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Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA Multipurpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications Contributing to the 3 rd Pillar of the European Strategy.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA Multipurpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications Contributing to the 3 rd Pillar of the European Strategy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA Multipurpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications Contributing to the 3 rd Pillar of the European Strategy for P&T

2 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA ESNII + summer school –– Stockholm May 18-20, 2014 Marc Schyns SCKCEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium or

3 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Content SCKCEN presentation MYRRHA project

4 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Belgian Nuclear Research Centre is a foundation cradle of nuclear research, applications and energy development in Belgium major international player in the field of nuclear R&D creator of "spin-off's": IRE, BN, BP, VITO tutorship: federal Secretary of Energy Melchior Wathelet today: ~700 staff, >50% with academic degree + 70 PhD students annual turnover: 125 M€ 45% government support 55% contract work research towards sustainability

5 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Statutory mission of SCKCEN research on safety waste management protection of man and environment fissile and other strategic materials societal implications of endurable energy training and education services towards nuclear industry the medical sector the authorities in the field of nuclear applications

6 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Environment Health Safety 'Analyse' Radiation Effects

7 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Nuclear Material Science

8 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Production Million medical procedures per year = patients per day 65% (peak) - 25% (yearly) from BR2 but most existing research reactors are getting old

9 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN research, development needs education, training

10 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Inventor of innovative nuclear fuel: MOX 1st pressurized water reactor outside of US: BR3 World’s first underground laboratory for R&D on HL waste disposal: HADES Highest performing material testing reactor in Europe: BR2 World’s premiere project for transmutation of nuclear waste: MYRRHA World’s first lead-based ADS: GUINEVERE Some pioneering highlights

11 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA - Accelerator Driven System Reactor Subcritical or Critical modes 65 to 100 MWth Accelerator (600 MeV - 4 mA proton) Fast Neutron Source Spallation Source Lead-Bismuth coolant Multipurpose Flexible Irradiation Facility Innovative & Unique

12 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA Accelerator Challenge fundamental parameters (ADS) particlep beam energy600 MeV beam current4 mA modeCW MTBF> 250 h implementation superconducting linac frequency176.1 / / MHz reliability = redundancydouble injector “fault tolerant” scheme failure = beam trip > 3 s challenge !

13 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN About beam trips

14 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA Accelerator Challenge

15 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA linac

16 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Reactor Vessel Reactor Cover Core Support Structure Core Barrel Core Support Plate Jacket Core Reflector Assemblies Dummy Assemblies Fuel Assemblies Spallation Target Assembly and Beam Line Above Core Structure Core Plug Multifunctional Channels Core Restraint System Control Rods, Safety Rods, Mo-99 production units Primary Heat Exchangers Primary Pumps Si-doping Facility Diaphragm IVFS IVFHS IVFHM Reactor layout

17 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Core and Fuel Assemblies 151 positions 37 multifunctional plugs

18 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Core and Fuel Assemblies Fuel Cladding in Ti Wire wrap Wrapper

19 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Cooling systems Decay heat removal (DHR) through secondary loops 4 independent loops redundancy (each loop has 100% capability) passive operation (natural convection in primary, secondary and tertiary loop) Ultimate DHR through RVCS (natural convection)

20 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Cooling systems

21 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Integration into building

22 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Remote Handling

23 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Remote Handling (Fuel recovery)

24 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Multipurpose facility M ultipurpose h Y brid R esearch R eactor for H igh-tech A pplications Waste Fission GEN IV Fusion Fundamental research Silicon doping Radio- isotopes 50 to 100 MWth  Fast = ~10 15 n/cm².s (En>0.75 MeV)  = 1 to n/cm².s (ppm He/dpa ~ 10) in medium-large volumes Material research  Fast = 1 to n/cm².s (En>1 MeV) in large volumes Fuel research Φ tot = 0.5 to n/cm².s  th = 0.5 to n/cm².s (En<0.4 eV)  th = 0.1 to n/cm².s (En<0.4 eV) High energy LINAC 600 MeV – 1 GeV Long irradiation time

25 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Motivation for transmutation spent fuel reprocessing no reprocessing Uranium naturel Time (years) Relative radiotoxicity transmutation of spent fuel Duration Reduction 1.000x Volume Reduction 100x

26 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Fast Neutron are unavoidable for transmutation To transmute MAs, we need to fission them The ration Fission/Capture is more favorable with fast neutrons

