Presentation on theme: "Prof. Dubiński Józef Central Mining Institute Katowice, POLAND E N E R G Y Green energy from coal as important element of long term energy security of."— Presentation transcript:
Prof. Dubiński Józef Central Mining Institute Katowice, POLAND E N E R G Y Green energy from coal as important element of long term energy security of supply for Europe
ASSUMPTIONS Climate change is a serious threat that will have significant impact worldwide, including Europe. Emission of carbon dioxide CO 2 of EU countries is annually about Mt and one half is connected with power generation. Therefore emission, especially those of greenhouse gases, must to be reduced. Assuming energy dependency on fossil fuels, the development and deployment of clean fossil fuel technologies will be a critical issue in the transition to a sustainable energy future.
North America 26,0% South and Central America - 2,0% Europe - 12,4% Former Soviet Union- 23,6% Africa- 6,0% Australia - 9,3% Asia 9,1% China - 11,6% Coal reserves showing regional shares (at end of 2003)
Hard coal & lignite 70% Gas 14,8% Oil 15,2% Global structure of the reserves of basic fossil carriers of primary energy, % [ in re-count on toe]
Reserves sufficiency of basic fossil carriers of energy
Coal is mined commercially in over 50 countries and is used in over 70. Coal plays a vital role in power generation – currently fuels 39% of the world’s electricity and this proportion is expected to remain at similar levels over the next 30 years. The world currently consumes over Mt of coal. Much of global coal production is used in the country in which it was produced, only around 18% of hard coal production is destined for the international coal market. Global coal production is expected to reach Mt in Steam coal production is projected to have reached around Mt ; coking coal 624 Mt ; and brown coal Mt. COAL FACTS
Production and consumption of coal in the EU countries, 2003 NoCountry Production, [Mt}Consumption, [Mt] Hard coalLigniteHard coalLignite 1.Germany28,75179,1063,47179,10 2Poland102,8760,9085,3160,87 3Greece-68,300,7568,30 4Czech Rep.13,6050,309,2150,30 5Great Britain28,23-59,83- 6Estonia-14,7- 7Spain9,4112,030,9612,0 8Hungary0,7113,41,4313,4 9Slovenia-4,90-4,83 10Slovakia-3,104,953,10 11France1,73-18,29- 12Belgium0,15-8,54- 13Austria-1,33,961,3
Production and consumption of coal in the EU countries, 2003 NoCountry Production, [Mt}Consumption, [Mt] Hard coalLigniteHard coalLignite 14Italy--20,56- 15Netherlands--14,12- 16Finland--11,03- 17Denmark--9,35- 18Portugal--5,34- 19Sweden--3,04- 20Ireland--3,00- 21Luxemburg--0,11- 22Latvia--0,20- 23Lithuania--0,50- 24Cypr Malta---- Total :185,45407,93351,45407,93
Source : IEA, 2004 EU countries are serious consumer of coal : - Hard coal 351,45 Mt - Lignite 407,93 Mt Total : 759,38 Mt Import of hard coal : 165 Mt Import dependency for energy sources (gas, oil, coal) of EU countries is about 50% now and is expected to increase up to 70% in 2030
Coal resources in EU countries Country Resources, Mt Hard coalLignite Germany Poland Czech Republic Great Britain Spain France 99- Austria-30,5 Greece Hungary Slovakia-698 Source : IEA, 2004 Source : EU Energy and Transport in Figures, Eirostat, 2003
Positive attributes of coal Coal reserves are very large and will be available for the foreseeable future without raising geopolitical or safety issues. Coal is readily available from a wide variety of sources in a well- supplied world market. Coal can be easily stored at power stations and stocks can be drawn on in emergencies. Coal – based power is not dependent on the weather and can be used as a backup for wind and hydropower. Coal does not need high pressure pipelines or dedicated supply routes. Coal supply routes do not need to be protected at enormous expense.
Coal mining can a significant impact on the environment (land disturbances, subsidence, water pollution, dust and noise pollution, ect.). Coal combustion releases emission of such pollutants as : - oxides of sulphur and nitrogen (SO X and NO X ), - trace elements, such as mercury. Impact of coal using on the global warming effect - methane CH 4 from coal mines (Methane is a potent greenhouse gas – it is estimated to account for 18% of the overall global warming effect arising from human activities) - carbon dioxide CO 2 emissions from coal combustion when coal is used in electricity generation or industrial processes (CO 2 contribution in the overall global warming effect arising from human activities is estimated to contribute 50%). Negative attributes of coal
Major sources of methane emissions Source% Livestock32 Oil and natural gas16 Solid waste13 Rice11 Waste water10 Other10 Coal8 Source : IEA, 2004
Major sources of CO 2 emissions Source : IEA, 2004 Transport (cars) Agriculture Sources :Hydrocarbons combustion Water evaporation 81% Sources : Coal combustion 19%
CO 2 emission from fossil fuels Source : IEA, 2004 Fossil fuel% Oil41 Gas21 Coal38
Structure of gas emission during coal combustion Carbon dioxide CO 2 55% Methane CH 4 15% Nitrogen oxides NO X 6% Others 24%
European Technological Platform for Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Generation (ETP ZEFFPP) - Advisory Council is established and several working meetings have taken place, - Vision Paper (VP) has been elaborated - Key outputs of the ETP will be : 1. Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) – the way forward for Europe in this area for the immediate timeframe and out to 2030+, 2. Deployment Strategy (DS) – how the technology will be deployed into the market place. Green coal means that majority or whole carbon dioxide CO 2 rising during using of coal (electricity generation or industrial processes) should be separated and sequestreted. Technological Response is necessary
Significant enhancement of the efficiency of the conversion process from fuel to electricity (including Clean Coal Technologies) - increase of maximum process temperatures for established processes, - improvement of components, - development of new processes and systems. CO 2 Capture and Storage – technology for future - cost effective CO2 capture including incorporation into power generation cycles, - safe and reliable CO2 transportation infrastructure, - safe and reliable use and storage of CO2. THE KEY PROBLEMS OF ZERO EMISSION FOSSIL FUEL POWER GENERATION A joint critical mass research, development, demonstration and deployment program of industry, science within the EU should open up the opportunity for Europe to take a lead in clean fossil energy.
F E N C O ERA – NET acronim: „ Fossil Energy Coalition” Title of project „Promotion of an Integrated European and National R&D Initiative for Fossil Energy Technologies towards Zero Emission Power Plant 16 partners and subcontractors. The initiative group of FENCO ERA - NET : - Forschungszentrum Jülich – Germany – co-ordinator - Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Arbeit – Germany - Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) – Great Britain - Future Energy Solution – Great Britain Project is scheduled for 4 years Start : July 2005
Prof. Dubiński Józef Central Mining Institute Katowice, POLAND Thank you for attention