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Bodhidharma, Chan Buddhism, and Chan Patriarchs. Sinicization/sinification of Buddhism Pure Land and Chan (or Ch ’ an) are two schools of Buddhism that.

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Presentation on theme: "Bodhidharma, Chan Buddhism, and Chan Patriarchs. Sinicization/sinification of Buddhism Pure Land and Chan (or Ch ’ an) are two schools of Buddhism that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bodhidharma, Chan Buddhism, and Chan Patriarchs

2 Sinicization/sinification of Buddhism Pure Land and Chan (or Ch ’ an) are two schools of Buddhism that best represent the sinicization/sinification of Buddhism Pure Land and Chan (or Ch ’ an) are two schools of Buddhism that best represent the sinicization/sinification of Buddhism The sinicization/sinification finds its expression in scriptures and practices, among other things The sinicization/sinification finds its expression in scriptures and practices, among other things Scriptures: Scriptures: Pure Land: three Pure Land sutras Pure Land: three Pure Land sutras Chan (Ch ’ an): The Lankāvatāra sutra, the Diamond Sutra, the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch Chan (Ch ’ an): The Lankāvatāra sutra, the Diamond Sutra, the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch

3 Practices: devotional/practicing Buddhism –Devotion and practice take different forms –Pure Land: calling name of Amitabha; taking vows and following Amitabha’s instruction, putting trust and faith in Him; be mindful of Him; cultivate three merits and undertake 16 forms of meditation, repentance –Chan: meditation On Gong’an (or Kōan) On master’s words

4 Formation of Chan History and Tradition Chan scholars and historians in the 10 th -11 th centuries claimed: Chan scholars and historians in the 10 th -11 th centuries claimed: A special transmission outside the teachings/scriptures A special transmission outside the teachings/scriptures With no dependence upon words and letters With no dependence upon words and letters A direct pointing into the mind A direct pointing into the mind Seeing there one ’ s own nature, and attaining Buddhahood Seeing there one ’ s own nature, and attaining Buddhahood

5 Chan, Flower, and Mahakashapa’s smile Special transmission: Mahakashapa is the first Chan patriarch in India

6 Bodhidharma is the first Chan patriarch in China

7 The First Patriarch Bodhidharma The Second Patriarch Huike

8 The Third Patriarch Sengcan The Fourth Patriarch Daoxin

9 The Fifth PatriarchThe Sixth Patriarch

10 Three Learnings in Buddhism Three learnings: Wisdom, Morality, Mediation Right view, right resolve; right speech, right action, right livelihood; right effort, right mindfulness, right meditation Traditional ideal Buddhists practiced three learnings Chan Buddhists were taught to stress meditation Three baskets: (Tripitaka) Vinaya pitaka (basket of discipline) Sutra pitaka (basket of discourses) Abidharma pitaka (basket of higher philosophy) Traditional ideal Buddhists mastered three baskets Chan Buddhists were taught to forsake three baskets

11 Buddhist Hagiographies Biographies and hagiographies Biographies and hagiographies Characteristics of hagiographies Characteristics of hagiographies Based on writings of disciples/followers of the saints Based on writings of disciples/followers of the saints Glorify the saints Glorify the saints Shrouded with legends Shrouded with legends Mythical, inflated, eulogizing Mythical, inflated, eulogizing Pseudo-history or non-history Pseudo-history or non-history

12 Special Transmission Chan’s patriarchate tradition: –(Mahā)kaśyapa designated as the 1 st patriarch of the Chan tradition –In India, from Mahakasyapa to Bodhidharma, a history of unbroken lineage Bodhidharma came to China (ca ) and became the 1 st Chan patriarch –in China, an unbroken Chan lineage continued Fifth patriarch—Hongren (Hung Jen) Sixth patriarch—Huineng (Hui-neng, ) [Shenxiu, Shen- hsiu ( ) Huineng’s tradition: Southern Chan school Shenxiu’s tradition: Northern Chan school Other lesser Chan traditions

13 The Bodhidharma Myth Imperial audience –Bodhidharma met Chinese emperor Liang Wudi Traveled to Mt. Song –Rode a fragile stalk/floating reed across the Yangtze River’s mighty wave –Ended up in Shaolin Temple in Mt. Song where he faced the wall in a cave in meditation Began the Shaolin martial art tradition –wrote secret manuals—the, Sinews Transformation Classic –wrote secret manuals—the Mallow-cleansing Classic, Sinews Transformation Classic

14 Began the Chan tradition in China –Transmission of the Dharma directly from mind to mind –Passed dharma-transmission robe to his disciple, Huike, the second patriarch of Chan Buddhism –Continued a non-stop transmission from the 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th, 5 th, to the 6 th patriarch, Huineng Traveled back to India barefoot –With one shoe in his hand and the other left in his grave

15 Possessed a “Dharma Robe”---a symbol of his transmission of the dharma, which was followed by later patriarchs


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