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WEB 2.0 FOR GROUP PROJECTS AND SUMMER INTERNSHIP SAMUEL KAI-WAI CHU Division of Information and Technology Studies Faculty of Education The University.

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Presentation on theme: "WEB 2.0 FOR GROUP PROJECTS AND SUMMER INTERNSHIP SAMUEL KAI-WAI CHU Division of Information and Technology Studies Faculty of Education The University."— Presentation transcript:

1 WEB 2.0 FOR GROUP PROJECTS AND SUMMER INTERNSHIP SAMUEL KAI-WAI CHU Division of Information and Technology Studies Faculty of Education The University of Hong Kong 1

2 Objectives Discuss findings from a series of studies that investigated the use of Web 2.0 technologies in facilitating students’ learning in group projects and summer internships. 2

3 Web applications that facilitate interaction and collaboration Emphasizes users as co-developers; harnesses collective intelligence Examples: blogs, wiki, podcasts, RSS (Really Simple Syndication), social bookmarking, social networking. Web 2.0 (1)

4 Used in different sectors Business McKinsey Quarterly Survey (2009) indicated that 75% of the companies surveyed planned to maintain or increase their investments in Web 2.0 Education Wikis facilitate collaborative learning activities and help in building up socially constructed knowledge (Foley & Chang, 2006; Lamb & Johnson, 2007) Web 2.0 (2)

5 TWiki, Wikibooks, MediaWiki, Google Docs Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students 5

6 Wikis (1) Considered as the “poster example” of Web 2.0 technologies (Rollett et al., 2007) Web-based open-editing functions allow users to enter, submit, manage, and update materials and documents for easy authoring (Lamb & Johnson, 2007) Low-cost knowledge creation process (Stvilia, Twidale, Smith, & Gasser, 2008) An illustration of this is Wikipedia – perhaps the most influential wiki-based web project and now one of the most widely used encyclopaedias in the world (Richardson, 2009) 6

7 Wikis (2) Key factors in the rationale for using wikis in education Wiki is an open-source technology Users require minimal HTML knowledge Wiki pages are organized by content, and students decide how to structure the information It is easy to go back to earlier versions if problems occur Some wikis permit limited access which can ensure privacy (Engstrom & Jewett, 2005; Lamb, 2004; Raman et al., 2005) 7

8 Wikis (3) 8

9 Wiki Studies Wiki Study 1: TWiki for BScIM (Chu, 2008) Wiki Study 2: Twiki & Wikibooks for BScIM (Lo & Chu, 2007) Wiki Study 3: TWiki for BScIM & MSc[ITE/LIM] (Chu, Cheung, Ma, & Leung, 2008) Wiki Study 4: Twiki & MediaWiki for MSc[ITE/LIM] (Liang, Chu, Siu, & Zhou, 2009) Wiki Study 5: MediaWiki & Google.Doc for BScIM (Chu, Kennedy, & Mak, 2009) 9

10 Wiki Study 1: Twiki for BScIM Project development space, document management system, and knowledge base for intranets or the internet (TWiki, 2007) TWiki is considered the flagship wiki software (Ebersbach et al., 2006) 10

11 Wiki Study 1: Research objectives The study explored the effectiveness of using TWiki to facilitate student group work. Examined the effectiveness of TWiki in facilitating students’ knowledge building in working on their group projects. Focused on how TWiki serves as a knowledge management tool, particularly in creating, capturing, sharing and transferring knowledge. 11

12 Wiki Study 1: Methods (1) TWiki was used to support knowledge building for students in an undergraduate course on knowledge management (KM) In the KM course, students were required to create a chapter (a case study) first on TWiki, and eventually for a Wikibook Wiki templates were designed specifically for the students’ group project by the instructor and were modified by students according to their needs 12

13 Wiki Study 1: Methods (2) Wiki workspace for the KM course “group progress” “group discussion” “group report” 13

14 Wiki Study 1: Methods (3) Instruments Survey questionnaire (5-point Likert, open-ended questions, online) Interview Participants: undergraduate students 41 responded to the survey 19 frequent users of TWiki were interviewed Analysis SPSS 14.0 NVivo version

