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Biotechnology A historical overview Dr Chee Kai Chan La Trobe University.

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1 Biotechnology A historical overview Dr Chee Kai Chan La Trobe University

2 Biotechnology ModernBiotech ClassicalBiotech Genomics RecombinantDNA MicrobialBiotech PlantBiotech AnimalBiotech MarineBiotech Immunology MedicalBiotech Forensic Fermentation Breeding Restriction enzymology Cloning Microarrays/GENE CHIP Human Genome Project Functional genomics PROTEOMICS CANCER RESEARCH GENE THERAPY THERAPEUTIC CLONING STEM CELLS HUMAN DEFENCE SYSTEM VACCINESANTIBODIES FOOD BIOTECH ENZYMOLOGYANTIBIOTICSFUELSBIOPOLYMERSAGRICULTUREBIOREMEDIATION TISSUE CULTURE GENETICALLY MODIFIED MEDICIANL TRANSGENICSAGRICULTURE FISH BIOTECH NATURAL BIOPRODUCTS ANIMAL HUSBUNDARY CROP IMPROVEMENT HIGHER YEILD HIGHER RESISTANCE CHEESEBEERWINEBREADYOGHURT DNA FINGER PRINTING CRIMINIAL PROFILING CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION

3 Dynamic time line of biotechnology ne2.asphttp://www.bio.org/speeches/pubs/er/timeli ne2.asp meline.htmhttp://www.childrensmuseum.org/biotech/ti meline.htm

4 Definitions biology to solve problemsUse of biology to solve problems Biological products useful to manDeveloping Biological products useful to man 1917 by Karl Ereky use of any living organism for a practical purpose,Biotechnology” was first coined in 1917 by Karl Ereky, a Hungarian engineer and for much of the last century; it has been the broad term applied to the use of any living organism for a practical purpose, anything from the selective breeding of plants and animals to fermentation of beer or treatment of sewage with organic materials.

5 Classical Biotech  Cutting edge Biotech Making of bread using yeast Wine from grapes Cheese & yoghurt from milk Beers from malt & barley New crops and animals from breeding Therapeutic drugs-magic bullet GM Super crops pest resistant and bumper yield Nanobots for microsurgery Personalized medicine, information of personal genome on a chip

6 Domestication of animals and cultivation of plants Artificial selection of genetic variation or selective breeding BC Evidence since BC Eg maize, rice, wheat, palms, dogs, horses, camels,oxens Prehistoric attempts by ancient ancestors to manipulate genetic composition of useful species. Biotechnology: Is it something new ?

7 Yeast for baking, wine & beers /Chem101/alcohol/alcohol.htm Sumerian tablet recipe for beer 3200 BC Ancient Egyptians diet included bread & beer Chinese use of fermentation using beneficial bacteria to flavor and preserve food. Aztecs make cakes from Spirulina algae year old bread d.htm

8 Herbs for medicine ancient vaccines Saffron- stigmas of the flower Crocus sativus Cumin Tumeric And the ancient Chinese first inoculated people with a weakened strain of the smallpox (variola) virus to prevent further infection

9 Greek ideas of inheritance Hippocrates ( BC) Various parts of a man’s body contains “humors” that are bearers of hereditary traits that are drawn to contribute to the semen. Offspring preformed as miniature, newborn which will inherit the traits of father. Aristotle ( BC) Male semen possess the “vital heat” which cooks and shapes the menstrual blood which is the “physical substance’ to give rise to an offspring Embryo develops as a result of shaping power of vital heat.

10 Dawn of modern biology Theory of Epigenesis Embryonic development Differentiates into adult structures and organs not present initially. They are formed de novo. Theory of Preformation Sex cell contain a complete miniature adult called the homunculus. Its perfect in every form Still popular in the 1700s Dispel by embryologist Casper Wolff.

11 Why was Mendel's work not appreciated b4 1900? birth of modern genetics Charles Darwin Origin of species Gregor Mendel Principles of Inheritance in pea plants Carl Correns, Hugo de Vries & Tschermak Rediscovery of Mendel’s work. Beginning of modern genetics 1900 Natural selection. How does the variation that drives evolution get transmitted? If Darwin had considered Mendel's work he would have an available answer. Darwin did receive Mendel's paper but was unread (unopened).

12 Gregor Johann Mendel father of classical genetics Heinzendorf Central Europe Augustinian monk 1856 Developed the theory of inheritance Demonstrated with statistical data from crossing Pisum sativum Units of inheritance exist and parents transmit these traits to offspring in predictable pattern. Hybridization expts thru careful observation, experimental design, analysis and good science laid down the principles of transmission genetics Unappreciated, but rediscovered 1900 Experiments in plant hybridization

13 Pasteurization French chemist Louis Pasteur develops pasteurization - preserving food by heating it to destroy harmful microbes.

