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Selection MANA 3320 Dr. Jeanne Michalski

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1 Selection MANA 3320 Dr. Jeanne Michalski

2 The Goal of Selection: Maximize “Hits” MISS Inaccurate prediction (Person would have succeeded on the job) Inaccurate prediction (Person would have succeeded on the job)MISS HIT Accurate prediction (Person succeeds on the job) Accurate prediction (Person succeeds on the job)HIT HIT Accurate prediction (Person would not have succeeded on the job) Accurate prediction (Person would not have succeeded on the job)HIT MISS Inaccurate prediction (Person fails on the job) Inaccurate prediction (Person fails on the job)MISS Predicted Success Job Performance Low High “Earns a Bonus” “Is a Bonehead”

3 The Selection Process Obtaining Reliable and Valid Information Obtaining Reliable and Valid Information Reliability Reliability The degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative measures. The degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative measures. Validity Validity Degree to which a test or selection procedure measures a person’s attributes. Degree to which a test or selection procedure measures a person’s attributes.

4 Reliability: Basic Concepts Observed score = true score + error Observed score = true score + error Error is anything that impacts test scores that is not the characteristic being measured Error is anything that impacts test scores that is not the characteristic being measured Reliability measures error Reliability measures error Lower the error the better the measure Lower the error the better the measure

5 EEOC Uniform Guidelines Reliability – consistency of the measure If the same person takes the test again will he/she earn the same score? Potential contaminations: Test takers physical or mental state Test takers physical or mental state Environmental factors Environmental factors Test forms Test forms Multiple raters Multiple raters

6 Reliability as Stability over Time HIGH RELIABILITY TESTRETEST APPLICANTSCORESCORE Smith9093 Perez6562 Riley Chan8078 VERY LOW RELIABILITYTESTRETEST APPLICANTSCORE SCORE Smith9072 Perez6588 Riley11067 Chan80111

7 Reliability as Consistency (Interrater Reliability) HIGH RELIABILITY APPLICANTRater #1Rater #2Rater #3 Smith988 Perez565 Riley455 Chan888 VERY LOW RELIABILITY APPLICANTRater #1Rater #2Rater #3 Smith956 Perez594 Riley427 Chan842

8 Correlation How strongly are two variables related? How strongly are two variables related? Correlation coefficient (r) Correlation coefficient (r) Ranges from to 1.00 Ranges from to 1.00 Illustrated using scatter plots Illustrated using scatter plots Used to test consistency and accuracy of measure Used to test consistency and accuracy of measure

9 Correlation Scatterplots Figure 5.3

10 Reliability vs. Validity

11 Approaches to Validation Content validity Content validity The extent to which a selection instrument, such as a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job. The extent to which a selection instrument, such as a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job. Example: typing tests, driver’s license examinations, work sample Example: typing tests, driver’s license examinations, work sample Construct validity Construct validity The extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct or trait. The extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct or trait. Are difficult to validate Are difficult to validate Example: creative arts tests, honesty tests Example: creative arts tests, honesty tests

12 Approaches to Validation Criterion-related Validity Criterion-related Validity The extent to which a selection tool predicts, or significantly correlates with, important elements of work behavior. The extent to which a selection tool predicts, or significantly correlates with, important elements of work behavior. A high score indicates high job performance potential; a low score is predictive of low job performance. A high score indicates high job performance potential; a low score is predictive of low job performance. Two types of Criterion-related validity Two types of Criterion-related validity Concurrent Validity Concurrent Validity Predictive Validity Predictive Validity

13 Approaches to Validation Concurrent Validity Concurrent Validity The extent to which test scores (or other predictor information) match criterion data obtained at about the same time from current employees. The extent to which test scores (or other predictor information) match criterion data obtained at about the same time from current employees. High or low test scores for employees match their respective job performance. High or low test scores for employees match their respective job performance. Predictive Validity Predictive Validity The extent to which applicants’ test scores match criterion data obtained from those applicants/ employees after they have been on the job for some indefinite period. The extent to which applicants’ test scores match criterion data obtained from those applicants/ employees after they have been on the job for some indefinite period. A high or low test score at hiring predicts high or low job performance at a point in time after hiring. A high or low test score at hiring predicts high or low job performance at a point in time after hiring.

