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WEARABLE SENSOR TECHNOLOGY Bonato & Chan. Overview  Describe clinical need for wearable sensors  Discuss sensor functionality  Present technical aspects.

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Presentation on theme: "WEARABLE SENSOR TECHNOLOGY Bonato & Chan. Overview  Describe clinical need for wearable sensors  Discuss sensor functionality  Present technical aspects."— Presentation transcript:

1 WEARABLE SENSOR TECHNOLOGY Bonato & Chan

2 Overview  Describe clinical need for wearable sensors  Discuss sensor functionality  Present technical aspects of sensor/system implementation (e-textile and wireless)  Provide specific examples of sensors/systems developed by European groups  Gloves  Shirts  Bed linen

3 Motivation  Health Care Reform (Independence at Home Medical Practice Demonstration Program)  electronic health information systems, remote monitoring, and mobile diagnostic technology  Less intrusive patient monitoring  Improve diagnoses  Enhance safety  Increase community participation  Maintain independence

4 Motivation  Community Based research  Take the gait lab out of the hospital  Measure research phenotyping  Medication titration N of 1 trials

5 EUROPEAN COMMISSION Peter Wintlev-Jensen and Andreas Lymberis

6 Percentage of GDP (EU27) Source: EC '2009 Ageing Report: economic and budgetary projections for the EU-27 Member States (2008-2060)' Motivation

7 Framework Programme 7 ICT research ICT & Aging  Advanced Prototypes for independent living/active aging (Ambient Intelligence, Robotics)  Open Systems, Reference Architectures, Platforms  Support: roadmaps, ethics, standards, Int’l cooperation Currently~30 projects, ~90 M€ funding Motivation

8 46,500 hospital bed days saved by facilitating early hospital discharge 225,000 care home bed days saved by delaying the requirement for people to enter care homes 46,000 nights of sleep-over care and 905,000 home check visits saved by substitution of remote monitoring arrangements Collectively, these savings are valued at around £43 million - an anticipated benefit to program funding cost ratio of 5:1. TELECARE IN SCOTLAND Motivation

9 Utility  Physiological Monitoring ECG Body Temp Blood pressure Respiratory Rate Oxygen saturation Surface EMG Biomarkers (sweat) Sympathetic/parasympath etic balance (e.g. mood)

10 Utility  Movement monitoring Body position (e.g. falls) Activity monitoring Energy expenditure  Geolocation Track activities Localize people in need of urgent clinical care Fuse with sensors embedded in the environment  Merging with survey data gathering in the field Merging sensor and survey data

11 Related clinical conditions  Cardiac arrhythmias - 15 million  Sleep Apnea- Millions  Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 2,000/year  Nursing home  Falls 10%/year

12 Wearable Sensor Categories  Ambulatory Systems  First generation systems based on traditional sensor technology and data loggers (similar to Holter systems) with limited capability.  Cloth-Based Systems  Second generation systems based on sensors integrated in garments and relying on either wireless technology or e-textile solutions for data gathering.

13 First Generation (Ambulatory) Systems  NASA Lifeguard (2004)

14 Second Generation (Wearable) Systems  Systems based on wireless technology or e-textile solutions to gather and relay data to a remote site.

15 Second Generation (Wearable) Systems

16 Sensor Technology  Electrical resistance  Piezoelectric  Hall Sensors  Foam based  Wires wrapped around thread  Traditional Electrodes  Wireless controls

17 Examples  Zurich  Pisa  Madrid  Twente

18 UNIV OF ZURICH (BALGRIST HOSPITAL) Prof. Gregoire Courtine

19 Instrumented Glove To date, the gloves developed, as far as now, present drawbacksTo date, the gloves developed, as far as now, present drawbacks - sensor saturation - sensor signal drift - not being able to record all finger joints To overcome these drawbacks, a new sensorized glove has been developed: the NeuroAssess GloveTo overcome these drawbacks, a new sensorized glove has been developed: the NeuroAssess Glove NeuroAssess Glove