14 Chromosomal theory of inheritance Chromosomes discovered in early 20 th century Epigenetic interpretation was further established Inherited traits are controlled by genes They reside in chromosomes These traits are faithfully transmitted through gametes (reproductive cell) to future individuals in the next generation Thomas Hunt Morgan

15 cell biology, chromosomes, the search for genetic material Stevens & Wilson Sex chr XX: female XY: male Archibald Garrod Inborn errors of metabolism Due to lack of specific enzyme (albinism & alkaptonuria) 1944 Avery, MacLeod & McCarty Purified the transforming principle found to be DNA 1945 Max Delbruck Bacteriophages NB Nucleic acid was 1 st discovered 1869 by Friedrich Miescher obtained from pus 1910 Thomas H Morgan Chr theory of inheritance X linked inheritance Fly lab (Sturtevant) Linkage analysis Barbara McClintock Jumping genes Colour variation in Maize Transposable elements Erwin Chargaff A:T, G:C ratio 1 st antibiotic Penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming Howard Florey term biotechnology used fro the 1 st time Karl Ereky

16 Paul Berg & Herb Boyer 1 st recombinant DNA molecules 1972 Francis Crick & James Watson Solved double helix structure of DNA The code breakers Smith & Wilcox 1 st restriction enzyme Hind III Rosalind Franklin X-ray diffraction photos of DNA 1952 Martha Chase & Alfred Hershey Proof that DNA is Molecule of heredity 1977 Fred Sanger DNA sequencing Boyer Human Insulin from bacteria 1978 Genentech Monolconal antibody 1975 Kohler and Milstein. The dawn of biotechnology

17 1960s-1980s L-Dopa as a therapeutic agent1960's Olah Hornykiewicz, who originally discovered that Parkinson's disease - development of L-Dopa as a therapeutic agent while working in Toronto Discovery of the hematopoietic stem cell by Toronto researchers monoclonal antibodies1975 George Kohler and Cesar Milstein show that fusing cells can generate monoclonal antibodies. human insulin 1982 First genetically engineered product - human insulin produced by Eli Lilly and Company using E. coli bacteria - is approved for use by diabetics.

18 Kary Mullis PCR 1985 Olson, YAC Francis Collins Lap Chee Tsui Identified gene CFTR (cystic fibrosis) Human Genome project Embryonic stem cells 1998 GM corn, FlavrSavr tomatoes 1994 Breast cancer gene Bcl-1, Bcl-2 Obesity gene Apoptosis gene etc identified Wilmut Clones Dolly 1997 Gene Chip Gene control of development in Drosophila Gene therapy trial Automated DNA Sequencing machine Caltech & ABI 1986 Check timeline Huntington's disease Linked to marker Gusella Announcement of HGP completion Collins & Venter Alec Jeffreys DNA fingerprinting 1984

19 Glofish 2003 GM zebrafish 1985 Olson, YAC Preimplantation genetics Alec Jeffreys DNA fingerprinting 1989 Francis Collins Lap Chee Tsui Identified gene CFTR (cystic fibrosis) Human Genome project Embryonic stem cells differentiat ed to heart muscle cells cells 1998 GM corn, tomatoes FlavrSavr 1994 Breast cancer gene Bcl-1, Bcl-2 Obesity gene Apoptosis gene etc identified Gene Chip Gene control of development in Drosophila Personal genome Sequencing $1000 Rice genome seq Check timeline Personalised medicine Announcement of HGP completion Collins & Venter

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21 Gene-ethics II Genetics and agriculture GM food: increased yields, increase resistance to pest etc super strains and special desirable qualities eg increase protein yield, with special vitamins, or aa, reduce vulnerability to weather conditions or pesticide. Green revolution-Borlaug, Nobel prize 1970-mexican wheat Bt (B.thuringiensis) pest resistance (produce toxin that kills insects) Round up (glyphosate resistance gene) Genetics and medicine Human Genome project Gene therapy Animal Cloning Human Cloning Stem cells-regenerative medicine

22 Biotechnology ModernBiotech ClassicalBiotech Genomics RecombinantDNA MicrobialBiotech PlantBiotech AnimalBiotech MarineBiotech Immunology MedicalBiotech Forensic Fermentation Breeding Restriction enzymology Cloning Microarrays/GENE CHIP Human Genome Project Functional genomics PROTEOMICS CANCER RESEARCH GENE THERAPY THERAPEUTIC CLONING STEM CELLS HUMAN DEFENCE SYSTEM VACCINESANTIBODIES FOOD BIOTECH ENZYMOLOGYANTIBIOTICSFUELSBIOPOLYMERSAGRICULTUREBIOREMEDIATION TISSUE CULTURE GENETICALLY MODIFIED MEDICIANL TRANSGENICSAGRICULTURE FISH BIOTECH NATURAL BIOPRODUCTS ANIMAL HUSBUNDARY CROP IMPROVEMENT HIGHER YEILD HIGHER RESISTANCE CHEESEBEERWINEBREADYOGHURT DNA FINGER PRINTING CRIMINIAL PROFILING CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION


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