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Selena Alexander B.S. Civil Engineering University of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Presentation on theme: "Selena Alexander B.S. Civil Engineering University of Wisconsin - Madison."— Presentation transcript:

1 Selena Alexander B.S. Civil Engineering University of Wisconsin - Madison

2 Background

3 Introduction Video 

4 Issues with E-waste  How does e-waste get recycled safely without harm to the environment?  Are there any energy savings associated with recycling e-waste?  Why did they guarantee that no electronics would be exported to developing countries?

5 According to the EPA:  2.4 million tons of e-waste were ready for recycling in 2009  3% of Global Municipal Waste  Only 25% of it was recycled or reused

6 E-Cycling in Wisconsin  2009 Wisconsin Act 50 : Bans TV’s, Computers, and cell phones from landfills and incinerators  Manufacturer’s pay for them to be recycled  35 million lb or 6.2 lb of e-waste per person  1% of total e-waste disposed

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9 According to the EPA:

10 Where’s the other 75%?  5 Million tons in Storage  73% ends up in landfills  2% is incinerated  80% of the 25% recycled e-waste still ends up in Developing Countries!!!

11 Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs)  ~50% of recycled material  Contains 8% lead by weight (2-4kg) Reference: Computershopper.com

12 Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) Reference: Wikipedia.org

13 Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)  3 to 5% of e-waste  Hard to recycle due to Lead solder Reference: flexiblecircuitpcb.com

14 Method of recycling PCBs -Plastic -Fe & Ni -Al

15 Materials in PCBs Percent of Weight:  5% Aluminum  20% Copper  7% Iron  1.5% Lead  23% Plastics

16 Tons of Material per year  6,000 tons Aluminum  24,000 tons Copper  8,400 tons Iron  1,800 tons Lead  27,600 tons Plastic

17 Energy Savings of Materials Energy Savings of Recycled materials over Virgin materials:  95% Aluminum  85% Copper  74% Iron  65% Lead  80% Plastic  342,200 Btu/ton of material mined  5,986,000 Btu/ton produced by PCBs Plastics

18 Dollars of Energy Savings Annually in the United States  Aluminum - $62,884  Copper - $225,056  Iron - $68,576  Lead - $12,907  Plastic - $4,261,078 energy produced Total: $4,561,925 in energy savings and production

19 Bridging the ‘Digital Divide’  Most waste from Europe, United States, Canada, and Japan goes to China, India, and Africa  Increase in Technology  Lack of Environmental Laws  Cheap Labor  Lack of Work Safety Reference: trade2save.com

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21 Recycling Techniques in Developing Countries  Mechanical Shedding of Equipment  Open Burning of Plastics and Wires  Acid Leaching and Heating of PCBs Reference: trade2save.com

22 Guiyu, China  $130 million dollar recycling business  9 out of 10 people have health problems (skin, nervous, respiratory, or digestive)  Results: Pb, Cu, Ni, & Cd poisoning Contaminated food from: milk, crops, & fish High amounts of air & water pollutants Increase health risks to workers Reference: trade2save.com

23 PCBs in U.S.  Shredded mechanically  Metals separated by magnetics, currents, and electrostatics  Thermally treated  Safety Equipment Reference: waste-management-world.com

24 Local Ways to Recycle E-waste  Computers:  Cell Phones:  Other:

25 References  Nnorom, I. C., Osibanj, O. (2008). Electronic waste (e-waste): Material flows and management practices in Nigeria. Waste Management, 28 (8),  Kahhat, R., Kim, J., Xu, M., Allenby, B., Williams, E., Zhang, P. (2008).Exploring e-waste management systems in the United States. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 52 (7), 955–964.  Xing, G. H., Chan, J. K., Leung, A. O., Wu, S. C., Wong, M.H. (2009). Environmental impact and human exposure to PCBs in Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in China. Environmental International, 35 (1),  Hageluken, C. (2006). Improving metal returns and eco-efficiency in electronics recycling. Electronics and the Environment, Proceeding of the 2006 IEEE International Symposium,  Chatterjee, S., Kumar, K. (2009). Effective Electronic Waste Management and Recycling Process Involving Formal and Non-f ormal Sectors. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 4 (13),  ICF International. (2011). Electronics Waste Management in the United States Through U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery, 1-49.

26 Questions?


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