15 Wiki Study 1: Findings (1) 15

16 Wiki Study 1: Findings (2) 16

17 Workspace design in TWiki The more frequent TWiki users were interviewed about the usefulness of the workspace design Half of the respondents: sections served different functions and were useful for doing their group projects. Other half: confused about the purposes of the “group progress” and “group report” sections Instructor decided to retain the “group report” section only Wiki Study 1: Findings (3) 17

18 Students’ responses to the questionnaire indicated their positive perceptions of the use of TWiki TWiki was found to be effective in improving student collaboration and quality of work suitable tool for working on collaborative projects online an enabling technology for KM requiring training prior to use Wiki Study 1: Conclusion 18

19 Wiki Study 2: TWiki and Wikibooks for BScIM Wikibooks is a free collection of open-content textbooks that anyone can edit (Wikibooks, 2007) This study evaluated the effectiveness of using online collaborative spaces with TWiki and Wikibooks in facilitating students’ learning through knowledge building activities in an undergraduate course. 19

20 Wiki Study 2: Methods (1) Undergraduate students engaged in 2 phases of group project work Phase 1: TWiki was used for input and edit of drafts of the student projects on a secure server Phase 2: Wikibooks was used to finalize the drafts as an online books to be viewable by the open public 20

21 Wiki Study 2: Methods (2) Instruments Survey questionnaire (5-point Likert, open-ended questions, telephone administered) Participants: undergraduate students (n=41) 19 from year level 3 22 from year level 2 Analysis Microsoft Excel Nvivo

22 Wiki Study 2: Findings (1) Comparison of students’ perceptions on TWiki and Wikibook 22

23 Wiki Study 2: Findings (2) Percentage of students who will use Wikis for future group projects in KM 23

24 Wiki Study 2: Findings (3) Reasons why students found Wikis suitable for group projects in KM Facilitates knowledge sharing Enables tracking of students’ progress Easier project management Enables access to feedback from lecturer 24

25 Wiki Study 2: Findings (4) Students’ perceptions on effects of Wikis on collaboration and group project 25

26 Students encountered difficulties in handling graphics and editing the same document simultaneously TWiki and Wikibooks did not have sufficient instructions in guiding users Enhancement of user interface and improvement in instructions are desired Wiki Study 2: Findings (5) 26

27 Students had positive perceptions of TWiki and Wikibooks in terms of ease of use, enjoyment, and suitability for collaboration Wikis are perceived to have a positive effect on the collaboration between students and on the quality of group projects Training should be to familiarize students with Wikis Wiki Study 2: Conclusion 27

28 Wiki Study 3: TWiki for BScIM and MSc[ITE/LIM] Online master students greater convenience and better connection with the use of Wiki improvement in online technology skills (Bold, 2006) Few studies have compared the use of TWiki between different levels of study None seem to have examined whether wiki is particularly useful to part-time students 28

29 Wiki Study 3: Research objectives To compare the use of TWiki at undergraduate and postgraduate levels To determine if TWiki is particularly useful for part-time postgraduate students 29

30 Wiki Study 3: Methods (1) TWiki was used in both undergraduate and postgraduate courses students in groups of 3-5 conducted a small research and compiled a report using TWiki lecturer designed Wiki templates which could be modified by students according to their needs The TWiki online workspace consisted of three parts “Progress”, “Discussion”, and “Report” 30

31 Wiki Study 3: Methods (2) Instruments Survey questionnaire (5-point Likert, open-ended questions, online) Log data retrieval from the TWiki web pages (student’s frequency of use) Participants: N=61 BScIM students (n=41) MSc[ITE/LIM] (n=20) Analysis SPSS 16.0 Nvivo

32 Wiki Study 3: Findings (1) Comparison of BSc and MSc students’ perceptions on the use of TWiki for collaboration 32 Survey Questions BSc students Mean; Median (95% CI) (N 2 = 41) MSc students Mean; Median (95% CI) (N 1 = 20) Mann-Whitney p value Improves the collaboration among group members 3.3; 3.0 ( )3.3; 3.5 ( )0.811 Improves the quality of the group work 3.2; 3.0 ( )3.3; 4.0 ( )0.325 Easy to use3.2; 3.0 ( )3.1; 3.0 ( )0.677 Enjoyable to use3.2; 3.0 ( )3.0; 3.0 ( )0.495 TWiki is suitable for collaboration3.5; 4.0 ( )3.8; 4.0 ( )0.331

