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Developing Silviculture Practices through Large-scale Studies: Some Perspective from the West-side Paul D. Anderson Land and Watershed Management Program.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing Silviculture Practices through Large-scale Studies: Some Perspective from the West-side Paul D. Anderson Land and Watershed Management Program."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing Silviculture Practices through Large-scale Studies: Some Perspective from the West-side Paul D. Anderson Land and Watershed Management Program Pacific Northwest Research Station

2 Outline Definition of LSSEs Definition of LSSEs Example findings from west-side LSSEs Example findings from west-side LSSEs Factors that contribute to a collective value Factors that contribute to a collective value Potential linkages of LSSEs to monitoring Potential linkages of LSSEs to monitoring

3 Silviculture in the Ecosystem Management Era Broadened ecological, social and economic objectives Broadened ecological, social and economic objectives Alternatives to clearcutting Alternatives to clearcutting Thinning for structural diversity Thinning for structural diversity Restoration management Restoration management Intensive Silviculture Intensive Silviculture

4 Small Plot Studies Experimental units selected for uniformity and comparability of initial conditions Experimental units selected for uniformity and comparability of initial conditions Precise implementation of treatments Precise implementation of treatments Results require scaling-up to reflect operational application Results require scaling-up to reflect operational application Subject to fall-off in scaling results to larger and more heterogeneous areas and treatments Subject to fall-off in scaling results to larger and more heterogeneous areas and treatments Cannot be used to evaluate such things as wildlife, production and visual effects Cannot be used to evaluate such things as wildlife, production and visual effects They may be relevant but commonly limited in scale of inference They may be relevant but commonly limited in scale of inference

5 Large-Scale Silviculture Experiments (LSSEs) Photo: USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station Photo: Doug Maguire,

6 Large-scale Silviculture Experiments Silviculture experiments conducted at operational scales Silviculture experiments conducted at operational scales Randomization Randomization Replication Replication Unmanipulated references – “controls” Unmanipulated references – “controls”  Statistical rigor

7 Large-scale Silviculture Experiments Silviculture experiments conducted at operational scales Silviculture experiments conducted at operational scales Experimental treatment units similar in size to typical management units – generally 10 to 100 ac Experimental treatment units similar in size to typical management units – generally 10 to 100 ac Long-term – generally greater than 20 years Long-term – generally greater than 20 years Inferences directly applicable to operational management – minimize need to scale-up results Inferences directly applicable to operational management – minimize need to scale-up results

8 Large-scale Silviculture Experiments Joint ventures between researchers and forest managers Joint ventures between researchers and forest managers Knowledge and tool development Knowledge and tool development Demonstration Demonstration Learning experiences Learning experiences

9 West-side LSSEs:

10 Examples of What Has Been Learned We can increase stand heterogeneity through silviculture operations We can increase stand heterogeneity through silviculture operations Skips and Gaps

11 Examples of What Has Been Learned Green tree retention levels greater than 15% may be needed to protect residual trees, retain sensitive species, and gain public acceptance Green tree retention levels greater than 15% may be needed to protect residual trees, retain sensitive species, and gain public acceptance

12 Examples of What Has Been Learned Buffers on headwater streams provide amphibian habitat, mitigate upslope harvest effects on microclimate, and provide connectivity across the landscape Buffers on headwater streams provide amphibian habitat, mitigate upslope harvest effects on microclimate, and provide connectivity across the landscape

13 Examples of What Has Been Learned Legacy retention and recruitment of down wood in managed stands benefit ground dwelling organisms Legacy retention and recruitment of down wood in managed stands benefit ground dwelling organisms

14 Factors Contributing to Collective Value

15 Overarching conceptual framework on which to align multidisciplinary studies Increasing structural heterogeneity in young, relatively uniform Douglas-fir forests will lead to increased biotic diversity and therefore greater ecological integrity Increasing structural heterogeneity in young, relatively uniform Douglas-fir forests will lead to increased biotic diversity and therefore greater ecological integrity These young forests can be actively managed to achieve some joint distribution of ecological, social and economic benefits These young forests can be actively managed to achieve some joint distribution of ecological, social and economic benefits

16 Factors Contributing to Collective Value Generally strong experimental design Replication Replication Randomization Randomization Untreated references – “Controls” Untreated references – “Controls”

17 Factors Contributing to Collective Value Common currency response variables Common currency response variables

18 Factors Contributing to Collective Value Common currency response variables Common currency response variables

19 Factors Contributing to Collective Value Broad range of experimental treatments Broad range of experimental treatments

20 Factors Contributing to Collective Value Broad composite geographic distribution Broad composite geographic distribution

21 Realizing the Collective Value of LSSEs: Information Synthesis Information Synthesis Analytical compilation of published findings Analytical compilation of published findings Meta-analysis of published findings Meta-analysis of published findings Joint analysis of primary data Joint analysis of primary data Bayesian belief networks Bayesian belief networks

