study area’s geography, plants, & animal life Discover how region might be exploited economically Hoped to establish trade relations w/ western Indians Hoped to discover elusive water route to Pacific Expedition important for three reasons Brought back immense amount of info Journey demonstrated feasibility of overland route to Pacific Helped strengthen the idea that America was destined to reach across the continent You might want to remember this slide
Conflict With the Barbary States North African states demand tribute from ships sailing in Mediterranean Jefferson dispatches U.S. fleet to “negotiate through the mouth of a cannon” U.S. cannot defeat the Barbary States Action induces respect for U.S. rights
The Embargo Act of 1807 With France and Britain at war once again both countries began to prey on US shipping and sailors. In an attempt to bring France and Britain under control without resorting to actually open conflict President Jefferson recommended that Congress enact an embargo against both countries. The embargoes would include grain, cotton and tobacco.
The Embargo Act or 1807 Congress passed the Embargo Act in December 1807 and other, related acts in January, March and April 1808. The supplemental acts went on to include coasting vessels, fishing ships and smugglers. Congress passed stiff penalties and authorized captains of US naval vessels and customs inspectors to stop and search any ship within US jurisdiction they had “reason to suspect” was in violation of the Embargo Acts.
The Embargo Act of 1807 With such measures, Congress and the President conveniently ignored that the Fourth Amendment, which was meant to protect people “against unreasonable searches and seizures” provided that no search warrant would issue absent “probable cause” – a much higher standard than suspicion or mere opinion.
The Embargo Act of 1807 Very unpopular in New England where commerce and shipping was an important industry. New Englanders observed a better title would be “an act for the better encouragement of the British colonies in America” because skilled seaman from New England moved to Canada so they could practice their trade. State of insurrection declared in April, 1808 in the Lake Champlain area. Massachusetts legislature declares the Act “unjust, oppressive and unconstitutional, and not legally binding on the citizens of this state.” Delaware and Connecticut follow with similar messages. Jefferson, just days prior to his end of term, signed a bill repealing the embargo and permitting trade with the rest of the world with the exception of Britain and France, and providing the chief executive with the option to reopen trade with which ever beligerant ceased to interfere with American shipping.
Macon’s Bill #2 Replaced Nonintercourse Act of 1809 Reopened trade with “Warring Powers” (Great Britain & France) Provided that: If either nation dropped its restrictions on American trade; America would reimpose nonintercourse on the other nation