Presentation on theme: "University Polymer Syllabi for Chemistry-Major and Chemistry-Related Programs in Malaysia Chin Han CHAN, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia Chee."— Presentation transcript:
University Polymer Syllabi for Chemistry-Major and Chemistry-Related Programs in Malaysia Chin Han CHAN, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia Chee Cheong HO, Malaysian Institute of Chemistry (IKM) & University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia
Participants: 26 representatives Professiona bodies: IKM, LGM, SIRIM, PRIM, Higher learning institutes: UiTM, UKM, UM, UniKL, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, UPM, UPNM, USM, UTAR, UTM Private companies: AkzoNobel Chemicals, Ansell, Kossan Rubber, Malayan Adhesive & Chemical Sdn Bhd. IKM Brain-Storming Session on university polymer syllabi Date:18 Feb 2012 Venue: IKM Secretariat, Taman Tun Dr. Ismail, KL Jointly organized by IKM and UiTM Chairperson: Prof. Dr. Chee Cheong HO Rapporteur: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Chin Han CHAN
Graduates/ products Service providers /universities Consumers/ industries Knowledge Laboratory Other skill sets Product feedback QC, QA specifications Stakeholders in the system
Skill-set needed Knowledgeable (content related) – general vs specific Digital literacy Multi-tasking ability Communication skill Inter-personal skill Problem-solving skill
One of the biggest employers in Malaysia Diverse industry needs Paints and coatings Adhesives Sealants Industrial rubber products Dipped-goods: rubber gloves, balloons Medical devices Tyres and inner tubes Polymer resins Fabrication of plastics products 20% of the industries
Issues Contents: knowledge imparted ► general vs specific practical skill in laboratory Communication skill: oral presentation, negotiation Writing skill: reports, manuscripts Understanding power (language): reading Interpretation and deduction skills Ability to conduct independent work
What is lacking: employers view 1.Need extensive on-the-job training in order to perform. 2.The graduates require detailed explanation to understand specific subject matters and to carry out task. 3.Innovation and thinking skill appear to be lacking. They lack ability to carry out their task independently 4.Most need help in interpretation of results of analysis, and need specific direction and hand-holding in their job.
University training Polymer as a degree programme Polymer only part of a chemistry degree programme Some polymer modules are embedded in Materials science, Materials engineering, Chemical engineering, Nanotechnology programmes Polymer processing (non-chemistry, more technology)
Training requirement differs Programme offered differs from University to university ►niche area Course contents differ: core vs elective Duration differs (3 years vs 4 years) Credit hours required to pass differs With/without industrial internship With/without laboratory training modules With/without minor research project
Contents coverage Polymer synthesis Characterization Properties Applications Processing Environmental issues Disposal methods Current situation of the syllabus of polymer science in some universities Polymer chemistry is not compulsory Polymer processing is not part of compulsory polymer content The content of latex technology is not sufficient.
Table 1 Polymer syllabus for Chemistry related courses in USM, UM, UKM, UPM, UiTM TopicUSMUM*UKMUPM UiTM (Pure Chem) UiTM (Appl Chem) No. of polymer course1232 11 Basic ConceptsYes SynthesisYes CharacterizationYes ProcessingNoYes No Lab as part of the course NoYesNoYes No Lab in other coursesYesNoYesNo *elective
The proposal for the syllabus of polymer science for chemistry major and chemistry-related programs 1)2 courses with 3 credit hours 2)Each course: 2 hrs lecture per week + 3 hrs lab session per week 3)Lab must be related to the theory 4)70 contact hrs per course (28 hrs lecture + 42 hrs lab) Introduction Definition, classification, naming (IUPAC & non IUPAC, trade name), MW Synthesis Addition (free radical, ionic, ring-opening) Step-growth/condensation polymerization Co-polymerization Kinetics MWD Techniques (bulk, solution, emulsion, suspension, dispersion)
Recommendations: 1.should be designed to impart skill on handling simple analytical apparatus (e.g. hands-on for viscometer, dilatometer, osmometer etc.). 2.Statistical concept on data handing and analysis (reproducibility, repeatability, precision and accuracy) is emphasized. 3.The introduction of instrument should be as basic as possible to allow self assembling capability. 4.There should be at least ONE experiment that requires the undergraduates to partially design their own experiment, rather than provide detailed step by step procedure. Laboratory training
Exp 1: Solubility and identification of polymers Objective: Solubility of macromolecules in low-molecular (mostly organic) solvents in addition of some IR test for identification of polymers Description: 1.The experiment will mediate experience in preparation of polymer solutions and qualitative evaluation of solubility and FTIR spectroscopy. 2.FTIR tables will be provided. 3.By comparing solubility of polymers in various solvents plus referring to FTIR analyses, the student could identify the polymers.
