Guiding Research Marie Byrd Land magma (Lough et al. 2013) ● “DLP” earthquake swarm ● Following volcanic trend ● Under topographic high ● Magma activity under the ice! ● Future eruption? Lough et al 2013 Induced Icequakes (Peng et al. 2014) ● 2010 M8.8 in Chile create “icequakes” in Antarctica ● Promotes motion ● Other glacial processes? ● Certain locations only? ● Relationships between earth and ice?
My Project ● Reassess previous research areas ● Undetected earthquakes ● Look at change in earthquakes over time and area ● Support or expand area understanding ● Improve program application ● Opportunity to improve upon base Antarctic tectonic and ice seismicity
So What? “But no one lives there..” Improving techniques for areas beyond Antarctica for swarm characterization (ex. Oklahoma) Improving earthquake processing/predicting with this application; looking at the development of seismicity in an area all the way down to small events to understand possible future events, similar or more significant The stations and data being used are very modern and could present a leap in understanding tectonic and ice seismicity Improve understanding of glacial events (induced icequakes, calving, rifting, etc.) to look at the relationship between earth and ice as well as ice loss
Event Correlation Repetitive process = repeated similar events = similar signals Correlation: How similar is similar? Template creation Subspace detection, expanding the comparison over a stream of data
Template Waveforms The magic of linear algebra A series of templates Most significant chosen as necessary representative templates (95%)
Subspace Detection - SSD A “Subspace” = a smaller portion that is able to describe the larger thing it is a part of Sliding detection window, rapidly comparing the templates chosen to the data stream and correlating. Picks out very small but very similar events that were not detected before.
Similar Applications - OK Nicole McMahon, PhD student of Dr. Aster Injection induced earthquakes Events = 67, 5 templates needed Events detected with SSD = 2777
Next Steps Apply SSD techniques to Antarctica! Marie Byrd Land – Have more events occurred than just these two swarms? What can this tell us about the volcanic trend, direction and activity, through time? Icequakes – Can we more clearly link these events to being a byproduct of the large event in Chile? Could we find other induced glacial earthquakes events? Beyond – Can we find any other hot spots of seismic activity in West Antarctica with these methods?
Acknowledgements Dr. Rick Aster, CSU Nicole McMahon, CSU/NEIC Harley Benz, USGS/NEIC Dan McNamara, USGS/NEIC Dave Ketchum, USGS/NEIC