27 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN European Strategy for P&T  The implementation of P&T of a large part of the high-level nuclear wastes in Europe needs the demonstration of its feasibility at an “engineering” level. The respective R&D activities could be arranged in four “building blocks”: 1.Demonstration of the capability to process a sizable amount of spent fuel from commercial LWRs in order to separate plutonium (Pu), uranium (U) and minor actinides (MA), 2.Demonstration of the capability to fabricate at a semi-industrial level the dedicated fuel needed to load in a dedicated transmuter (JRC/ITU), 3.Design and construction of one or more dedicated transmuters, 4.Provision of a specific installation for processing of the dedicated fuel unloaded from the transmuter, which can be of a different type than the one used to process the original spent fuel unloaded from the commercial power plants, together with the fabrication of new dedicated fuel.

28 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN P&T inspired many Euratom projects TOPICFP5FP6FP7 CouplingMUSEDM2 ECATSFREYA FuelsFUTUREDM3 AFTRAFAIRFUELS MaterialsMEGAPIE DM4 DEMETRA MATTER SPIRE, TECLAGETMAT DesignPDS-XADSDM1 DESIGNCDT MAX ADOPTEUROTRANSSERIM G4 Thermal-Hydraulics ASCHLIM THINS LFR-ESLYLEADER Infrastructures-VELLA, MTRI3 ADRIANA, SARGEN, NEWLANCER Scenario Studies-PATEROSARCAS Safety--SEARCH, SILER, MAXSIMA 28 M€ 31 M€

29 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Proton Beam Spallation Target accelerator Both Critical reactors as well as ADS can be used as MAs transmuters Nevertheless, critical reactors, heavily loaded with MAs, can experience severe safety issue due to reactivity effet induced by a smaller fraction of delayed neutrons. ADS can operate in a more flexible and safer manner even if heavily loaded with MAs hence leading to efficient transmutation therefore we say that sub-criticality is not a luxury but a necessity. Is sub-criticality a luxury?

30 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN ADS is the most efficient system for burning MAs MA Production Rate (grams / GWh)Pu Production Rate (grams / GWh) * Mike Cappiello, (LANL), “The Potential Role of Accelerator Driven Systems in the US”, ICRS-10/RPS’2004, Madeira (PT), 2004

31 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN FP6-PATEROS A European approach to P&T P&T useful for countries in phase out with active nuclear programme Reduction of volume & heat load of waste P&T should be seen at a regional/European level Scenario studies: 4 country groups A: stagnant or phase-out B: continuation and Pu optimisation for FRs C: subset of A in “nuclear renaissance” D: non-nuclear to go nuclear

32 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Even with completely different national NE policies European solution for HLW works with ADS  Advantages for A ADS shared with B ADS burn A’s Pu& MA Smaller Fu-Cycle units & shared  Advantages for A ADS shared with B ADS burn A’s Pu& MA Smaller Fu-Cycle units & shared Scenario 1 objective: elimination of A’s spent fuel by 2100 A = Countries Phasing Out, B = Countries Continuing SHARED

33 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN If an ADS can’t produce electricity than it can’t also transmute ! Indeed, the 1 st Objectif of an ADS is to burn efficiently and in a concentrated manner MAs ! If it burns MAs, this means it produces heat that can be turned into electricity. The total thermal efficiency of an ADS is related to the two following yields: The accelerator yield  acc = P ->reactor / P e (  Acc) The yield of the thermal-dynamic cycle of the sub-critical reactor  th = P e (  net) / P th

34 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA:  Total = MeV x 4 mA = 2.4 MW  acc = 0.15 P acc = 16 MW e P th = 85 MW th  th = 0.33 P e = 28 MW e ΔP e = +12 MW e

35 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN EFIT:  Total = MeV x 20 mA = 12 MW  acc = 0.35 P acc = ~34 MW e P th = 400 MW th  th = 0.40 P e = 160 MW e ΔP e = +126 MW e

36 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN JADS:  Total = MeV x 20 mA = 30 MW  acc = 0.45 P acc = ~67 MW e P th = 800 MW th  th = 0.45 P e = 360 MW e ΔP e = +293 MW e

37 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN But MYRRHA is more than research on ADS & Transmutation

38 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Multipurpose facility M ultipurpose h Y brid R esearch R eactor for H igh-tech A pplications Waste Fission GEN IV Fusion Fundamental research Silicon doping Radio- isotopes 50 to 100 MWth  Fast = ~10 15 n/cm².s (En>0.75 MeV)  = 1 to n/cm².s (ppm He/dpa ~ 10) in medium-large volumes Material research  Fast = 1 to n/cm².s (En>1 MeV) in large volumes Fuel research Φ tot = 0.5 to n/cm².s  th = 0.5 to n/cm².s (En<0.4 eV)  th = 0.1 to n/cm².s (En<0.4 eV) High energy LINAC 600 MeV – 1 GeV Long irradiation time

