Presentation on theme: "Dr. Jeanne Michalski firstname.lastname@example.org Selection MANA 3320 Dr. Jeanne Michalski email@example.com."— Presentation transcript:
1 Dr. Jeanne Michalski firstname.lastname@example.org Selection MANA 3320Dr. Jeanne Michalski
2 The Goal of Selection: Maximize “Hits” MISSInaccurate prediction (Person would have succeeded on the job)HITAccurate prediction (Person succeeds on the job)Accurate prediction (Person would not have succeeded on the job)Inaccurate prediction (Person fails on the job)Predicted SuccessJob PerformanceLowHigh“Earns a Bonus”“Is a Bonehead”
3 The Selection Process Obtaining Reliable and Valid Information ReliabilityThe degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative measures.ValidityDegree to which a test or selection procedure measures a person’s attributes.
4 Reliability: Basic Concepts Observed score = true score + errorError is anything that impacts test scores that is not the characteristic being measuredReliability measures errorLower the error the better the measure
5 EEOC Uniform Guidelines Reliability – consistency of the measureIf the same person takes the test again will he/she earn the same score?Potential contaminations:Test takers physical or mental stateEnvironmental factorsTest formsMultiple raters
6 Reliability as Stability over Time HIGH RELIABILITY TEST RETESTAPPLICANT SCORE SCORESmith 90 93Perez 65 62RileyChan 80 78VERY LOW RELIABILITY TEST RETESTAPPLICANT SCORE SCORESmith 90 72Perez 65 88RileyChan
11 Approaches to Validation Content validityThe extent to which a selection instrument, such as a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job.Example: typing tests, driver’s license examinations, work sampleConstruct validityThe extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct or trait.Are difficult to validateExample: creative arts tests, honesty tests
12 Approaches to Validation Criterion-related ValidityThe extent to which a selection tool predicts, or significantly correlates with, important elements of work behavior.A high score indicates high job performance potential; a low score is predictive of low job performance.Two types of Criterion-related validityConcurrent ValidityPredictive Validity
13 Approaches to Validation Concurrent ValidityThe extent to which test scores (or other predictor information) match criterion data obtained at about the same time from current employees.High or low test scores for employees match their respective job performance.Predictive ValidityThe extent to which applicants’ test scores match criterion data obtained from those applicants/ employees after they have been on the job for some indefinite period.A high or low test score at hiring predicts high or low job performance at a point in time after hiring.
15 Principles of Assessment Don’t rely on a single method.Use only fair and unbiased instruments.Use only reliable instruments.Use only valid instruments for a specific purpose.Use only tools designed for a specific group.Use instruments with understandable instructions.Ensure test administration staff are properly trained.Ensure test conditions are suitable for all test takers.Provide reasonable accommodation.Maintain confidentiality of results.Ensure proper interpretation of results.
16 Steps in the Selection Process Initial screening of application or resumeEmployment testing, if applicableInterview (may include multiple visits for interviews)HRSupervisor/TeamOthersContingent OfferBackground/Reference ChecksMedical/Drug screen
17 Application Forms Only ask info related to job KSA’s Link to job performanceUse thorough job analysis and validation techniquesConsider potential adverse impactCareful collecting personal characteristicsRace, National Origin, Gender, Age etc.Law assumes all questions are used in hiringMore is not necessarily betterDifferent applications for different jobsInstructions and DisclaimersImprove validity through weighted applications (WAB’s)
18 Online ApplicationsAn Internet-based automated posting, application, and tracking process helps firms to more quickly fill positions by:Attracting a broader and more diverse applicant poolCollecting and mining resumes with keyword searches to identify qualified candidatesConducting screening tests onlineReducing recruiting costs significantly
19 Resumes Applicant controls the information Many examples of fraud or omissionUp to 50% contain some inaccuracyJobs and education should be verifiedOne question honesty testRequirements for education and experiences should be job-related.
20 Biodata Inventories Generally reliable and valid Series of questions on a wide variety of subjectsBackground (e.g. hobbies, jobs, and education)Situational questionsPersonality and ValuesCompared to a profile generated from successful employees or database for occupations.
21 Examples of Biographical Questions How many jobs have you held in the last five years?Were you ever class president?While growing up, did you collect coins?About how many fiction books have you read in the past year?How many hours a week do you spend studying?At what age did you leave home?How large was the town/city in which you lived as a child?Did you ever build a model airplane that flew?Were sports a big part of your childhood?Do you play any musical instruments?
22 Employment Tests Employment Test An objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior that is used to gauge a person’s knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) in relation to other individuals.Pre-employment testing has the potential for lawsuits.