20 Specifications: -6 resistive bend sensors -0.5° resolution -0.9° repeatability error -± 3° accuracy -100 Hz sampling rate Instrumented Glove

21 SMARTEX AND UNIVERSITY OF PISA Prof. DeRossi and Dr. Paradiso

22 Overview  Smartex (spin-off of University of Pisa) - Goal is to use textiles as a platform for unobtrusive monitoring  Devised a novel way of “printing” piezoelectric sensors onto elastic cloth at very low cost  10 years old-company with 10 staff  Funding Milan textile industry, DARPA, NIH  Functional focus-manipulation, posture, balance, transfers and locomotion

23 Smartex Capabilities

24 Smartex products  Shirt (commercialized) with ECG and respiratory rate sensors.  Jumpsuit/pants with position sensors.

25 Products  Bed sheet (ECG, Resp Rate, Movement)  Elbow Sleeve (EMG, FES in development)  Glove (conductive elastomers, microbubbles for force measurement in development)

26 TREMOR PROJECT Prof. Jose Pons

27 TREMOR Project  Consortium of 8 European partners  Prof. José L. Pons (Project Coordinator), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain along with 8 other European institutions http://www.iai.csic.es/tremor/index.htmhttp://www.iai.csic.es/tremor/index.htm  “An ambulatory BCI-driven tremor suppression system based on functional electrical stimulation”  “Tremor is most common movement disorder”  Managed with drugs, surgery (thalamotomy), and deep brain stimulation  Treatments are ineffective in 25% of patients

28 TREMOR PROJECT  Uses EEG and EMG along with IMUs to detect voluntary motion and tremor, using a sensor fusion approach  Use FES to either  Cancel tremor with out-of- phase stimulation  Stiffen the limb by co- contraction, to reduce tremor amplitude  Project at an early stage  Interesting use of FES making use of wearable sensors

29 UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE - MIRA Prof. Peter Veltink

30 Wearable Motion Analysis Laboratory

31 Human Movement Sensing  Inertial & magnetic sensors  10+ years of research  Now commercially available (Xsens)  Utilized in peer- reviewed publications  Enables community, institution, and home based evaluations

32 Monitoring Dynamic Interactions  Foot – Ground interaction  Instrumented shoe Two 6 DOF sensors 2 inertial sensors  Hand – object  In development

33 Instrumented Shoe  Ground Reaction Forces  Center of Mass Leidtke et. al., 2007 Schepers et al, 2009

34 XSENS 3D MOTION TRACKING Dr. Per Slycke

35 Company Overview  Founded 10 years ago - University of Twente spin-off.  Focus is 3D motion tracking.  65 employees with 50% in research & development.  Focus is on 3 industries: 1) Industrial applications (unmanned vehicles), 2) Entertainment/training & simulation (movie special effects and video games), and 3) Movement science (how they started).

36 First Generation Sensor Technology First Generation Sensor  Real-time motion capture system.  Wired suit with power packs required.  Usable indoors or outdoors (difficult for video motion capture) with no marker occlusion issues.  Integration drift an issue for position estimates.

37 Second Generation Sensor Technology Second Generation Sensor  Real-time motion capture.  No wires or power packs required.  Increased accuracy.  Usable indoors or outdoors with no occlusion issues.  Integration drift resolved through UWB RF technology. Recharge Station UWB RF Receiver

38 Wearable Technology Gaps  Technology is not yet reliable for enough safety applications  EKG applications will need to be as good as standard electrodes to get traction  Kinematic technology not yet accurate enough for precise research applications (gait lab)  Xsens (1/10 th level of accuracy)

39 Wearable Technology Gaps  System integration not yet adequate for commercialization and clinical application  Technical and data security issues  Wellness vs. medical applications  Unclear if end users are adequately involved in the design process

40 Conclusions  Wearable sensors hold great promise to:  Improve diagnostics  Monitor treatment  Enhance research outcomes  Increase independence and participation  Reduce healthcare costs  However, technology is only in its “second generation”  Will need to improve accuracy, reliability and system integration for true translation to occur


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