Presentation on theme: "Gambling Harm Reduction: Are You Serious?"— Presentation transcript:
1Gambling Harm Reduction: Are You Serious? Jim OrfordSchool of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UKGambling Watch UKHarm Minimisation in Gambling ConferenceResponsible Gambling Trust, London, December 11th 2013
2Forms of harm from gambling Form of harmHarm to individuals who gambleA continuum of risky and harmful gamblingHarm to their family membersFinancial, relational and emotional harmHarm to the communityHarm to the quality of the high street, financial drain, community health affectedHarm to societyNormalisation of gambling, risks to young people, contributes to inequality
3PGSI score 0 Non-problem gambler PGSI score 1-2 At risk (low) The gambling risk/harm continuum according to the Canadian Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI)PGSI score 0 Non-problem gamblerPGSI score 1-2 At risk (low)PGSI score 3-7 At risk (moderate )PGSI score 8 plus Problem gambler
4The gambling control continuum according to Dickerson and O’Connor, Gambling as an Addictive Behaviour, Cambridge University Press, 2006Never strong impulses, no problemsSometimes strong impulses, easily resisted, no problemsSometimes strong impulses, can resist with effort, no problemsOften strong impulses, difficult to resist, few minor problemsStrong impulses, difficult but not impossible to resist, several problemsFrequent strong impulses, impossible to resist, several significant distressing problems
5Natasha Schüll, Addiction by Design: Machine Gambling in Las Vegas (2012, Princeton University Press)By the mid-1990s, the gambling industry had already grasped... that a medical diagnosis linked to the excessive consumption of its product by some individuals could serve to deflect attention away from the product's potentially problematic role in promoting that consumption, and onto the biological and psychological vulnerabilities of a small minority of its customers (page 261).
6Martin Young, Statistics, scapegoats and social control: A critique of pathological gambling prevalence research, Addiction Research and Theory, 2013, 21, pp.1-11… the industry is dependent on the pathological gambler to … absolve itself from the harm it produces…… problem gambling prevalence surveys… construct and mobilise the pathological gambler as the object of policy and intervention
7Forms of harm from gambling Form of harmHarm to individuals who gambleA continuum of risky and harmful gamblingHarm to their family membersFinancial, relational and emotional harmHarm to the communityHarm to the quality of the high street, financial drain, community health affectedHarm to societyNormalisation of gambling, risks to young people, contributes to inequality
8Affected family members: a group with no voice ‘It is the nature of emotional disorders that when one member of the family is afflicted, the effects are felt by all the others. There are few, however, in which the impact is felt with such severity as in the case of compulsive gambling’ (When Luck Runs Out, Custer & Milt, 1985).‘… we have had a monster living with our family – a monster in the shape of a fruit-machine. Practically every penny my husband earned went into that machine’ (a wife cited by Barker & Miller, 1968).
9Forms of harm from gambling Form of harmHarm to individuals who gambleA continuum of risky and harmful gamblingHarm to their family membersFinancial, relational and emotional harmHarm to the communityHarm to the quality of the high street, financial drain, community health affectedHarm to societyNormalisation of gambling, risks to young people, contributes to inequality
10A sample of British attitudes towards gambling in 2010 (percent agree or disagree)
11Types of gambling harm reduction measures Reduce gambling by reducing demandReduce gambling by reducing supplyHarm reduction that does not require a reduction in gamblingEducation campaignsLimit availabilityReduce criminality by legalisationControls on advertisingLimit accessibilityHelp for affected family membersPlayer-centred e.g. pre-commitment, self-exclusionModify gambling featuresOn-site crisis intervention
12Three types of evidence (Glasby, 2011) and their relevance to High Stake-High Prize Electronic Gambling Machines (HS-HP EGMs) such as Fixed Odds Betting Terminals (FOBTs)Theoretical evidenceHS-HP EGMs have features that would lead us to expect them to have high harm potentialExperiential evidenceGamblers and their family members are telling us that HS-HP EGMs are causing particular harmEmpirical evidenceEvidence from the 2007 and 2010 BGPSs support the conclusion that HS-HP EGMs are specially harmful
13Gross Gambling Yield (GGY) from some different forms of British Gambling and losses attributable to People with Gambling Problems (PGPs) 2010GGY % of losses amount of losses£m from PGPs from PGPs £mFOBTs in betting shops 1,Table games in casinosBetting on dog racesBetting on horse racesSlot machines in arcadesFootball poolsBingo
14Models of the evidence and policy relationship (Monaghan, Evidence versus politics, The Policy Press, 2011)Linear or rational model: a linear process from defining a problem to identifying missing knowledge to acquiring research, interpreting it and then making a policy choiceEnlightenment model: a process of 'indirect diffusion' whereby an entire body of research or evidence, accumulating over time, sensitises policymakers to new issuesEvolutionary model: 'survival of the fittest': ideas that fit the interests of powerful groups will be picked up and those that do not, will notPolitical or tactical model: new research is unlikely to have a bearing on predetermined positions allied to various interests and political ideologiesInteractive, dialogic or processual models: concepts and therefore knowledge are inherently contested and meaning emerges from negotiation and dialogue between relevant constituents
15Two contrasting policy perspectives Gambling is seen as an ordinary entertainment productIn Government, the department responsible for Culture and Sport should take the leadThe industry should sit at the policy table and fund prevention, treatment and research (PT&R)Gambling is seen as a commodity dangerous to healthIn Government, the department responsible for Health should take the leadPolicy formation should be independent of the industry and PT&R should be funded by government
16Dr Margaret Chan, Director General World Health Organization, Doctors and the alcohol industry: an unhealthy mix? British Medical Journal, 2013In the view of WHO, the alcohol industry has no role in the formulation of alcohol policies, which must be protected from distortion by commercial or vested interests.
17Responsible Gambling Strategy Board Strategy 2012 … whether bespoke harm-prevention measures might be effective… player-centred measures tailored to a gambler’s actual machine play… in contrast to the current across-the board regulatory controls, such as limits to stakes and prizes and number and location of gaming machines (para 49)… wider societal risks… recession… low income groups… important contextual considerations… probably too broad and complex to prioritise for research (para 52)