22 Example Synthesis: Vegetation Response to Thinning Wilson, Anderson, Puettmann (In Press)

23 Example Synthesis: Vegetation Response to Thinning Wilson, Anderson, Puettmann (In Press)

24 Can Research Studies Contribute to Monitoring? NFMA Requirements… 36.CFR (k)(1): Quantitative comparison of planned, versus actual, outputs and services 36.CFR (k)(2): Documentation of the effectiveness of measures and prescriptions 36.CFR (k)(4): Identifying what should be measured, the frequency of measurement, the precision of measurements, and the time frame for reporting results 36.CFR (a)(6): Determine population trends of management indicator species in terms of habitat changes. 36.CFR (a): Identifying research needs

25 Research Studies and Monitoring NFMA Requirements… 36.CFR (k)(1): Quantitative comparison of planned, versus actual, outputs and services Documentation of the effectiveness of measures and prescriptions 36.CFR (k)(2): Documentation of the effectiveness of measures and prescriptions Identifying what should be measured, the frequency of measurement, the precision of measurements 36.CFR (k)(4): Identifying what should be measured, the frequency of measurement, the precision of measurements, and the time frame for reporting results 36.CFR (a)(6): Determine population trends of management indicator species in terms of habitat changes. Identifying research needs 36.CFR (a): Identifying research needs

26 Monitoring vs. Research ` Treat Time T T T T AfterBeforeAfterBeforeAfter No monitoring -Post-monitoring -No control -No replication -Pre & post- monitoring -No control -No replication -Pre & post- monitoring -Control & treatment -No replication Monitoring – cause and effect cannot be statistically inferred BeforeAfter -Pre & post- monitoring -Control & treatment -Minimum replication TCTCTCTCTCTCTCTCTCTCTCTC BeforeAfter T C T C T C T C T C T C Research – cause and effect can be statistically inferred -Pre & post- monitoring -Control & treatment -Ample replication T C T C

27 Research Treatments Linked to Standards and Guidelines: DEMO Green-tree Retention under the NWFP Green-tree Retention under the NWFP Retain at least 15 pct of the harvested area as green trees Retain at least 15 pct of the harvested area as green trees Retain 70 pct of those green trees in aggregates ha in size Retain 70 pct of those green trees in aggregates ha in size Retain the remainder as dispersed structures, either as individual trees or aggregates <0.2 ha in size Retain the remainder as dispersed structures, either as individual trees or aggregates <0.2 ha in size Aggregates and dispersed retention should include the largest, oldest live trees, decadent or leaning trees, and hard snags in the unit Aggregates and dispersed retention should include the largest, oldest live trees, decadent or leaning trees, and hard snags in the unit Patches should be retained indefinitely Patches should be retained indefinitely 15% A 40% A Unharvested 15% D 40% D 75%

28 Research Treatments Linked to Standards and Guidelines: Density Management Study Riparian Buffers under the NWFP Riparian Buffers under the NWFP Buffers a minimum of 2 Site Potential Tree Heights on fishbearing streams Buffers a minimum of 2 Site Potential Tree Heights on fishbearing streams Buffers a minimum of 1 Site Potential Tree Height on non-fishbearing streams Buffers a minimum of 1 Site Potential Tree Height on non-fishbearing streams

29 Linking Research and Monitoring Frame research hypotheses to provide proof of concept Frame research hypotheses to provide proof of concept Incorporate standards and guidelines into array of experimental treatments Incorporate standards and guidelines into array of experimental treatments Enhance local inference through site-level replication Enhance local inference through site-level replication Address relevant geographic and temporal scales Address relevant geographic and temporal scales Assess attributes, and using metrics, that correspond to regional monitoring guidelines and protocols Assess attributes, and using metrics, that correspond to regional monitoring guidelines and protocols

30 Ongoing and Recent Silviculture Studies in Dry Forests of Oregon and Washington Relatively few Relatively few Span small plot to landscape scales Span small plot to landscape scales Expanded List of Response Variables Expanded List of Response Variables Tree damage agents Tree damage agents Deer and elk habitat quality and habitat use Deer and elk habitat quality and habitat use Ground-water hydrology Ground-water hydrology Slope stability Slope stability Nutrient cycling Nutrient cycling Fuels loads Fuels loads Potential fire behavior Potential fire behavior

31 Conclusions LSSEs have yielded substantial information regarding early responses to silvicultural practices such as green-tree retention and variable density thinning LSSEs have yielded substantial information regarding early responses to silvicultural practices such as green-tree retention and variable density thinning The collective value of LSSEs can be increased through syntheses, but the opportunities to do so vary with respect to specific management issues or ecological and social values of interest The collective value of LSSEs can be increased through syntheses, but the opportunities to do so vary with respect to specific management issues or ecological and social values of interest Operational-scale research studies may serve in monitoring if they incorporate relevant metrics and scope of inference, and are sustained over appropriate timeframes. Operational-scale research studies may serve in monitoring if they incorporate relevant metrics and scope of inference, and are sustained over appropriate timeframes.


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