33 Wiki Study 3: Findings (2) Comparison of more frequent and less frequent users’ perceptions on the use of TWiki for collaboration 33 Survey Questions More Frequent Users Mean; Median (95% CI) Less Frequent Users Mean; Median (95% CI) Mann-Whitney p-value BSc students:(N 1 = 14)(N 2 = 14) - Improved collaboration3.2; 3.0 ( )3.3; 3.5 ( ) Improved quality of group work2.9; 3.0 ( )3.2; 3.0 ( ) Easy to use3.2; 3.0 ( )3.4; 3.5 ( ) Enjoyable to use3.1; 3.0 ( )3.6; 4.0 ( ) TWiki is suitable for collaboration 3.4; 3.0 ( )3.7; 4.0 ( )0.165 MSc students:(N 1 = 6)(N 2 = 5) - Improved collaboration2.3; 2.5 ( )3.5; 3.5 ( ) Improved quality of group work2.2; 2.0 ( )3.9; 4.0 ( )0.031* - Easy to use3.3; 3.5 ( )3.0; 3.0 ( ) Enjoyable to use2.2; 2.0 ( )3.2; 3.0 ( )0.044* - TWiki is suitable for collaboration 3.1; 3.0 ( )3.8; 4.0 ( )0.107

34 Wiki Study 3: Findings (3) Comparison of BSc and MSc students’ perceptions on the use of TWiki for Knowledge Management 34

35 Wiki Study 3: Findings (4) Will students use TWiki in the future? 35

36 Wiki Study 3: Findings (5) Based on qualitative analysis of responses to open- ended questions, students consider TWiki as an effective tool to facilitate their group project work 49% BSc and 50% MSc students TWiki is effective in facilitating collaborative group work 40% MSc students TWiki facilitates communication within group These comments were from open-ended questions and not from survey, thus relatively low percentage of students 36

37 MSc students had less pleasant experiences 65% claimed difficulty in formatting on Twiki 20% pointed out that it is time-consuming to learn about the new tool Contrary to the researchers’ initial assumption that part-time MSc students would find TWiki more useful 37 Wiki Study 3: Findings (6)

38 Both undergraduate and postgraduate students found TWiki effective in supporting them to do their group project work Majority in both groups also indicated that they would continue to use TWiki in the future MSc students viewed TWiki less favorably when compared to the BSc students Wiki Study 3: Conclusion 38

39 Wiki Study 4: TWiki and MediaWiki for MSc[ITE/LIM] TWiki considered as a collaborative tool for development of educational papers and technical projects (Raygan & Green, 2002) MediaWiki gained its popularity as the software used by Wikipedia enhanced social interaction in an icebreaker assignment in undergraduates (Augar, Raitman, & Zhou, 2004) used for developing an encyclopedia in an undergraduate new media technologies course Bruns and Humphreys (2005) academic interest (e.g. Foley & Chang, 2006) 39

40 Wiki Study 4: Research objectives To compare users’ experiences in using TWiki and MediaWiki for academic purposes To compare the users’ perceptions on using Wiki versus the usual work processing tools in collaborative group work 40

41 Wiki Study 4: Methods (1) MScLIM students used TWiki for a research project report in Information Behavior (IB) course work consisted of submission in four phases: (1) research proposal with relevant literature, (2) draft of the study design, (3) preliminary results, and (4) final report MScITE students used MediaWiki for a major project report in Designing Shared Virtual Environments for Learning (DSVEL) course Wiki templates were set by the instructors but could be modified by students according to their needs 41

42 Wiki Study 4: Methods (2) Instruments Survey questionnaire (5-point Likert, open-ended questions, online) Log data retrieval from the TWiki and MediaWiki web pages (individual contributions) Participants: N=36 MScLIM (n=20) MScITE (n=16) Analysis SPSS 16.0 Nvivo

43 Wiki Study 4: Findings (1) Comparison of students’ perceptions on the use of TWiki and MediaWiki for collaboration 43 Effectiveness Component TWiki Mean; SD (N = 20) MediaWiki Mean; SD (N = 16) Mann-Whitney p-value Improved collaborative activities 3.23; ; Improved quality of group report 3.23; ; Ease to use3.00; ; Enjoyable to use2.90; ; Suitable for collaboration3.60; ;