14 Reliability vs. Validity Validity Coefficients Validity Coefficients Reject below.11 Reject below.11 Very useful above.21 Very useful above.21 Rarely exceed.40 Rarely exceed.40 Reliability Coefficients Reliability Coefficients Reject below.70 Reject below.70 Very useful above.90 Very useful above.90 Rarely approaches 1.00 Rarely approaches 1.00 Why the difference?

15 Principles of Assessment Don’t rely on a single method. Don’t rely on a single method. Use only fair and unbiased instruments. Use only fair and unbiased instruments. Use only reliable instruments. Use only reliable instruments. Use only valid instruments for a specific purpose. Use only valid instruments for a specific purpose. Use only tools designed for a specific group. Use only tools designed for a specific group. Use instruments with understandable instructions. Use instruments with understandable instructions. Ensure test administration staff are properly trained. Ensure test administration staff are properly trained. Ensure test conditions are suitable for all test takers. Ensure test conditions are suitable for all test takers. Provide reasonable accommodation. Provide reasonable accommodation. Maintain confidentiality of results. Maintain confidentiality of results. Ensure proper interpretation of results. Ensure proper interpretation of results.

16 Steps in the Selection Process Initial screening of application or resume Initial screening of application or resume Employment testing, if applicable Employment testing, if applicable Interview (may include multiple visits for interviews) Interview (may include multiple visits for interviews) HR HR Supervisor/Team Supervisor/Team Others Others Contingent Offer Contingent Offer Background/Reference Checks Background/Reference Checks Medical/Drug screen Medical/Drug screen

17 Application Forms Only ask info related to job KSA’s Link to job performance Use thorough job analysis and validation techniques Consider potential adverse impact Careful collecting personal characteristics Race, National Origin, Gender, Age etc. Law assumes all questions are used in hiring More is not necessarily better Different applications for different jobs Instructions and Disclaimers Improve validity through weighted applications (WAB’s)

18 Online Applications An Internet-based automated posting, application, and tracking process helps firms to more quickly fill positions by: An Internet-based automated posting, application, and tracking process helps firms to more quickly fill positions by: Attracting a broader and more diverse applicant pool Attracting a broader and more diverse applicant pool Collecting and mining resumes with keyword searches to identify qualified candidates Collecting and mining resumes with keyword searches to identify qualified candidates Conducting screening tests online Conducting screening tests online Reducing recruiting costs significantly Reducing recruiting costs significantly

19 Resumes Applicant controls the information Applicant controls the information Many examples of fraud or omission Many examples of fraud or omission Up to 50% contain some inaccuracy Up to 50% contain some inaccuracy Jobs and education should be verified Jobs and education should be verified One question honesty test One question honesty test Requirements for education and experiences should be job-related. Requirements for education and experiences should be job-related.

20 Biodata Inventories Generally reliable and valid Generally reliable and valid Series of questions on a wide variety of subjects Series of questions on a wide variety of subjects Background (e.g. hobbies, jobs, and education) Background (e.g. hobbies, jobs, and education) Situational questions Situational questions Personality and Values Personality and Values Compared to a profile generated from successful employees or database for occupations. Compared to a profile generated from successful employees or database for occupations.

21 Examples of Biographical Questions How many jobs have you held in the last five years? Were you ever class president? While growing up, did you collect coins? About how many fiction books have you read in the past year? How many hours a week do you spend studying? At what age did you leave home? How large was the town/city in which you lived as a child? Did you ever build a model airplane that flew? Were sports a big part of your childhood? Do you play any musical instruments?

