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Introduction to Network Theory: Modern Concepts, Algorithms and Applications Ernesto Estrada Department of Mathematics, Department of Physics Institute of Complex Systems at Strathclyde University of Strathclyde www.estradalab.org

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Types of graphs Weighted graphs Weighted graphs Multigraphs Multigraphs Pseudographs Pseudographs Digraphs Digraphs Simple graphs Simple graphs

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Weighted graph is a graph for which each edge has an associated weight, usually given by a weight function w: E R, generally positive

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Adjacency Matrix of Weighted graphs

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Degree of Weighted graphs The sum of the weights associated to every edge incident to the corresponding node The sum of the corresponding row or column of the adjacency matrix Degree 1.5 4.9 6 2.8 3.3

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Multigraph or pseudograph is a graph which is permitted to have multiple edges. Is an ordered pair G:=(V,E) with V a set of nodes E a multiset of unordered pairs of vertices.

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Adjacency Matrix of Multigraphs

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Directed Graph (digraph) Edges have directions Edges have directions The adjacency matrix is not symmetric The adjacency matrix is not symmetric

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Simple Graphs Simple graphs are graphs without multiple edges or self-loops. They are weighted graphs with all edge weights equal to one. B ED C A

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Local metrics Local metrics provide a measurement of a structural property of a single node Designed to characterise Functional role – what part does this node play in system dynamics? Structural importance – how important is this node to the structural characteristics of the system?

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Degree Centrality B ED C A 1431114311 degree

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Betweenness centrality The number of shortest paths in the graph that pass through the node divided by the total number of shortest paths.

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Betweenness centrality B Shortest paths are: AB, AC, ABD, ABE, BC, BD, BE, CBD, CBE, DBE B has a BC of 5 A C D E

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Betweenness centrality Nodes with a high betweenness centrality are interesting because they control information flow in a network may be required to carry more information And therefore, such nodes may be the subject of targeted attack

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Closeness centrality The normalised inverse of the sum of topological distances in the graph.

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B ED C A 6467764677 Closeness centrality

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B ED C A Closeness 0.67 1.00 0.67 0.57

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Node B is the most central one in spreading information from it to the other nodes in the network. Closeness centrality

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B ED C A Local metrics Node B is the most central one according to the degree, betweenness and closeness centralities.

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Which is the most central node? A B and the winner is… A is the most central according to the degree B is the most central according to closeness and betweenness

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Degree: Difficulties

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Extending the Concept of Degree Make x i proportional to the average of the centralities of its i’s network neighbors where is a constant. In matrix-vector notation we can write In order to make the centralities non-negative we select the eigenvector corresponding to the principal eigenvalue (Perron-Frobenius theorem).

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Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors The value λ is an eigenvalue of matrix A if there exists a non-zero vector x, such that Ax=λx. Vector x is an eigenvector of matrix A The largest eigenvalue is called the principal eigenvalue The corresponding eigenvector is the principal eigenvector Corresponds to the direction of maximum change

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Eigenvector Centrality The corresponding entry of the principal eigenvector of the adjacency matrix of the network. It assigns relative scores to all nodes in the network based on the principle that connections to high-scoring nodes contribute more.

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Node EC 1 0.500 2 0.238 3 0.238 4 0.575 5 0.354 6 0.354 7 0.168 8 0.168 Eigenvector Centrality

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Eigenvector Centrality: Difficulties In regular graphs all the nodes have exactly the same value of the eigenvector centrality, which is equal to

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Subgraph Centrality A closed walk of length k in a graph is a succession of k (not necessarily different) edges starting and ending at the same node, e.g. 1,2,8,1 (length 3) 4,5,6,7,4 (length 4) 2,8,7,6,3,2 (length 5)

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Subgraph Centrality The number of closed walk of length k starting at the same node i is given by the ii-entry of the kth power of the adjacency matrix

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Subgraph Centrality We are interested in giving weights in decreasing order of the length of the closed walks. Then, visiting the closest neighbors receive more weight that visiting very distant ones. The subgraph centrality is then defined as the following weighted sum

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Subgraph Centrality By selecting c l =1/l! we obtain where e A is the exponential of the adjacency matrix. For simple graphs we have

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Subgraph Centrality Nodes EE(i) 1,2,8 3.902 4,6 3.705 3,5,7 3.638

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Subgraph Centrality: Comparsions Nodes EE(i) 1,2,8 3.902 4,6 3.705 3,5,7 3.638 Nodes BC(i) 1,2,8 9.528 4,6 7.143 3,5,7 11.111

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Subgraph Centrality: Comparisons Nodes EE(i) 45.696 45.651

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Path of length 6 Walk of length 8 Shortest path Communicability

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Let be the number of walks of length k>s between p and q. Let be the number of shortest paths of length s between p and q. DEFINITION (Communicability): and must be selected such as the communicability converges. Communicability

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By selecting b l =1/l! and c l =1/l! we obtain where e A is the exponential of the adjacency matrix. For simple graphs we have

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Communicability

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p p q q

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intracluster intercluster Communicability

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Communicability & Communities A community is a group of nodes for wich the intra-cluster communicability is larger than the inter-cluster one These nodes communicates better among them than with the rest of extra-community nodes.

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Let The communicability graph (G) is the graph whose adjacency matrix is given by (G)) results from the elementwise application of the function (G) to the matrix (G). Communicability Graph

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communicability graph Communicability Graph

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A community is defined as a clique in the communicability graph. Identifying communities is reduced to the “all cliques problem” in the communicability graph. Communicability Graph

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Social (Friendship) Network Communities: Example

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The Network Its Communicability Graph

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Communities Social Networks Metabolic Networks

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References Aldous & Wilson, Graphs and Applications. An Introductory Approach, Springer, 2000. Wasserman & Faust, Social Network Analysis, Cambridge University Press, 2008. Estrada & Rodríguez-Velázquez, Phys. Rev. E 2005, 71, 056103. Estrada & Hatano, Phys. Rev. E. 2008, 77, 036111.

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Exercise 1 Identify the most central node according to the following criteria: (a) the largest chance of receiving information from closest neighbors; (b) spreading information to the rest of nodes in the network; (c) passing information from some nodes to others.

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Exercise 2 T.M.Y. Chan collaborates with 9 scientists in computational geometry. S.L. Abrams also collaborates with other 9 (different) scientists in the same network. However, Chan has a subgraph centrality of 10 9, while Abrams has 10 3. The eigenvector centrality also shows the same trend, EC(Chan) = 10 -2 ; EC(Abrams) = 10 -8. (a) Which scientist has more chances of being informed about the new trends in computational geometry? (b) What are the possible causes of the observed differences in the subgraph centrality and eigenvector centrality?

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Exercise 2. Illustration.

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