Presentation on theme: "Gaining Fluency in English. Opinions vary but research shows it takes a while! Younger students are able to learn English more quickly. For many."— Presentation transcript:
Gaining Fluency in English
Opinions vary but research shows it takes a while! Younger students are able to learn English more quickly. For many ELLs, it may take them 5-7 years. Haynes, J.
CategoryDescription StagePre-Production Time frame0 months- 6 months Students have-Minimal comprehension -No word production Students can do-generally only uses “yes” and “no” -nods to answer questions -match words/objects Teachers strategies-use “Why/How/Explain?”, -use phrase or short-sentence answers -ask open-ended questions -model, expand, restate -describe personal experiences -retelling, role-play
CategoryDescription StageEarly Production Time frame6 – 12 months Students have-Limited comprehension -short responses (1 or 2 words) Students can do-identify people/places/things -list/categorize -listen with better understanding -use routine expressions on their own -use present tense verbs Teachers strategies-use lists/labels -ask “yes/no”, “who,” “what,” “when,” “where” -use art, miming, music -provide listening opportunities -use mixed ability groupings -use movement (like TPR)
CategoryDescription StageSpeech Emergent Time frame1 to 3 years Students have-good comprehension -proficiency to make simple sentences with errors Students can-describe events/places/people -explain academic ideas -retell/summarize -compare/contrast Teachers strategies-ask open-ended questions -model, expand, and restate language -retell, role-play, describe personal experiences -use question words like: “why/how,” “explain...”
CategoryDescription StageIntermediate Fluency Time frame3-5 years Students have-excellent comprehension -few grammar errors in speech Students can-give/share/debate opinions -negotiate -persuade -synthesize, analyze, and evaluate Teachers strategies-”What would happen if...” -”Why do you think...?” -structured group discussions -use more advanced texts/literature -publish student writing
CategoryDescription StageAdvanced Fluency Time frame5-7 years Students have-speech is almost native level Students can-use written and oral language at levels close to native speakers of the same age group Teachers strategies-”Decide if...” -”Retell...” -integrate language arts -integrate content-area activities
Challenges exist for each subject.
Challenges in English: ◦ Idioms and figurative language ◦ Unfamiliar vocabulary ◦ Grammar rules and their exceptions ◦ Dialects ◦ Self-esteem when interacting with mainstream peers ◦ difficult texts Haynes, J.
Challenges in Math: ◦ use of decimals and commas may be different ◦ Standards and Weights measurement versus Metric System ◦ Some concepts are not taught in all cultures or are addressed later in education Haynes, J.
Challenges in Science: ◦ vocabulary is difficult! ◦ many concepts - it can be overwhelming ◦ May not have much background information/learning ◦ Test is difficult to understand Haynes, J.
Challenges in Social Studies ◦ higher level thinking skills for reading and writing ◦ complex sentence structure and grammar ◦ expression of opinions ◦ some concepts are not in other cultures ◦ -privacy, citizens' rights, free will, etc. Haynes, J.
When people move from one country to another, they may experience culture shock. Symptoms: (according to Kidshealth.org) ◦ Feelings nervous ◦ Feeling of confusion ◦ Feeling sad ◦ Feeling anxious ◦ Wanting to return home/homesick ◦ Trouble concentrating ◦ And more!
People (adults & children) with culture shock may experience difficulties with: ◦ How to greet others ◦ How to make purchases ◦ Accept/refuse invitations/advice ◦ Joking/sarcasm/facetious
StageDescription Excitement/ honeymoon Positive feelings about the new culture; impressions are overwhelming a times; new culture is fascinating Withdrawal/ Regression Starting to find things different/difficult; behaviors are “different” and unpredictable compared to what one is used to; anxiousness; withdrawal; mocking/criticizing people of the host country AdjustmentStarting to develop “routines”; more confident; start to feel less isolated; begins to understand behaviors of others EnthusiasmFeeling at home; enjoys the new culture; functions well in the new culture
How can one deal with culture shock? These tips may help: ◦ Try to learn the language of the host country ◦ Watch and learn from your surroundings – especially at school Teacher-student interactions Student-student interactions ◦ Get help from family and friends if you need it ◦ Don’t forget about your own culture ◦ Help others understand your culture
Cultural Deficit Theory (Crochunis et al, 2002) ◦ Myth that some students can’t achieve because of their culture, ethnicity, language, or race. In some cultures, choices are limited (Helmer, S. & Eddy, C. 2003). Parent Involvement: Many parents support teachers – in differing ways.
Advocate for ELLs (Lessons Learned) Monitor programs and services Provide support to ELL students Provide support to schools
Roles working with students: ◦ Assist students in areas of reading, listening, speaking, and writing ◦ Help them to gain strength in all areas ◦ See where improvement is needed using WIDA scores and individual accommodations ◦ Work with individual students ◦ Work with students in cooperative groups
Make the lesson comprehensible ◦ slow down when speaking, use gestures and visual aids Make lessons more visual ◦ story maps, graphic organizers, etc. Use prior knowledge and link the new knowledge to it Haynes, J.
Define language objectives and content objectives for each lesson Modify vocabulary instruction - more direct Cooperative learning strategies Modify tests Modify homework Haynes, J.
Increase wait time Give ELLs a chance to speak/read/write using the new vocabulary Haynes, J.
Working together allows everyone to succeed. Teachers are less frustrated by lesson planning and trying to reach these students. ELL students’ affective filters are lowered. All students can reap the rewards of techniques used to help ELL students.
Instructional schedules = lesson plans Teachers and ELL teachers can get together during planning time, Professional Development sessions, or before/after school. Help the classroom teacher develop content objectives and language objects ◦ “I can” statements that indicate what the student “can” do after the lesson
ELL assistant: ◦ Works closely with teachers to assist when students struggle Teachers help to identify in which areas the student(s) is struggling ◦ Works one-on-one with teachers to develop lesson plans and share strategies ◦ Works with small teacher groups to develop lesson plans and share strategies
Help teachers to understand the difficulties that ELL students experience. Handouts of teaching tips/strategies for teacher reference Going over lesson plans to check for applicable places to use ELL tips/strategies
Every teacher in the state of Kentucky is given planning time. ◦ Elementary school – minimum of 90 minutes/week ◦ Middle/High school – minimum of 50 minutes/day Teachers in my building meet collaboratively during planning periods or before/after school.
Exchange ideas/brainstorm for differentiation ideas/techniques Co-planning for teachers who teach the same subject. Co-teaching for teachers whose classrooms support this method.
Crochunis, T., Erdey, S., & Swedlow, J. (2002). The diversity kit. Education Alliance: Brown University. Haynes, Judie. Seven Teaching Strategies for Classroom Teachers of ELLs. Retrieved 3 May 2012 from, Haynes, Judie. How long does it take to learn English? Retrieved 3 May 2012 from, Haynes, Judie. Challenges for ELLs in Content Area Learning. Retrieved 3 May 2012 from, Hill, Jane D. & Flynn, Kathleen M (2006). Chapter 2. The Stages of Second Language Acquisition. Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners. Helmer, S. & Eddy, C. (2003). Look at me when I talk to you: ESL learners in non-ESL classrooms. Don Mills, Ontario: Pippin. Stepanek, Jennifer & Raphael, Jacqueline. (Sept 2010). Creating Schools that Support Success for English Language Learners. Lessons Learned.