Presentation on theme: "Tikal, The Maya City Tikal Ancient City of the Maya."— Presentation transcript:
1Tikal, The Maya CityTikal Ancient City of the Maya
2IntroductionThe ancient Maya city of Tikal is located deep in the heart of Guatemala`s El Peten rainforest.Tikal was once the major cultural and population center of the Maya civilizationToday Tikal National Park is a sanctuary for the archaeological monuments, and for endangered wildlife such as ocelots, monkeys, toucans, parrots, and jaguars.Tikal is one of the largest ancient Maya sites, covering 60 square miles
4Some of the earliest temples at Tikal date back to 4th century BC A panorama time lapse at sunset overlooking the Great Plaza from the North Acropolis.Some of the earliest temples at Tikal date back to 4th century BCTikal is the modern name for the site. Hieroglyphic inscriptions show that the ancient Maya called the site “Yax Mutal”
5LocationTikal’s location between two rivers allowed Tikal to become a great trade, religious, and political center that dominated the region at times during the Classic Period (200 AD to 850 AD.)Tikal reached its peak population of approximately 55,000 people around AD 700.The city itself contained many different structures inside its boundaries. These structures included temples, pyramids, shrines, ball courts, cermonial structures and resident areas.
6Tikal Abandoned Site abandoned by the end of the 10 the century Possible reasons for the abandonment include overpopulation, environmental degradation, drought and the Maya's long history of warfareAfter site abandonment Tikal was overgrown by the jungleTikal was largely forgotten, except as a legend about a lost city of the Maya
7Site Re-discoverySite was re-discovered in 1846 by a gum-collector named Ambrosio TutAmbrosio spotted Tikal’s temple roof combs rising out of the jungleThe discovery of the site was published in the 1853 by the Berlin Academy of ScienceMany expeditions to study the site soon followedTemples I and II rising out of the jungle
8First Archaeological Study of Tikal In 1956 The University of Pennsylvania began the first archaeological study and excavation of TikalBefore the excavation, much of the site was covered by the jungleArchaeologist created a map of Tikal’s 4,000 structuresStructures include: temples, ball courts, palaces, residential complexes and causeways.
10Panorama of the grand Plaza Panorama photograph of the Great Plaza and Central Acropolis
11Pyramids Tikal feature 6 large step pyramids, Temples I-VI Some of the pyramids are over 60 meters (200 feet) tallTemples served many purposes-Platforms used in religious rituals-Observatories-Tombs for rulersTemples constantly added toWhenever a new ruler came in to power, he would build a new layer on an existing pyramid or built a new pyramid
12Maya Pyramids vs Egyptian Pyramids Built of small cut stones on a rubble coreServed many functions-temple, tombs, platform for public ceremoniesOften built on top of older, existing temples and pyramidsBuilt of large blocks of cut stoneBuilt as as a tomb for pharaohs
13Technology Maya buildings were typically made from limestone Stone was cut in quarries and then moved to the sitesLimestone in its bed is soft enough to be cut by stone tools. Limestone hardens in the sun.Pyramids build without metal tools, pulleys or wheelsMaya pyramids havevery steep steps
143-D Tour of Grand Plaza 3-D tour of the Grand Plaza Movie: 3-D Tour of the Grand Plaza
15Temple ILarge carved piece of stone, or stelae often depicted historical events or religious storiesTemple 1, or Temple of the JaguarTemple I was built for the 26th ruler of Tikal, Jasaw.The building date is unknown as it is unclear if Jasawbuilt it for himself or if his son, Yik`in, constructed it inhonor of his deceased father.
16Temple II Temple II, or Temple of the Moon Built in the eighth-century Tikal ruler Jasaw Chan K`awiilTemple II is dedicated to King Jasa’s wife, Lady Twelve Macaw (died 704 A.D.)Lady Twelve Macaw is buried inside this temple.
17Temple IV is the tallest structure at Tikal. Temples IV is 70 meters in height and is the second tallest structure built by the Maya.Built by Yik`in Chan Kawil, son of Jasaw, in the mid-8th century.Temple contains a tomb, however, archaeologists have not identified the owner of the tombTemple IV is currently undergoing restoration. It has not been fully excavated. In this picture you can see the jungle still covering part of the temple
18The Central Acropolis The Central Acropolis Central Acropolis The Central Acropolis, on the rightTemple II to the leftMost of its buildings are of the so-called palace type, probably used for daily functions of the royal court.
19The North AcropolisThe North Acropolis was the focus of the city`s religious architecture and the preferred place of burial for rulersDozens of tombs dating back well into the Preclassic period.
20Maya architectural features Roof CombDecorative structure that sit on top of a buildingRoofcombs were elaborately decorated with images important to the Maya peopleRoof combs acts as billboards projecting poltical and religious messages to the peopleThe roof comb of Temple II, also known as the Temple of the Mask has a very large roof comb. The roof comb still contain traces of the oringal jaguars, mask etc
21Ball courts Tikal has five ball courts. Ball games played as a a sacred ritual and had an important role in Maya religion and cultureBall courts are often located in or adjacent to important ceremonial and monumental areas.
22Ballgames played as an important ritual ceremony Exact rules of the game are unknown, but some rules have been learned from images of the ballgame on carved stone and painted on potteryGame played with a heavy solid rubber ballObject of the game was probably to keep the ball in play using hips and forearmsCourts had stone rings which may have been used as goals