22 Employment Tests Employment Test Employment Test An objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior that is used to gauge a person’s knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) in relation to other individuals. An objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior that is used to gauge a person’s knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) in relation to other individuals. Pre-employment testing has the potential for lawsuits. Pre-employment testing has the potential for lawsuits.

23 Classification of Employment Tests Cognitive Ability Tests Cognitive Ability Tests Aptitude tests Aptitude tests Measures of a person’s capacity to learn or acquire skills. Measures of a person’s capacity to learn or acquire skills. Achievement tests Achievement tests Measures of what a person knows or can do right now. Measures of what a person knows or can do right now. Personality and Interest Inventories Personality and Interest Inventories “Big Five” personality factors: “Big Five” personality factors: Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience. Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience.

24 Classification of Employment Tests (cont’d) Physical Ability Tests Physical Ability Tests Must be related to the essential functions of job. Must be related to the essential functions of job. Job Knowledge Tests Job Knowledge Tests An achievement test that measures a person’s level of understanding about a particular job. An achievement test that measures a person’s level of understanding about a particular job. Work Sample Tests Work Sample Tests Require the applicant to perform tasks that are actually a part of the work required on the job. Require the applicant to perform tasks that are actually a part of the work required on the job.

25 Effectiveness of Selection Methods A survey of 201 HR executives rated selection methods on the effectiveness producing the best employees. Work samples3.68 Structured interviews3.42 Assessment centers3.42 Specific aptitude tests3.08 Personality tests2.93 General cognitive ability tests2.89 Biographical information blanks2.84 Unstructured interview < 1.00

26 Common Background Checks

27 Education Education Employment Employment References References Criminal History Criminal History Credit Check Credit Check Drug Screen Drug Screen Medical Screen Medical Screen

28 Drug testing Drug testing Urinalysis vs. RIAH (Hair testing) Urinalysis vs. RIAH (Hair testing) ADA prohibits pre-employment screening for alcohol ADA prohibits pre-employment screening for alcohol Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988 Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988 Credit checks Credit checks Depends on the job – e.g. cash handling, children. Depends on the job – e.g. cash handling, children. Signed consent to background or credit checks. Signed consent to background or credit checks. Fair Credit Reporting Act Fair Credit Reporting Act Family Educational Rights Privacy Act Family Educational Rights Privacy Act Privacy Act of 1974 Privacy Act of 1974 Employee Polygraph Protection Act (1988) Employee Polygraph Protection Act (1988) “Screening-out” Devices

29 Background Checks Negligent hiring Negligent hiring The failure of an organization to discover, via due diligence, that an employee it hired had the propensity to do harm to others The failure of an organization to discover, via due diligence, that an employee it hired had the propensity to do harm to others Sources of Information Sources of Information Social Security verification Social Security verification Past employment Past employment Educational verification Educational verification Criminal records Criminal records Motor vehicle records Motor vehicle records Credit check Credit check Military records Military records

30 Negligent Hiring The person causing harm was an employee. The person causing harm was an employee. The person was incompetent (rather than a competent employee acting negligently). The person was incompetent (rather than a competent employee acting negligently). Employer knew or should have known about the incompetence. Employer knew or should have known about the incompetence. Injury or harm was a foreseeable consequence of hiring the incompetent employee. Injury or harm was a foreseeable consequence of hiring the incompetent employee. Hiring of the unfit employee was proximate cause of the injury or harm. Hiring of the unfit employee was proximate cause of the injury or harm.

31 Reference Checks Telephone, mail, and checks Telephone, mail, and checks Specific job-related information Specific job-related information Letters of reference Letters of reference Online computerized databases Online computerized databases Privacy Act of 1974 Privacy Act of 1974 Requires signed requests for reference letters and signed consent to background checks. Requires signed requests for reference letters and signed consent to background checks. Applies to both educational and private employers. Applies to both educational and private employers.