39 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN IPS in Chan [0 0 0]IPS in Chan [2 0 0] Sample n°dpa/EFPYΦ tot dpa/EFPYΦ tot E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E+15 Material Irradiation Performances MW

40 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Irradiation capabilities of IPS 73 MW IPSTotal flux, n/(cm 2 s) Fast (> 0.75 MeV) flux, n/(cm 2 s) Radiation damage, DPA/FPY Helium production, appm/FPY Ratio appm He/DPA 12.64× × × × × × × × × × × ×

41 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Prepare the path for Fusion DEMO Irradiation capabilities under the spallation target +10 cm 0 cm -30 cm

42 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA-IMIFF for fusion material In critical mode (fast reactor), appmHe/dpa ~ 0.2 to 1  not optimal for fusion materials experiments In sub-critical mode (ADS), high appmHe/dpa ratio is reached, specially in the region of the window of spallation source Volume of 1 lt with appmHe/dpa ~ 12 close to spallation target  Useful volume 30 lt with range from 5 to 20 appmHe/dpa

43 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA for fusion irradiations Estimated damage induced in DEMO and proposed irradiation conditions in IFMIF and MYRRHA-IMIFF

44 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Multipurpose facility M ultipurpose h Y brid R esearch R eactor for H igh-tech A pplications Waste Fission GEN IV Fusion Fundamental research Silicon doping Radio- isotopes 50 to 100 MWth  Fast = ~10 15 n/cm².s (En>0.75 MeV)  = 1 to n/cm².s (ppm He/dpa ~ 10) in medium-large volumes Material research  Fast = 1 to n/cm².s (En>1 MeV) in large volumes Fuel research Φ tot = 0.5 to n/cm².s  th = 0.5 to n/cm².s (En<0.4 eV)  th = 0.1 to n/cm².s (En<0.4 eV) High energy LINAC 600 MeV – 1 GeV Long irradiation time

45 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA - Concept - Concept thin refractory metal foils carbide powders liquid targets surface ion source ECR ion source RILIS

46 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MeV mA CW Beam-Splitting System (Concept) 600 MeV ~  A pulsed beam (up to 250 Hz)

47 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Applications Applications) Nuclear Physics Astro- physics Atomic Physics Fundamental Interactions Medical Applications DayWeekMonthYear Typical Beam Time/Experiment Condensed Matter Chemistry Biology , , Q Masses Decay (log ft, P xn/yp ) Reactions ( , B(E2), C 2 S) QED tests in HCI Rare decays: GTGR,  xn/yp, cluster decay, SHE Extreme precision: e.g., crystal spectrometry Prototyping Ft values, Correlations (  -,…), EDM Correlations (  -,...), EDM : Statistics + control systematic effects of setup Mössbauer,  -NMR, PAC, EC-SLI Systematic sample measurements SHE chemistry Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn  -NMR in proteins Systematic sample measurements Radiopharmacy (prototyping) Radiotherapy (prototyping) Systematic production of Radiopharmaceuticals Dedicated radiotherapy center Ultra-high selectivity: LIST configuration Bohr-Weisskopf: A- and g-factors

48 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN - Highlights 48

49 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Multipurpose facility M ultipurpose h Y brid R esearch R eactor for H igh-tech A pplications Waste Fission GEN IV Fusion Fundamental research Silicon doping Radio- isotopes 50 to 100 MWth  Fast = ~10 15 n/cm².s (En>0.75 MeV)  = 1 to n/cm².s (ppm He/dpa ~ 10) in medium-large volumes Material research  Fast = 1 to n/cm².s (En>1 MeV) in large volumes Fuel research Φ tot = 0.5 to n/cm².s  th = 0.5 to n/cm².s (En<0.4 eV)  th = 0.1 to n/cm².s (En<0.4 eV) High energy LINAC 600 MeV – 1 GeV Long irradiation time

50 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Production of space specific radioisotopes in MYRRHA thermal neutron flux-traps Core lay-out: In reflector positions Cooled by water In thermalized neutron field Transport by rabbit system Positions also usable for testing of materials in thermal field! => Both are possible in MYRRHA: Testing of materials/fuels in fast (core) field Testing of materials/fuels in thermalized (peripheral) field Target plates in IPS:

