Presentation on theme: "Designing the User Interface 2008-11-17 Designing the User Interface for Health Care Settings Kelly Hinds RN BN BA MBA Business Analyst – Momentum Healthware."— Presentation transcript:
Designing the User Interface Designing the User Interface for Health Care Settings Kelly Hinds RN BN BA MBA Business Analyst – Momentum Healthware
Designing the User Interface Learning Objectives At the end of this session you will have been introduced to: The principles and processes of user interface design How users and their tasks are identified How to balance the concepts of doable, usable and likable in a health care setting
Designing the User Interface Some Definitions to Start With… UI - User Interface The communication between human and computer An interface enables a user to interact with a system to perform a task. For example: website navigation (hyperlinks, search tools, etc.) enables a user to find content a shopping cart/basket system enables goods to be ordered the formatting palette in Microsoft Word enables a user to change text colour, size, font, etc.
Designing the User Interface Some Definitions to Start With… GUI – Graphical user interface A GUI allows a user to interact with a computer without entering code With the combination of an input device (such as a mouse or stylus) and visual representations of the workspace and tasks, the user is able to interact with the computer in a manner similar to the physical manipulations available in the real world.
Designing the User Interface In 1973, researchers at Xerox’s Paulo Alto Research Centre (PARC) were the first to experiment with the key components of the GUI: a mouse bitmap display (graphic image) graphical windows Combining these elements allowed a user to interact with the computer without translating the user’s request into machine code.
Designing the User Interface An interface may combine a number of types of sensory cues: visual/graphic: text (labels); shape, colour and size; spatial cues such as beveling and shadows to indicate ‘click-ability’; icons; change when moused-over; etc. aural: speech, beeps, clicks, etc. tactile (touch) An effective interface combines the available, contextually-appropriate sensory cues to: inform users of the task the interface can be used to complete provide feedback (in response to interaction) to confirm task status (often referred to as closure ).
Designing the User Interface Perceived affordance Does the user perceive that clicking on that object is a meaningful, useful action, with a known outcome? (Where ‘object’ is an interface element, such as a button, checkbox or hyperlink.) The designer cares more about what actions the user perceives to be possible than what is true. Usability Usability is a measure of the quality of a person’s experience in interacting with content or services.
Designing the User Interface Ease of learning How fast can a user who has never seen the user interface before learn it sufficiently well to accomplish basic tasks? Efficiency of use Once an experienced user has learned to use the system, how fast can he or she accomplish tasks? Memorability If a user has used the system before, can he or she remember enough to use it effectively the next time or does the user have to start over again learning everything?
Designing the User Interface Error frequency and severity How often do users make errors while using the system, how serious are these errors, and how do users recover from these errors? Subjective satisfaction How much does the user like using the system
Designing the User Interface Why do we care about UI? User Acceptance model (F.D. Davis 1989) Perceived Ease of Use Perceived Usefulness Intention to Use Actual Use
Designing the User Interface Why do we care about UI? User Participation Model (Venkatesh et al, 2003) Individual reactions to using technology Intentions to use technology Actual Use of Information Technology
Designing the User Interface The Key Design Concepts User-centred – the interface has to match the users, their tasks, priorities and environment All UI design is a compromise between: Doable Can we do it the way it was designed Usable Does it do the job Likeable What does the intended user think of it Subtle evolution Change a little at a time
Designing the User Interface Software Development Lifecycle Planning DesignDevelopment Implementation
Designing the User Interface Design Phase of Development Business Requirements What are the goals of the system Functional Specifications What are the actual tasks the system needs to do Audience Analysis Computer Literacy Levels and Need Novice, Intermediate, Expert (handout)
Designing the User Interface Nurses’ Attitudes Towards Computers (Brumini et al 2005) No difference in regards to gender Nurses younger than 30 had significantly more positive score than older nurses Nurses with a bachelor’s degree had a more positive score Nurses with computer science education had a more positive score Nurses who attended classes in medical informatics during their formal education had a significantly more positive score Nurses with previous computer training had significantly more positive score with users who did not use computers scoring less than nurses using computers at home Nurses using computers for any purpose (work, education, pleasure, communication) also related to a higher attitude towards computers
Designing the User Interface Interface design needs to take into account: scenario the situation in which an interface is to be used use-case the task(s) the user will complete using the interface path how a task is broken down into meaningful stages and sequences interface conventions sensory cues and interaction models likely to be known by the user
Designing the User Interface Health Care Triad (McLeod and Clark, 2007) Physician Interpretive data source Role may be primary or secondary Use may be voluntary or involuntary Clinician Diagnostic data source, value added Usually intermediary role, may be interpretive Involuntary use, usually as a condition of employment Patient Always data source Role may be active or passive Use typically voluntary, compelled by disease, family, law
Designing the User Interface Physician Clinician Patient Surrogate IT Use PurposeObtain patient history for electronic record Time DimensionPresent Time FrameShort term Available ResourcesHealth care information system, secured UI Culture and ContextPhysician-clinician, clinician-patient relationship, physician surrogates clinician to obtain patient’s medical history Level of AnalysisPhysician not local. Could be regional, national, or international. Clinician and patient local. StakeholdersPhysician, clinician, patient UserClinician Example of a healthcare stakeholder analysis (McLeod and Clark, 2007)
Designing the User Interface Design Phase of Development User’s goals, tasks, work strategies, tools, problems, wants, needs Preliminary Design Task Flow Style Guide Detailed Design Usability Testing Mock-ups and “Vapor Ware”
Designing the User Interface General Design Guidelines Simplicity Basic functions are immediately apparent Let’s users accomplish their tasks with a minimum of objects and actions Consistency Being able to anticipate how something will work Standardizing the interface Transparency The design should tell you how it works Recognition
Designing the User Interface General Design Guidelines Feedback Provide an immediate response to every single action Keep users informed of progress Forgiveness Give an explicit explanation and constructive advice Can mistakes be corrected? User Control and Flexibility Shortcuts Defaults
Designing the User Interface Design Guidelines - Navigation “Three Click Rule” of Navigation Every piece of content should take no more than three clicks to access Avoid “Mystery Meat” navigation Navigation controls that are unmarked until the user moves the mouse over them Fitt’s Law The farther the person has to move the mouse, to get to an object, the more effort it will take to get to The smaller an object is, the harder it will be to click on. Top, bottom and the sides of the screen are the most targetable
Designing the User Interface Design Guidelines – Screen Layout Semantic Order What you should read first Perceptual Order What you perceive as first The F shape We tend to read the top row from left to right, then the left side column, then across once more. Because of this concept, the most important information should be on top and navigation on the left hand side
Designing the User Interface Design Guidelines – Screen Layout “Chunk” the Data Group similar type of data together By type verses by use by a particular role Icons Are they universally understood by all users Healthcare has several unique icons and images Colour Must have meaning in the setting Colour “codes” DO NOT have universal meaning in the healthcare setting