32 Employee Polygraph Protection Act (1988) Use of “lie detectors” is largely prohibited. Use of “lie detectors” is largely prohibited. Act requires qualified examiners. Act requires qualified examiners. Act requires disclosure of information where used. Act requires disclosure of information where used. Encouraged employers’ use of paper and pencil integrity and honesty tests. Encouraged employers’ use of paper and pencil integrity and honesty tests.

33 Background Investigations Organizations using credit reports must: Organizations using credit reports must: 1. Check state laws to see if credit reports can legally be used. 2. Advise and receive written consent from applicants if a report will be requested. 3. Provide a written certification to the consumer reporting agency as to the purpose of the report. 4. Provide applicants a copy of the consumer report as well as a summary of their rights under the CCRRA. 5. Must provide an adverse-action notice a person if that person is not hired and contact information related to the reporting agency.

34 Criminal Background Checks Employers can obtain criminal background information by: Employers can obtain criminal background information by: (1) Asking applicants for certain information during the interview process or on a job application (2) Obtaining criminal record information from a state agency (with the consent of the applicants) (3) by hiring an investigator or security firm Before the information is gathered, employers should have specific guidelines for how they will use the information. Before the information is gathered, employers should have specific guidelines for how they will use the information.

35 Decision Criteria The hiring official will determine on a case-by-case basis whether the individual is qualified based on factors such as: Specific duties of the position; Specific duties of the position; Number of offenses; Number of offenses; Nature of each offense; Nature of each offense; Length of time intervening between the offense and the employment decision; Length of time intervening between the offense and the employment decision; Employment history; Employment history; Efforts at rehabilitation; and Efforts at rehabilitation; and Accuracy of the information that the individual provided on the employment application Accuracy of the information that the individual provided on the employment application

36 Background Investigations (cont.) Medical Examinations Medical Examinations Given last as they can be costly. Given last as they can be costly. Ensure that the health of an applicant is adequate to meet the job requirements. Ensure that the health of an applicant is adequate to meet the job requirements. Provides a baseline for subsequent examinations Provides a baseline for subsequent examinations ADA requires all exams be job-related and conducted after an employment offer is made. ADA requires all exams be job-related and conducted after an employment offer is made. Testing for illegal drugs is allowed. Testing for illegal drugs is allowed.

37 Drug Testing Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 Testing for illegal drugs is required of applicants and employees of federal contractors. Testing for illegal drugs is required of applicants and employees of federal contractors. Questions about the efficacy of testing Questions about the efficacy of testing Why spend large sums on testing when… Why spend large sums on testing when… testing for drugs doesn’t appear to make the workplace safer or improve employee performance? testing for drugs doesn’t appear to make the workplace safer or improve employee performance? few applicants actually test positive and alcohol abuse creates more problems in the workplace? few applicants actually test positive and alcohol abuse creates more problems in the workplace?

38 Most Common Types of Background Checks Use of Pre-Employment Background Screening by Fortune 1000 Companies* *Tools that 212 security representatives at Fortune 1000 companies said their companies use consistently. Source: Top Security Threats and Management Issues Facing Corporate America, Pinkerton Consulting and Investigations, Inc.

39 Principles of Assessment Don’t rely on a single method. Don’t rely on a single method. Use only fair and unbiased instruments. Use only fair and unbiased instruments. Use only reliable instruments. Use only reliable instruments. Use only valid instruments for a specific purpose. Use only valid instruments for a specific purpose. Use only tools designed for a specific group. Use only tools designed for a specific group. Use instruments with understandable instructions. Use instruments with understandable instructions. Ensure test administration staff are properly trained. Ensure test administration staff are properly trained. Ensure test conditions are suitable for all test takers. Ensure test conditions are suitable for all test takers. Provide reasonable accommodation. Provide reasonable accommodation. Maintain confidentiality of results. Maintain confidentiality of results. Ensure proper interpretation of results. Ensure proper interpretation of results.


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