3South American Civilizations Formative CHAVIN 900 BCE to 500 BCEhighlands of Andesflourished at this timegreat ceremonial centerClassicMOCHICA CEstarted on coastshifted to highlands from coastNASCA CEPost ClassicTIAHUANCO CEin the Andes Mts.HUARI CECHIMUINCAS1100 Cuzco startsEmpire
5El Paraiso, Peru (after 7,000 B.C.) Coastal Peru SubsistenceFish and Shellfish-Marine, Deer, Sm mammals, birds-Interior ValleysLater-(ca 5,000 B.C.)Marine and plant productsJicama, Achira (squash and tubors)first, permanent year round settlements
6El Paraiso Site 2 km from coast 9 large stoen structures (ca 140 acres)some 980 by 325 feet in sizestructures have several rooms, stone walls faced with mud and painted red, black and white.Cotton netsone room had cotton, wool and needles (weaving area?)Moseley-Maritime HypothesisComplex cultures arose due to abundance of marine resourcesSimilar to NW coast of US.Abandoned ca B.C.
8Chavin de Huantar, Peru (1,000-100 B.C.) Andean Highlandsearliest Andean center10,000 feet above sea level, 100 acres.Chavin horizon (culture)Artistic style found in artifacts on highlands and coastCombines people, snakes, jaguars, caymans and birds with geometric designs.
9Chavin de Huantar Architecture Stone platforms covering one acreLargest was Castillo (new Temple), 45 feet high.Platforms not solid but composed of many rooms, exterior faced in granite.Old Temple-u shaped, inside was large white granite object, 13 feet long.pillar with Great Image, pointed at both ends and fastened to floor and ceiling.Carved in bas-relief.
11The Moche culture Lambayeque Valley from 100 to 700 AD. A culture that has left impressive archaeological sites and some of the most outstanding pottery to be seen in Peru's museums, is named after the river which flows into the ocean just south of Trujillo. The word Mochica has been used interchangeably with Moche and refers to a dialect spoken in the Trujillo area at the time of the conquest, though not necessarily spoken by the Moche people. Moche is now the preferred usage.
12Moche Social Structure The most important people, especially the priests and warriors, were members of the urban classes and lived closest to the large ceremonial pyramids and other temples. They were surrounded by a middle class of artisans and then, in descending order: farmers and fishermen, servants, slaves and beggars.The priests and warriors were both honored and obeyed. They are the people most frequently shown in ceramics, which depict them being carried in litters wearing particularly fine jewelry or clothing.Their authority is evident from pots showing scenes of punishment, including the mutilation and death of those who dared to disobey.
13Moche Ceramics and Metallurgy Clothing, musical instruments, tools and jewelry are all frequent subjects for ceramics.As there was no written language, most of what we know about the Moche comes from this wealth of pottery. The ceramics also show us that the Moche had well-developed weaving techniques but, because of rare rainstorms every few decades, most of their textiles have been destroyed. Metalwork, on the other hand, has survived. They used gold, silver and copper mainly for ornaments but some heavy copper implements have also been found.
15Lord of SipanHalf god, half man, king among his people, a privileged person, a noble, a warrior, lord over the lords of his time, the Lord of Sipan was revealed to the world in the last years of the 20th century.He reigned approximately 200 A.D. and died about 40 years of age.
16Lord of SipanA re-creation of the tomb, aids and wives were buried with him.The Moche believed in the afterlife and many of their pottery remains show people in a meditative pose.
18NazcaLocated on the south coast, began in 100 BC and was greatly influenced by Chavin and Paracoa, but it reached its height between the 3rd and 9th centuries AD.It was militaristic and aristocratic, with a strong social class structure. They built underground acqueducts to bring water from the mountains for agriculture.Nasca is best known for the Nasca Lines, geometric designs and animals constructed by paths across the desert and best seen from the air.Their purpose is not known but some archaeologists believe they are related to the mountain gods.
27TiwanakuThe Tiwanaku polity dominated the south central Andes between ca. ADThe population settling the Tiwanaku core area came to dominate the region as the capital of the most important polity by A.D. 400.
31HuariHuari culture is a sythesis of the Huanta, Nasca and Tiahuanaco cultures.The civilization covered an area from the Moche in the north to Arequipa in the south.The Huari culture is considered to be one of the greatest cultures in ancient Peru, not only for its technical advances but for its influence. Some archaeologists believe the Huari created an empire before the Inca.They expanded their territory through war and spread the worship of the sun associated with Tiahuanaco.As they expanded they built huge cities to control their territories, built roads for communication, and spread the Quechua language.
33The ChimuThe next important period in the Trujillo area, the Chimu, lasted from about 1000 AD to 1470 AD.The Chimu built a capital at Chan Chan, just north of Trujillo.Chan Chan is the largest pre-Columbian city in Peru, covering about 28 sq km, and is estimated to have housed about 50,000 people. The Chimu preceded the Incas who conquered them in
37Similarities with Mesoamerican Civilzations Powerful RulersFood ProductionHierarchyElaborate Ceremony and RitualReligion with human sacrificeElaborate Cities and architecture
38Differences from Mesoamerican Civlizations Cities shorter livedNot core like Basin of Mexico, power shifted between coast and HighlandsAnimal Domestication more important-llama, alpaca, guinea pigs.Paved road systemNo writing systemNumerical apparatus-quipu (knot)Better preservationAdobe housesTextilesHuman remains-mummies