44 Wiki Study 4: Findings (2) 44

45 Wiki Study 4: Findings (3) 45

46 Wiki Study 4: Findings (4) Comparison with a typical word processor Students commented that Wiki allowed greater interaction among group members Word processors functioned well for individual work, but not for facilitation of group work Wiki results in greater difficulty in formatting and in using wiki tools 46

47 Wiki Study 4: Findings (5) MediaWiki generally received more positive comments and less negative comments than TWiki more suitable for group collaboration easier to use some students mentioned that MediaWiki is easier to use than a word processor Insufficient guidance hindered the efficient use of MediaWiki because students were unfamiliar with the new software 47

48 Wiki Study 4: Conclusion Both TWiki and MediaWiki were regarded as suitable tools for group work and as enabling tools for knowledge management MediaWiki was favored over TWiki Wikis have advantages over word processors in terms of collaborative work Part-time postgraduate students consider the user-friendly interface as a key criterion for a Wiki’s suitability for collaboration Students hesitate in applying Wiki for future work and personal use due to the perceived IT skills requirements 48

49 Wiki Study 5: MediaWiki and Google Docs for BScIM Google Docs free web-based application that allows users to create and to share online documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and forms allows concurrent online editing and collaboration for knowledge building by multiple users with minimal technical knowledge of HTML 49

50 Wiki Study 5: Research objectives The study investigated the effectiveness of MediaWiki and Google Docs as online collaboration tools for the co-construction of project report by undergraduate information management students. 50

51 Wiki Study 5: Methods (1) Students used MediaWiki for the major project in Knowledge Management course groups of 5-6 students produced project reports report structure and wiki templates were provided Google Docs for their final year project groups of 2-3 students produced project reports report structure were provided collaboration was strongly encouraged 51

52 Wiki Study 5: Methods (2) Instruments Survey questionnaire (5-point Likert, open-ended questions, online) Participants: undergraduate students (n=14) 20 responded to the survey 6 students had individual final year projects Analysis SPSS

53 Wiki Study 5: Findings (1) Mean (SD) Z Asymp. Sig (2-tailed) *p <.05 MediaWikiGoogle Docs Improves the collaboration among group members 3.50 (.76)2.79 (1.31) Helps improve the quality of your group report2.79 (.89)2.43 (1.02) Easy to use3.50 (.94)3.57 (1.28) Enjoy working on group project using the tool3.21 (.89)2.71 (1.27) User-friendly layout2.64 (1.15)3.29 (1.39) A suitable tool for students to co-construct group projects online 3.43 (.852)2.86 (1.23) Comparison on students ’ usage experiences in using Google Docs and MediaWiki 53

54 Wiki Study 5: Findings (2) Comparison of the severity level of potential problems in using Google Docs and MediaWiki Mean (SD) Z Asymp. Sig (2-tailed) *p <.05 MediaWikiGoogle Docs Creating items2.64 (1.22)2.93 (1.33) Uploading files2.29 (1.20)2.79 (1.31) Feeling uncomfortable in editing group members’ work 2.79 (1.12)3.00 (1.24) Privacy issues in posting items3.14 (1.46)2.29 (.91) * Others2.07 (1.33)2.14 (1.29) Participants responded to a question on whether these potential problems are present, using a 5-point Likert scale where1 meant “not at all”, and 5 meant “very much so”.

55 Wiki Study 5: Findings (3) Comparison of knowledge management in Google Docs and MediaWiki Mean (SD) Z Asymp. Sig (2-tailed) *p <.05 MediaWikiGoogle Docs Knowledge creation3.29 (.83)2.93 (1.33) Knowledge capturing3.07 (.73)3.07 (1.07) Knowledge sharing3.36 (.93)3.14 (1.23)

56 Majority of students found MediaWiki and Google Docs easy to use The potential problems identified in the study did not seem to be overwhelming MediaWiki and Google Docs were perceived to be effective knowledge management tools More students tended to find MediaWiki more effective than Google Docs for online collaboration Wiki Study 5: Conclusion 56

57 Comparison across studies (1) 57

58 Comparison across studies (2) 58

59 Comparison across studies (3) 59

60 Blogs Undergraduate Students BScIM, Nursing 60

61 Blogs (1) “blog” is an abbreviated form of “web log” web-based journal presented in reverse chronological order containing someone’s thoughts and ideas for others to see (Flatley, 2005) Blogging has been used in various fields education, public relations, healthcare, and business (Chaney, 2005; Churchill, 2007; Magg, 2005; Williams & Jacobs, 2004) 61