23 Classification of Employment Tests Cognitive Ability TestsAptitude testsMeasures of a person’s capacity to learn or acquire skills.Achievement testsMeasures of what a person knows or can do right now.Personality and Interest Inventories“Big Five” personality factors:Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience.
24 Classification of Employment Tests (cont’d) Physical Ability TestsMust be related to the essential functions of job.Job Knowledge TestsAn achievement test that measures a person’s level of understanding about a particular job.Work Sample TestsRequire the applicant to perform tasks that are actually a part of the work required on the job.
25 Effectiveness of Selection Methods A survey of 201 HR executives rated selection methods on the effectiveness producing the best employees.Work samples 3.68Structured interviews 3.42Assessment centers 3.42Specific aptitude tests 3.08Personality tests 2.93General cognitive ability tests 2.89Biographical information blanks 2.84Unstructured interview < 1.00
27 Common Background Checks EducationEmploymentReferencesCriminal HistoryCredit CheckDrug ScreenMedical Screen
28 “Screening-out” Devices Drug testingUrinalysis vs. RIAH (Hair testing)ADA prohibits pre-employment screening for alcoholDrug Free Workplace Act of 1988Credit checksDepends on the job – e.g. cash handling, children.Signed consent to background or credit checks.Fair Credit Reporting ActFamily Educational Rights Privacy ActPrivacy Act of 1974Employee Polygraph Protection Act (1988)
29 Background Checks Negligent hiring Sources of Information The failure of an organization to discover, via due diligence, that an employee it hired had the propensity to do harm to othersSources of InformationSocial Security verificationPast employmentEducational verificationCriminal recordsMotor vehicle recordsCredit checkMilitary records
30 Negligent Hiring The person causing harm was an employee. The person was incompetent (rather than a competent employee acting negligently).Employer knew or should have known about the incompetence.Injury or harm was a foreseeable consequence of hiring the incompetent employee.Hiring of the unfit employee was proximate cause of the injury or harm.
31 Reference Checks Telephone, mail, and e-mail checks Specific job-related informationLetters of referenceOnline computerized databasesPrivacy Act of 1974Requires signed requests for reference letters and signed consent to background checks.Applies to both educational and private employers.
32 Employee Polygraph Protection Act (1988) Use of “lie detectors” is largely prohibited.Act requires qualified examiners.Act requires disclosure of information where used.Encouraged employers’ use of paper and pencil integrity and honesty tests.
33 Background Investigations Organizations using credit reports must:Check state laws to see if credit reports can legally be used.Advise and receive written consent from applicants if a report will be requested.Provide a written certification to the consumer reporting agency as to the purpose of the report.Provide applicants a copy of the consumer report as well as a summary of their rights under the CCRRA.Must provide an adverse-action notice a person if that person is not hired and contact information related to the reporting agency.
34 Criminal Background Checks Employers can obtain criminal background information by:(1) Asking applicants for certain information during the interview process or on a job application(2) Obtaining criminal record information from a state agency (with the consent of the applicants)(3) by hiring an investigator or security firmBefore the information is gathered, employers should have specific guidelines for how they will use the information.
35 Decision CriteriaThe hiring official will determine on a case-by-case basis whether the individual is qualified based on factors such as:Specific duties of the position;Number of offenses;Nature of each offense;Length of time intervening between the offense and the employment decision;Employment history;Efforts at rehabilitation; andAccuracy of the information that the individual provided on the employment application
36 Background Investigations (cont.) Medical ExaminationsGiven last as they can be costly.Ensure that the health of an applicant is adequate to meet the job requirements.Provides a baseline for subsequent examinationsADA requires all exams be job-related and conducted after an employment offer is made.Testing for illegal drugs is allowed.
37 Drug Testing Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 Testing for illegal drugs is required of applicants and employees of federal contractors.Questions about the efficacy of testingWhy spend large sums on testing when…testing for drugs doesn’t appear to make the workplace safer or improve employee performance?few applicants actually test positive and alcohol abuse creates more problems in the workplace?
38 Use of Pre-Employment Background Screening by Fortune 1000 Companies* Most Common Types of Background ChecksUse of Pre-Employment Background Screening by Fortune 1000 Companies**Tools that 212 security representatives at Fortune 1000 companies said their companies use consistently.Source: Top Security Threats and Management Issues Facing Corporate America, Pinkerton Consulting and Investigations, Inc.
39 Principles of Assessment Don’t rely on a single method.Use only fair and unbiased instruments.Use only reliable instruments.Use only valid instruments for a specific purpose.Use only tools designed for a specific group.Use instruments with understandable instructions.Ensure test administration staff are properly trained.Ensure test conditions are suitable for all test takers.Provide reasonable accommodation.Maintain confidentiality of results.Ensure proper interpretation of results.