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Other rules for commas Use commas to separate a signal phrase from a quote. Use commas to separate a geographical entity following a geographical entity.

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Presentation on theme: "Other rules for commas Use commas to separate a signal phrase from a quote. Use commas to separate a geographical entity following a geographical entity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Other rules for commas Use commas to separate a signal phrase from a quote. Use commas to separate a geographical entity following a geographical entity within it. Use commas with addresses. Use commas with numbers. Use commas with dates. Pasco-Hernando Community College Tutorial Series

2 Commas There are four rules for using commas in sentences: Before a Coordinating Conjunction - FANBOYS Items, Adjectives in a Series After Introductory Words To Separate Out Unnecessary Words There are also rules to separate signal tags from quotations and for standard usage such as in numbers, dates, and addresses. However, these are special situations apart from a sentence.

3 Other Rules for Commas This tutorial covers the rule about other uses of commas. Use commas to separate a signal phrase from a quote. Use commas to separate a geographical entity following a geographical entity within it. Use commas with addresses. Use commas with numbers. Use commas with dates.

4 To separate a signal phrase A signal phrase is words that say who says the quote. Commas are used to separate a signal phrase from the quote: Morelli says, “There will be an earthquake along the Santa Barbara fault within the next ten years." “There will be an earthquake along the Santa Barbara fault within the next ten years," says Morelli. “There will be an earthquake,” says Morelli, “along the Santa Barbara fault within the next ten years. Note that the comma is before the end quotation mark. When a rule calls for a period or comma to be next to an end quotation mark, the period or comma goes before the end quotation mark.

5 To separate a signal phrase Signal phrases include any word group that is limited to saying who says the quote in the sentence. Common signal phrases include the following: According to Jones, “The earthquake will cause a tsunami.” “There will not be an earthquake,” claims Chan. The committee report indicated, “There is no way to tell if and when an earthquake will occur.” Note that the quote begins with a capital. After a signal phrase, what is in the quote is considered to be a sentence and must begin with a capital.

6 To separate a signal phrase A signal phrase is limited to the word that say who says the quote. If more words are added such as the word that, the word group is no longer a signal phrase. It is just part of a sentence that is before a partial sentence quote. Chan say that “[t]here will not be an earthquake. The committee report indicated that “[t]here is no way to tell if an when an earthquake will occur.” Note that there are brackets around the letter t. This is because it is a change from the original where it was capitalized. When you make a change inside a quote, you have to indicate that by putting brackets around the change.

7 Geographical entities Commas are used to separate a geographical entity following a geographic entity within it: She lived in Jacksonville, Florida, for a short time. The exploratory committee visited Athens, Georgia, and Boise, Idaho. They journeyed through various regions stopping in London, England, and Paris, France.

8 Addresses Use commas to separate parts of an address: 203 Elm Street, Westfield, Kansas Dry Rock Canyon Road, Cottonwood, AZ 34211

9 Numbers – to separate thousands Commas are used to separate thousands. Remember that a thousand is three figures from the right. 1,000 3,269,432 1,600,000

10 Dates – to separate the year Commas are used to separate the dates in a year: January 12, 2008 July 4, 1776


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