62 Blogs (2) Blogging is common in certain professions Professionals who use reflective journals E.g., healthcare professionals Those whose tasks involve information retrieval and search E.g., information management professionals, researchers, analysts (Williams & Jacobs, 2004) 62

63 The way students understand and use blogging is linked with the tasks and outcomes that are associated with their professional field (Kerawalla et al., 2008) Students will apply any blogging software according to their needs (Kerawalla et al., 2007) Blogs (3) 63

64 Blog Studies Blog Study 1: Three blogging systems for BScIM (Chu, Malhotra, Ho, Leung, & Mo, 2009) Blog Study 2: Blogging for Nursing students (Wong, Chu, Tiwari, Fung, & Mo, 2009) Blog Study 3: Blogging for BScIM and Nursing students (Kwan, Chu, Tiwari, Zhou, Leung, & Mo, 2009) 64

65 Blog Study 1: Three blogging systems for BScIM Blogs have been effectively administered in higher and lower educational settings and also in distance learning settings (Gleaves et al., 2007; Downes, 2004; Churchill, 2009; Buffington, 2007) Considerable research has been done on the use of IT in internships (Doering et al., 2003; Graf & Stebnicki, 2002; Nasiopoulos & Ward, 2002) Blogs for internships remains to be explored 65

66 Blog Study 1: Research objectives This study aimed to determine the students’ blogging behaviors, and their perceptions of blogging in terms of facilitating information and knowledge exchange. Further investigated whether blogging functions as a social support mechanism among interns. 66

67 Blog Study 1: Methods (1) Three cohorts of interns were asked to create blogs for sharing their experiences and posting reflections during internships Xanga (http://hk.xanga.com) or Blogger (https://www.blogger.com)http://hk.xanga.comhttps://www.blogger.com Drupal, which is an open source software package YouBlog (http://www.youblog.cc)http://www.youblog.cc Students were asked to write their self-reflections and post these as blogs every one or two day(s), starting from the first week of their internship to the end of it. 67

68 Blog Study 1: Methods (2) Instruments Interview 4-point Likert where 1 represented “Strongly disagree”, and 4 represented “Strongly disagree” open-ended questions telephone administered Participants: undergraduate BScIM students (n=53) 2006: 16 out of 19 interns 2007: 16 out of 21 interns 2008: all 21 interns Analysis SPSS 16.0 Nvivo

69 Blog Study 1: Findings (1) Frequency of students’ blogging behaviors during internship (N=53) 69

70 Blog Study 1: Findings (2) Students’ ratings on the usefulness of blogs for learning and communication (N=53) Survey questions Overall ratings: Mean Standard Deviations Blogging is useful for communication among classmates Blogging is useful for self-reflection A blog is suitable for recording self-reflections A blog is a suitable platform to learn from other students’ problem solving experience Classmates’ comments on blogs are helpful Supervisors’ comments on blogs are helpful

71 Blog Study 1: Findings (3) Students’ ratings on the effectiveness of blogging (N=53) Variables measuring the effectiveness of blogging Overall ratings Mean (SD) Frequent users Mean (SD) Infrequent users Mean (SD) Sig. (t-test) Blogging facilitated knowledge sharing 2.8 (0.62)2.93 (0.48)2.6 (0.84)0.153 Blogging facilitated information sharing 3.1 (0.53)3.29 (0.47)3.0 (0.56)0.279 Blogging facilitated mutual emotional support 2.8 (0.70)3.0 (.056)2.64 (0.50)

72 Blog Study 1: Findings (4) Students’ ratings categorized by different blogging platforms (N=53) Survey questions Cohort 1 Mean 1 (SD) Cohort 2 Mean (SD) Cohort 3 Mean (SD) Sig. ANOVA n=16 n=21 Blogging is useful for self-reflection3.25 (0.45)3.19 (0.54)3.05 (0.50)0.45 Blog is suitable for keeping self- reflections 2.81 (0.40)3.25 (0.58)3.05 (0.81)0.16 Blog is a suitable platform to learn from other’s problem solving experience 2.5 (0.97)2.5 (0.82)2.57 (0.75)0.73 Blogging is useful for communication among classmates 2.94 (0.93)3.06 (0.57)3.0 (0.71)0.11 Classmates’ comments on blogs are helpful 2.06 (1.48)1.94 (1.12)2.24 (0.89)0.96 Supervisors’ comments on blogs are helpful 1.19 (1.52)0.88 (1.36)0.33 (0.80)

