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Chin Han CHAN, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia

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Presentation on theme: "Chin Han CHAN, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia"— Presentation transcript:

1 University Polymer Syllabi for Chemistry-Major and Chemistry-Related Programs in Malaysia
Chin Han CHAN, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia Chee Cheong HO, Malaysian Institute of Chemistry (IKM) & University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia

2 IKM Brain-Storming Session on university polymer syllabi
Date:18 Feb 2012 Venue: IKM Secretariat, Taman Tun Dr. Ismail, KL Jointly organized by IKM and UiTM Chairperson: Prof. Dr. Chee Cheong HO Rapporteur: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Chin Han CHAN Participants: 26 representatives Professiona bodies: IKM, LGM, SIRIM, PRIM, Higher learning institutes: UiTM, UKM, UM, UniKL, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, UPM, UPNM, USM, UTAR, UTM Private companies: AkzoNobel Chemicals, Ansell, Kossan Rubber, Malayan Adhesive & Chemical Sdn Bhd.

3 Stakeholders in the system
Knowledge Laboratory Other skill sets Service providers /universities QC, QA Graduates/products specifications Consumers/industries Stakeholders in the system Product feedback

4 Skill-set needed Knowledgeable (content related) – general vs specific
Digital literacy Multi-tasking ability Communication skill Inter-personal skill Problem-solving skill

5 Diverse industry needs
Paints and coatings Adhesives Sealants Industrial rubber products Dipped-goods: rubber gloves, balloons Medical devices Tyres and inner tubes Polymer resins Fabrication of plastics products One of the biggest employers in Malaysia 20% of the industries

6 Issues Contents: knowledge imparted ► general vs specific
practical skill in laboratory Communication skill: oral presentation, negotiation Writing skill: reports, manuscripts Understanding power (language): reading Interpretation and deduction skills Ability to conduct independent work

7 What is lacking: employers view
Need extensive on-the-job training in order to perform. The graduates require detailed explanation to understand specific subject matters and to carry out task. Innovation and thinking skill appear to be lacking. They lack ability to carry out their task independently Most need help in interpretation of results of analysis, and need specific direction and hand-holding in their job.

8 University training Polymer as a degree programme
Polymer only part of a chemistry degree programme Some polymer modules are embedded in Materials science, Materials engineering, Chemical engineering, Nanotechnology programmes Polymer processing (non-chemistry, more technology)

9 Training requirement differs
Programme offered differs from University to university ►niche area Course contents differ: core vs elective Duration differs (3 years vs 4 years) Credit hours required to pass differs With/without industrial internship With/without laboratory training modules With/without minor research project

10 Contents coverage Polymer synthesis Characterization Properties
Applications Processing Environmental issues Disposal methods Current situation of the syllabus of polymer science in some universities Polymer chemistry is not compulsory Polymer processing is not part of compulsory polymer content The content of latex technology is not sufficient.

11 Table 1 Polymer syllabus for Chemistry related courses in USM, UM, UKM, UPM, UiTM
Topic USM UM* UKM UPM UiTM (Pure Chem) (Appl Chem) No. of polymer course 1 2 3 Basic Concepts Yes Synthesis Characterization Processing No Lab as part of the course Lab in other courses *elective

12 The proposal for the syllabus of polymer science for chemistry major and chemistry-related programs
2 courses with 3 credit hours Each course: 2 hrs lecture per week + 3 hrs lab session per week Lab must be related to the theory 70 contact hrs per course (28 hrs lecture + 42 hrs lab) Introduction Definition, classification, naming (IUPAC & non IUPAC, trade name), MW Synthesis Addition (free radical, ionic, ring-opening) Step-growth/condensation polymerization Co-polymerization Kinetics MWD Techniques (bulk, solution, emulsion, suspension, dispersion)

13 Characterization & Properties
Solution properties (MW, solubility) MW determination (end group, viscometry, GPC, light scattering, colligative properties Thermal analysis (TGA, DMA, DSC, TMA) Spectroscopy analysis/molecular characterization (FTIR, NMR, UV-VIS, XRD etc) Morphological (SEM, TEM, AFM) Rheology ( Rubber elasticity, viscoelastic – dynamic properties) Physical (density, moisture absorption, dimension stability) Mechanical (tensile, flexural, compression, impact) Applications Plastics Rubber Composites, Nano-composites Adhesives & coatings Latex

14 Environment & Disposal
Processing Injection molding, extrusion, thermoforming, compression Environment & Disposal Green polymers (Natural & synthetic polymers) Polymer recycling Degradation (shelf life, biodegradation) Safety & health hazard (MSDS)

15 Laboratory training Recommendations:
should be designed to impart skill on handling simple analytical apparatus (e.g. hands-on for viscometer, dilatometer, osmometer etc.). Statistical concept on data handing and analysis (reproducibility, repeatability, precision and accuracy) is emphasized. The introduction of instrument should be as basic as possible to allow self assembling capability. There should be at least ONE experiment that requires the undergraduates to partially design their own experiment, rather than provide detailed step by step procedure.