51 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN European Context Energy Independence Knowledge Economy ESFRI European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructure SET Plan European Strategic Energy Plan Confirmed on ESFRI priority list projects in ESNII (SNETP goals)

52 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Belgian commitment: secured International consortium: under construction Belgium 60 M€ (12 M€/y x 5 y) 2nd phase (11 y) others 576 M€ Belgium 324 M€ (36 M€/y x 9 y) Consortium 960 M€ (2009)

53 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN The project schedule Front End Engineering Design 2019 On site assembly Construction of components & civil engineering 2015 Tendering & Procurement Commissioning 2023 Progressive start-up Full exploitation FEED (Front End Engineering Design) Minimise technological risks Secure the licensing Secure a sound management and investment structure PDP preliminary dismantling plan PSAR preliminary safety assesment EIAR environmental impact assesment Central Project Team Owner Engineering Team Owner Consortium Group

54 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA international network

55 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN International Members Consortium – Phase 1 As of early 2012 INVESTMENT PHASE BE EU countries Asian country EU ROW SCKCEN (on behalf of Belgian Federal Government) EU country Public foundation Asian country EU participation ROW participation Belgian Federal Ministry of Energy (50%) Belgian Federal Ministry of Science Policy (50%) 40 % Major European partners A major Asian partner EU FP7 (RTD) / SET-Plan (Energy) ROW (*) European Research Infrastructure Consortium «ERIC» (*) Contribution to investment capital (960 M€’09) Participation vehicle (Consortium members) Primary «investors» IPR management rules tbd

56 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN International Members Consortium - Phase 2 OPERATION PHASE Members of Consortium - Individual research of a member of Consortium -Collaborative research amongst members of Consortium - 3 years program commitment CLOSED/ SHARED INFORMATION for MoC Open User Facility - Governments funding - Criteria of research excellence - Independant program access committee (PAC) Collaborative research - Distribution of information to participants Contract research….. Commercial services -RI -NTD Silicon ~25% OPEN INFORMATION SHARED INFORMATION for participants CLOSED INFORMATION for participants «ERIC» (*) (*) European Research Infrastructure Consortium BENEFITS for Members of Consortium Board position to control overal operation Priority of access Potential benefit of low price (compensation profit from commercial revenues) Capacity transfer flexibility (rules tbd) SCKCEN as qualified and licenced operator of the MYRRHA infrastructure under contractual arrangement with ERIC

57 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN MYRRHA: EXPERIMENTAL ACCELERATOR DRIVEN SYSTEM A pan-European, innovative and unique facility at Mol (BE) BR2 reactor (existing) MYRRHA reactor building MYRRHA LINAC high energy tunnel ECR source & Injector Building Utilities buildings

58 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN SCKCEN i n brief SCKCEN is an internationally renowned research centre SCKCEN’s innovative research is directed to the safe application of nuclear energy on both short and long term; SCKCEN contributes in an important manner to non-power related society-relevant applications of nuclear energy; SCKCEN emphasizes the need for fundamental knowledge, education and training: the SCKCEN Academy for Nuclear Science and Technology; SCKCEN has an innovative future-oriented project MYRRHA;

59 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Conclusions MYRRHA As a Multipurpose Fast Spetrum irradiation facility selected by ESFRI, is responding to: The issue of addressing the nuclear waste legacy of present reactor technology through advance options (ADS, P&T) The SNETP need for a multipurpose research infrastructure expressed in its Strategic Research Agenda whatever the considered technology for Gen.IV systems The Objective of Belgium and SCKCEN to maintain a high level expertise in the country in the nuclear safety, nuclear technology and nuclear competencies independently of the future of NE The objective of the European Commission to make available a series of relevant irradiations facilities for the fusion material research community towards the DEMO construction Secure society needs for RI for medical applications and Dopped- Si for renewable Energy

60 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Q&A

61 Copyright © 2012 SCKCEN Copyright © SCK  CEN PLEASE NOTE! This presentation contains data, information and formats for dedicated use ONLY and may not be copied, distributed or cited without the explicit permission of the SCKCEN. If this has been obtained, please reference it as a “personal communication. By courtesy of SCKCEN”. SCKCEN Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucléaire Belgian Nuclear Research Centre Stichting van Openbaar Nut Fondation d'Utilité Publique Foundation of Public Utility Registered Office: Avenue Herrmann-Debrouxlaan 40 – BE-1160 BRUSSELS Operational Office: Boeretang 200 – BE-2400 MOL


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