73 Blog Study 1: Findings (5) Students’ feedback on blogging for information and knowledge sharing Positive feedback Negative feedback Suitable to facilitate information and knowledge sharing  Provides knowledge on what others are doing (13)  Provides information on other work fields (8)  Enables sharing of information on research, photos, videos (8)  Provides free mutual reading (9)  Allows sharing of experiences (5)  Provides access to information everywhere at anytime (4)  Serves as a source for problem- solving mechanisms (3)  Provides opportunities to learn from others’ experience and analysis (2)  Most blog entries are unimportant and routine (6)  Most entries are personal and are not useful comments (4)  Students just write little in order to complete the assignment (4)  Face-to-face communication is necessary (2) 73

74 Blog Study 1: Findings (6) Students’ feedback on blogging for self-reflections Positive comments Negative comments A suitable platform to keep reflections  Blogs serve as reminders for projects (14)  Record and reflect things systematically (12)  Blogs are convenient to do (7)  Entries are easy to trace (5)  Readily usable for sharing (5)  Easy to access (4)  Suggestions from classmates and supervisors are received (3)  Allow expression of feelings (2)  Blogs are centralized platforms (1)  Privacy concerns (4)  Concerns about grades and authenticity of content (3)  The mandatory use of computers is found to be problematic (2)  There are better alternatives, e.g., Facebook (2) 74

75 Blog Study 1: Conclusion (1) Students generally found blogging as a useful tool during their internships for self-reflection learning from others’ problems Communication The students perceived blogs to be effective in facilitating information sharing, knowledge sharing, and emotional support. No significant differences were observed between frequent and infrequent users. 75

76 Blog Study 1: Conclusion (2) Unfavourable ratings for the comments of classmates and supervisors were consistently given across three cohorts over three years. mainly due to inadequacy of supervisors’ comments and shallowness classmates’ comments The findings were consistent regardless of the blogging platform used Recommendations A stronger background briefing for supervisors and students in further blogging applications Change the workload formula to allow more time for faculty supervisors to provide support via blogging 76

77 Blog Study 2: Blogging for Nursing students Blogging for nursing could enhance written communication skills increase knowledge transfer encourage personal reflection initiate public debate regarding simulations and clinical case scenarios (Maggs, 2005) Blogging during clinical practicum could provide psychological support among students (Keegan, 2007) 77

78 Blog Study 2: Research objective To assess the effectiveness of blogging in facilitating clinical learning Enhance information sharing, knowledge sharing, self- reflection and emotional support during clinical practicum 78

79 Blog Study 2: Methods (1) 10-minute training session was provided by corresponding clinical instructors explaining purpose, access, privacy, voluntary posting and manner of opinion expression in blogging Instruction sheet indicating the steps of access, blog entry, blog viewing, examples of tags and methods of technical support were given to each participant Students used two different blogging systems 2007: a free software package named Drupal 2008: a commercial blogging system named Youblog 79

80 Blog Study 2: Methods (2) Instruments Interview [4-point Likert, open-ended questions, telephone administered] Participants: undergraduate Nursing students (N=56) Responded to the interviews (n=27) Analysis SPSS 14.0 Nvivo

81 Blog Study 2: Findings (1) Blogging behaviors during clinical practicum (N=27) 81 MEAN a SDAVERAGE TIMES PER WEEK b Frequency of writing blogs Frequency of reading own blogs Frequency of reading classmates' blogs Frequency of giving comments to classmates’ blogs Frequency of receiving comments from classmates Frequency of receiving comments from clinical tutor a Participants answered according to a scale of 1-5, with 1 as 'Once a month or less', 2 as 'Once every two weeks', 3 as '1-2 times a week', 4 as '3-6 times a week', and 5 as 'Once every day or more'. b Average values for each category were used for data analysis, i.e. rating 1 refers to 0.25 times a week, rating 2 refers to 0.5 times a week, rating 3 refers to 1.5 times a week, rating 4 refers to 4.5 times a week, rating 5 refers to 7 times a week.

