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© Ricardo plc 2012 Eric Chan, Ricardo UK Ltd 21 st October 2012 SARTRE Demonstration System The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/ ) under grant agreement n°
2 © Ricardo plc 2012 SARTRE Overview SARTRE objectives –Develop strategies and technologies for vehicle platoons Operating on public motorways / highways No changes to the road and roadside infrastructure –Develop a prototype platooning system Assess under real world scenarios –Evaluate the environmental, safety, congestion and convenience benefits –Illustrate new business models Benefits to lead vehicle operators and platoon subscribers Overall concept –Lead vehicle driven normally by a trained professional driver –Following vehicles have automated driving
3 © Ricardo plc 2012 Concept Definition Use Cases –Lead and following vehicle drivers –Road / traffic situations Traffic modelling –Platoon vehicles –Other non-platoon vehicles Human factors –Drivers in the platoon –Drivers in other surrounding vehicles –Driving simulator Safety analysis –Extended standard techniques to cover a system of multiple automated vehicles –Deliberate external malicious threats –Human factors such as operator error/confusion.
4 © Ricardo plc 2012 Demonstrator System Five-vehicle road train demonstration system –Mixed vehicle types Truck, sedan, estate / station wagon, SUV FH12 truck S60, V60, XC60 cars –Support a range of user scenarios Normal use –Joining, leaving, maintaining Interaction with non-platoon traffic Constraints –Use existing technologies, or slightly enhanced versions of existing technologies, combined with advanced software –No changes to road infrastructure
5 © Ricardo plc 2012 Sensors and Sensor Fusion On-vehicle sensors –Radars: front, side, rear –Lasers (fixed) –Cameras Lead vehicle driver monitoring sensors –Alco-lock –Camera Sensor fusion – vehicle –Combine data from sensors –Different sensors have different strengths under different conditions Sensor fusion – road train –Combine data from vehicles –Form platoon-wide situational awareness
6 © Ricardo plc 2012 Control Systems, Actuators, V2V Communications Automated control of vehicle –Longitudinal Acceleration and braking –Lateral Steering Information used –On-vehicle sensors –Shared vehicle data Actuators build on existing technologies –ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) –EPAS (Electric Power Assisted Steering) V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle) Communications –Shared real-time vehicle data –Enables coordinated control of road train vehicles with minimal delays
7 © Ricardo plc 2012 Longitudinal Control Longitudinal Control has two elements –Using data from the host vehicle sensors Control of the distance to the preceding vehicle –Using data from the other vehicles Coordinated control of all platoon vehicles Transmitted over V2V Driver can always override –Accelerator pedal –Brake pedal –System will take over at the end of the override Harsh braking –Coordinated control allows system response with minimal delays
8 © Ricardo plc 2012 Lateral Control Lateral Control has two elements –Using data from host vehicle sensors and from preceding vehicles (over V2V) Creation and tracking of the lead vehicle’s trajectory –Using data from the lead vehicle, transmitted over V2V Coordinated control of all platoon vehicles Driver can always override steering wheel –System will take over at the end of the override Automated steering vs. manual steering –Comparable steering wheel movements
9 © Ricardo plc 2012 Use Cases Use Case scenarios cover the sequences of actions which the system will have to deal with –Join & leave from rear or side Back Office or ad-hoc –Maintain platoon Speed changes Lane changes Gap changes –Special scenarios Driver manual overrides Degraded modes Non-platoon vehicles
10 © Ricardo plc 2012 Human Machine Interface HMI (Human Machine Interface) components –Touch screen Status of the SARTRE vehicle Status of the whole road train Driver interaction with the system –Voice prompts Important status updates Driver keeps eyes on the road –Haptic seat Alerts driver of status changes –Steering wheel Natural override of automated lateral system –Accelerator and brake pedals Natural override of automated longitudinal system
11 © Ricardo plc 2012 Back Office Register road train availability –Lead vehicle drivers indicate availability and destination of road train Reservation in a road train –Following vehicle drivers find suitable road trains –Potentially join multiple different road trains in a single journey, depending on destinations Handles payments and receipts of fees
12 © Ricardo plc 2012 Conclusions Five vehicle road train of mixed types Based on existing technologies with some software enhancements, combined with advanced control software Up to 90 km/h and 4 m gaps Some real-world scenarios –Interactions with non-platoon traffic Tested on test tracks and public roads Demonstrator system –Not a production implementation Fuel consumption results –16% for following vehicles –8% for lead vehicle
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