16 Exp 1: Solubility and identification of polymers
Objective: Solubility of macromolecules in low-molecular (mostly organic) solvents in addition of some IR test for identification of polymers Description: The experiment will mediate experience in preparation of polymer solutions and qualitative evaluation of solubility and FTIR spectroscopy. FTIR tables will be provided. By comparing solubility of polymers in various solvents plus referring to FTIR analyses, the student could identify the polymers.

17 Exp 2: Separation and purification of polymer
Objectives: To carry out separation and purification of polymer. To perform quantitative analysis of PMMA and cinnamic acid by UV analysis. Description: PMMA is dissolved in chloroform containing added cinnamic acid as an”impurity”. The PMMA could be precipitated out from the chloroform solution by the addition of methanol. The precipitated PMMA could be isolated by filtration. Higher purification could be achieved through re-precipitation process. The removal of cinnamic acid could be confirmed with UV spectroscopic analysis.

18 Exp 3: Preparation of polyester by condensation polymerization
Objectives: Understanding the concept of synthesis polyester from the condensation polymerization Determining initial amounts of –OH and –COOH in the starting materials, ratio = [-COOH]/[-OH] and an average of molecular weight of polyester. Application of the Carothers Equation Description: To prepare polyester by condensation polymerization of ethylene glycol (a diol) and phthalic anhydride (a dicarboxylic acid). The extend of reaction is monitored from the amount of water evolved from the condensation reaction. The average degree of polymerization is estimated by applying the Carothers Equation.

19 Exp 4: Viscosity-average molecular weight
Objectives: To determine the intrinsic viscosity of polystyrene sample in toluene solution. Determining the viscosity average molecular weight by applying the Mark-Houwink equation. Description: Measurements of the viscosity of dilute polymer solution using Ubberlohde viscometer.

20 Exp 5: Determination of Mn by vapor pressure osmometer
Objective: To determine the Mn by vapor pressure osmometer polymer sample in toluene solution. Description: The pure solvent and the polymer solution are separated by a semi-permeable membrane in vapor pressure (or membrane) osmometry. The hydrostatic excess pressure is measured in dependence on the polymer concentration of the solution.

21 Exp 6: Determination of glass transition temperature by dilatometry technique
Objective: Determination of glass transition temperature of poly (isobutyl methacrylate). Description: Tg of poly (isobutyl methacrylate) will be determined with dilatometry technique, i.e. by observing the change in height of the meniscus of the capillary tube / specific volume (which is related to the thermal expansion coefficient) of the polymer over a certain temperature range.

22 Exp 7: Determination of the crosslink parameters of a vulcanised natural rubber
Objectives: Understand the behaviour of the vulcanized natural rubber. To correlate the degree of vulcanisation from Mc the molecular weight between crosslink, by applying the Mooney-Rivlin equation at low extension ( < 1.5). Understand the concept of swelling of vulcanized rubber in toluene, where higher amount of crosslinking would reduce the solvent swelling. The Mc can be estimated from the volume fraction of the rubber in the solvent swollen sample. Description: stress strain method, the effect of hysteresis is shown by plotting the weight L (kg) vs extension λ for both addition and removal of load. swelling method consists of two steps Determination of density of rubber Determination of the swelling of the rubber sample.

23 Each student is assigned one mini project
To be completed within 7 weeks. Each project consists of the following elements. Sample preparation(s) or sample treatment(s). Sample characterization by spectoscopic and/or thermal analysis. Data interpretation.

24 No. Name Organization 1 Dr Eng Aik Hwee Ansell / IKM 2 Dr C C Ho – Chairman IKM 3 Dr Koh Mok Poh 4 Mr Vivayganathan Kathireson 5 Dr Loo Koi Sang 6 Dato’ Dr Ong Eng Long Kossan Rubber / IKM 7 En Azuan bin Zakaria LGM Akademi Hevea Malaysia 8 Dr Nor Yuziah Mohd Yunus Malayan Adhesive & Chemical / IKM 9 Mr P K Chan PRIM 10 Dr Md Aris Ahmad LGM / PRIM 11 Dr Chan Chin Han UiTM / IKM 12 Dr Famiza Abd Latiff UiTM 13 Assoc Prof Rusli Daik UKM 14 Prof Dr Ibrahim Abdullah UKM / IKM 15 Prof Dr Gan Seng Neon UM / IKM 16 Dr Ong Siew Kooi UniKL, MICET 17 En Fahmi Asyadi Md Yusof 18 En Muzafar Zukifli UniKL,MICET 19 Assoc Prof Dr Zakaria Man Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS 20 Assoc Prof Dr Mansor Ahmad UPM 21 Prof Dato’ Dr Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus UPNM / IKM 22 Prof Dr Wan Ahmad Kamil Mahmood USM 23 Dr Chee Swee Yong UTAR 24 Assoc Prof Dr Mat Uzir Wahit UTM 25 Dr Rahim Sudin FRIM 26 Prof Dr Azanam Shah Hashim MICET.UNIKL

25 Thank you

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