82 Blog Study 2: Findings (2) Students’ perception on the use of blogs for information or knowledge sharing, self- reflection, and emotional support (N=27) 82 MEANSD Information/Knowledge Sharing Self-reflection Emotional support

83 Blog Study 2: Findings (3) Correlations (R 2 ) between frequency of blogging and the perceptions on knowledge sharing, self-reflection and emotional support (N=27) 83 Information or Knowledge Sharing Self-reflectionEmotional support Frequency of use *0.57** Information or Knowledge Sharing ** Self-reflection10.43* Emotional support1

84 Blog Study 2: Conclusion Blogging could facilitate clinical learning among Nursing undergraduate students Blogging provides opportunities for self-reflection a channel for ventilation of feelings the possibility of providing emotional support for nursing students during the stressful clinical practicum Blogging would be able to provide a platform for information and knowledge transfer which serves its clinical educational value 84

85 Blog Study 3: Blogging for BScIM and Nursing students Does students’ professional discipline affect their use of blogs for learning? This study examined the differences in the experience of blogging between information management interns and nursing student clinicians 85

86 Blog Study 3: Methods (1) Students were asked to create blogs to share their experiences and post their reflections during internships BScIM students: Blogs accounted for 30% of their final grade in the internship Faculty supervisors are assigned to the interns (given about six hours of supervision for each student) Nursing students Blog input had no weight in their clinical grade On a daily basis, the clinical instructors reviewed, monitored and responded to the blogs, comments posted, and other related blogging activities 86

87 Blog Study 3: Methods (2) Instruments Interview [4-point Likert, open-ended questions, telephone administered] Participants: BScIM and Nursing students (N=81) BScIM (n=53) Nursing (n=28) Analysis SPSS 14.0 Nvivo

88 Blog Study 3: Findings (1) Students’ blogging behaviors (N=81) 88 BScIMNursing Mann-Whitney p<0.05 Blogging Behaviours(N=53) Median (N=28) Median Writing one’s own blog Reading one’s own blog Reading classmates’ blogs Commenting on classmates’ blogs Average blogging behaviours point ordinal rating scale was used to measure the blogging frequency of students where 1 stands for “once a month or less”, 2 for “once every 2 weeks”, 3 for “1-2 times per week”, 4 for “3-6 times per week”, and 5 for “once every day or more”.

89 Blog Study 3: Findings (2) Students’ overall ratings for usefulness of blogs for learning (N=81) 89 Survey questions BScIM (N=53) Nursing (N=28) Mann-Whitney p<0.05 Mean (SD)MedianMean (SD)Median Blog is useful for self-reflection 3.15 (0.50) (0.44) Blog is suitable for keeping self-reflections 3.04 (0.65) (0.63) Reading others’ blogs during internship is useful 2.91 (0.66) (0.42) Classmates shared problem solving experience on blog 2.75 (0.67) (0.51) Blog is useful for learning other’s problem solving experiences 2.58 (0.69) (0.51) * Blog is suitable for learning other’s internship experience 2.94 (0.69) (0.57)

90 Blog Study 3: Findings (3) Students’ overall ratings for usefulness of blogs as a platform for mutual support (N=81) 90 BScIMNursing Survey questions (N = 53) Mean (SD) Median (N = 28) Mean (SD) Median Mann- Whitney p<0.05 Blog facilitated information sharing3.09 (0.53) (0.54) Blog facilitated knowledge sharing2.86 (0.48) (0.63) Blog facilitated emotional support2.77 (0.70) (0.69) * Overall, blog is useful for communication 3.06 (0.61) (0.54)

91 Nursing students tended to share more about their thoughts and feelings on their blogs they dealt with patients where their daily performance may determine their patients’ life many of them witnessed the reality of death for the first time BScIM students gave more negative comments (i.e., lack of quantity and depth in blog entries) job duties were far from life and death matters 91 Blog Study 3: Findings (4)

92 Blog Study 3: Findings (5) Students’ perceptions of comments received via blog (N=81) 92 BScIMNursing Survey questions(N=53)(N=28)Mann- Whitney Mean (SD) Median p<0.05 Classmates’ comments are helpful2.47 (0.78) (0.60) Supervisors’ comments are helpful3.00 (0.45) (0.50) Felt supported by classmates via blog2.64 (0.68) (0.60) Felt supported by supervisor via blog1.93 (0.83) (0.66) *