Exp 2: Separation and purification of polymer Description: 1.PMMA is dissolved in chloroform containing added cinnamic acid as an”impurity”. 2.The PMMA could be precipitated out from the chloroform solution by the addition of methanol. 3.The precipitated PMMA could be isolated by filtration. 4.Higher purification could be achieved through re- precipitation process. 5.The removal of cinnamic acid could be confirmed with UV spectroscopic analysis. Objectives: To carry out separation and purification of polymer. To perform quantitative analysis of PMMA and cinnamic acid by UV analysis.
Exp 3: Preparation of polyester by condensation polymerization Description: 1.To prepare polyester by condensation polymerization of ethylene glycol (a diol) and phthalic anhydride (a dicarboxylic acid). 2.The extend of reaction is monitored from the amount of water evolved from the condensation reaction. 3.The average degree of polymerization is estimated by applying the Carothers Equation. Objectives: 1.Understanding the concept of synthesis polyester from the condensation polymerization 2.Determining initial amounts of –OH and –COOH in the starting materials, ratio = [-COOH]/[-OH] and an average of molecular weight of polyester. 3.Application of the Carothers Equation
Exp 4: Viscosity-average molecular weight Description: 1.Measurements of the viscosity of dilute polymer solution using Ubberlohde viscometer. Objectives: 1.To determine the intrinsic viscosity of polystyrene sample in toluene solution. 2.Determining the viscosity average molecular weight by applying the Mark-Houwink equation.
Exp 5: Determination of M n by vapor pressure osmometer Description: 1.The pure solvent and the polymer solution are separated by a semi-permeable membrane in vapor pressure (or membrane) osmometry. 2.The hydrostatic excess pressure is measured in dependence on the polymer concentration of the solution. Objective: To determine the M n by vapor pressure osmometer polymer sample in toluene solution.
Exp 6: Determination of glass transition temperature by dilatometry technique Description: T g of poly (isobutyl methacrylate) will be determined with dilatometry technique, i.e. by observing the change in height of the meniscus of the capillary tube / specific volume (which is related to the thermal expansion coefficient) of the polymer over a certain temperature range. Objective: Determination of glass transition temperature of poly (isobutyl methacrylate).
Exp 7: Determination of the crosslink parameters of a vulcanised natural rubber Description: 1.stress strain method, the effect of hysteresis is shown by plotting the weight L (kg) vs extension λ for both addition and removal of load. 2.swelling method consists of two steps i.Determination of density of rubber ii.Determination of the swelling of the rubber sample. Objectives: 1.Understand the behaviour of the vulcanized natural rubber. 2.To correlate the degree of vulcanisation from Mc the molecular weight between crosslink, by applying the Mooney-Rivlin equation at low extension ( < 1.5). 3.Understand the concept of swelling of vulcanized rubber in toluene, where higher amount of crosslinking would reduce the solvent swelling. 4.The Mc can be estimated from the volume fraction of the rubber in the solvent swollen sample.
Each student is assigned one mini project To be completed within 7 weeks. Each project consists of the following elements. 1.Sample preparation(s) or sample treatment(s). 2.Sample characterization by spectoscopic and/or thermal analysis. 3.Data interpretation.
No.NameOrganization 1Dr Eng Aik HweeAnsell / IKM 2Dr C C Ho – ChairmanIKM 3Dr Koh Mok PohIKM 4Mr Vivayganathan KathiresonIKM 5Dr Loo Koi SangIKM 6Dato’ Dr Ong Eng LongKossan Rubber / IKM 7En Azuan bin Zakaria LGM Akademi Hevea Malaysia 8Dr Nor Yuziah Mohd YunusMalayan Adhesive & Chemical / IKM 9Mr P K ChanPRIM 10Dr Md Aris AhmadLGM / PRIM 11Dr Chan Chin HanUiTM / IKM 12Dr Famiza Abd LatiffUiTM 13Assoc Prof Rusli DaikUKM 14Prof Dr Ibrahim AbdullahUKM / IKM 15Prof Dr Gan Seng NeonUM / IKM 16Dr Ong Siew KooiUniKL, MICET 17En Fahmi Asyadi Md YusofUniKL, MICET 18En Muzafar ZukifliUniKL,MICET 19Assoc Prof Dr Zakaria ManUniversiti Teknologi PETRONAS 20Assoc Prof Dr Mansor AhmadUPM 21Prof Dato’ Dr Wan Md Zin Wan YunusUPNM / IKM 22Prof Dr Wan Ahmad Kamil MahmoodUSM 23Dr Chee Swee YongUTAR 24Assoc Prof Dr Mat Uzir WahitUTM 25Dr Rahim SudinFRIM 26Prof Dr Azanam Shah HashimMICET.UNIKL