93 Blog Study 3: Findings (6) 93

94 Blog Study 3: Findings (7) 94 Frequent UsersInfrequent Users BScIM Students 1 (N=13) Mann- Whitney Survey questions Mean (SD) Median p<0.05 Blog is useful for self-reflection 3.23 (0.44) (0.28) Reading others’ blogs is useful 3.00 (0.41) (0.69) Blog is suitable for learning other’s internship experience 3.23 (0.44) (0.64) Blog facilitated information sharing 3.31 (0.48) (0.58) Blog facilitated knowledge sharing 2.92 (0.49) (0.38) Blog facilitated emotional support 3.00 (0.58) (0.51) Blog is useful for communication 3.15 (0.38) (0.38) Satisfied with blogging system 3.08 (0.76) (0.38) Suggest adopting blogging for next year 3.12 (0.42) (0.14) Comparison of perceptions of frequent and infrequent BScIM users (N=26)

95 Blog Study 3: Findings (8) 95 Comparison of perceptions of frequent and infrequent Nursing users (N=26) Frequent UsersInfrequent Users Nursing Students (N=7) Mann- Whitney Survey questions Mean (SD) Median p<0.05 Blog is useful for self-reflection 3.14 (0.69) (0.39) Reading others’ blogs is useful 3.14 (0.38) Blog is suitable for learning other’s internship experience 3.00 (0.58) (0.48) Blog facilitated information sharing 3.14 (0.38) (0.69) Blog facilitated knowledge sharing 2.71 (0.76) (0.69) Blog facilitated emotional support 3.43 (0.54) (0.69) Blog is useful for communication 3.14 (0.38) (0.69) Satisfied with blogging system 3.00 (0.00) (0.49) Suggest adopting blogging for next year 3.14 (0.69) (0.76)

96 Blog Study 3: Conclusion Nursing students found blogging to be more useful for emotional support for learning from others’ problem solving experiences related to the nature of the professional field which dictates the activities and situations in their work placements findings of this study support the proposition that the area of professional practice may affect the way students use and perceive blogging for learning use of blogs for education purposes must also be contingent to the practice area and sensitive to the tasks of the professional field 96

97 Web 2.0 in higher education Students have generally positive perceptions in terms of the usefulness of Wikis in collaborative group work and for knowledge management Students find blogs useful for information sharing and emotional support during internship and clinical training Able support by the teachers/instructors are crucial in the successful use of Web 2.0 applications 97

98 Key references Chu, S., Malhotra, N., Ho, I., Leung, D., & Mo, J. (2009). Using blogs to support information, knowledge sharing, and provide emotional support during internship. Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management [CD-ROM]. Hong Kong, Dec 3-4, Chu, S., Kennedy, D., & Mak, M. (2009). MediaWiki and Google Docs as online collaboration tools for group project co-construction. Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management, Hong Kong, Dec 3-4, Kwan, A., Chu, S., Tiwari, A., Zhou, A., Leung, D., & Mo, J. (2009). Using blogs to support internship for information management and nursing students. Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management, Hong Kong, Dec 3-4, Liang, M., Chu, S., Siu, F., & Zhou, A. (2009). Comparing User Experiences in Using Twiki & Mediawiki to Facilitate Collaborative Learning. Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management [CD-ROM]. Hong Kong, Dec 3-4, Wong, J., Chus, S., Tiwari, A., Fung, S., Mo, J. (2009). The use of blog to facilitate clinical learning during practicum among undergraduate nursing students: a preliminary study. Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Knowledge Management, Hong Kong, Dec 3-4, Chu, S. (2008). TWiki for knowledge building and management. Online Information Review, 32(6): Chu S., Cheung J., Ma, Ma L. and Leung D (2008). Student’s Co-Construction of Group Project Work Via Twiki. Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Knowledge Management, Columbus, Ohio, October 23-24, 2008 (pp ). Singapore: World Scientific. Lo, C. & Chu, S. (2007, December). A tale of two Wikis: TWiki and Wikibooks. Paper presented at The Conference on Integrated Learning, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong. 98


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