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Gaining Fluency in English.  Opinions vary but research shows it takes a while!  Younger students are able to learn English more quickly.  For many.

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Presentation on theme: "Gaining Fluency in English.  Opinions vary but research shows it takes a while!  Younger students are able to learn English more quickly.  For many."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gaining Fluency in English

2  Opinions vary but research shows it takes a while!  Younger students are able to learn English more quickly.  For many ELLs, it may take them 5-7 years. Haynes, J.

3 CategoryDescription StagePre-Production Time frame0 months- 6 months Students have-Minimal comprehension -No word production Students can do-generally only uses “yes” and “no” -nods to answer questions -match words/objects Teachers strategies-use “Why/How/Explain?”, -use phrase or short-sentence answers -ask open-ended questions -model, expand, restate -describe personal experiences -retelling, role-play

4 CategoryDescription StageEarly Production Time frame6 – 12 months Students have-Limited comprehension -short responses (1 or 2 words) Students can do-identify people/places/things -list/categorize -listen with better understanding -use routine expressions on their own -use present tense verbs Teachers strategies-use lists/labels -ask “yes/no”, “who,” “what,” “when,” “where” -use art, miming, music -provide listening opportunities -use mixed ability groupings -use movement (like TPR)

5 CategoryDescription StageSpeech Emergent Time frame1 to 3 years Students have-good comprehension -proficiency to make simple sentences with errors Students can-describe events/places/people -explain academic ideas -retell/summarize -compare/contrast Teachers strategies-ask open-ended questions -model, expand, and restate language -retell, role-play, describe personal experiences -use question words like: “why/how,” “explain...”

6 CategoryDescription StageIntermediate Fluency Time frame3-5 years Students have-excellent comprehension -few grammar errors in speech Students can-give/share/debate opinions -negotiate -persuade -synthesize, analyze, and evaluate Teachers strategies-”What would happen if...” -”Why do you think...?” -structured group discussions -use more advanced texts/literature -publish student writing

7 CategoryDescription StageAdvanced Fluency Time frame5-7 years Students have-speech is almost native level Students can-use written and oral language at levels close to native speakers of the same age group Teachers strategies-”Decide if...” -”Retell...” -integrate language arts -integrate content-area activities

8  Challenges exist for each subject.

9  Challenges in English: ◦ Idioms and figurative language ◦ Unfamiliar vocabulary ◦ Grammar rules and their exceptions ◦ Dialects ◦ Self-esteem when interacting with mainstream peers ◦ difficult texts Haynes, J.

10  Challenges in Math: ◦ use of decimals and commas may be different ◦ Standards and Weights measurement versus Metric System ◦ Some concepts are not taught in all cultures or are addressed later in education Haynes, J.

11  Challenges in Science: ◦ vocabulary is difficult! ◦ many concepts - it can be overwhelming ◦ May not have much background information/learning ◦ Test is difficult to understand Haynes, J.

12  Challenges in Social Studies ◦ higher level thinking skills for reading and writing ◦ complex sentence structure and grammar ◦ expression of opinions ◦ some concepts are not in other cultures ◦ -privacy, citizens' rights, free will, etc. Haynes, J.

13  When people move from one country to another, they may experience culture shock.  Symptoms: (according to Kidshealth.org) ◦ Feelings nervous ◦ Feeling of confusion ◦ Feeling sad ◦ Feeling anxious ◦ Wanting to return home/homesick ◦ Trouble concentrating ◦ And more!

14  People (adults & children) with culture shock may experience difficulties with: ◦ How to greet others ◦ How to make purchases ◦ Accept/refuse invitations/advice ◦ Joking/sarcasm/facetious

15 StageDescription Excitement/ honeymoon Positive feelings about the new culture; impressions are overwhelming a times; new culture is fascinating Withdrawal/ Regression Starting to find things different/difficult; behaviors are “different” and unpredictable compared to what one is used to; anxiousness; withdrawal; mocking/criticizing people of the host country AdjustmentStarting to develop “routines”; more confident; start to feel less isolated; begins to understand behaviors of others EnthusiasmFeeling at home; enjoys the new culture; functions well in the new culture

16  How can one deal with culture shock? These tips may help: ◦ Try to learn the language of the host country ◦ Watch and learn from your surroundings – especially at school  Teacher-student interactions  Student-student interactions ◦ Get help from family and friends if you need it ◦ Don’t forget about your own culture ◦ Help others understand your culture

17  Cultural Deficit Theory (Crochunis et al, 2002) ◦ Myth that some students can’t achieve because of their culture, ethnicity, language, or race.  In some cultures, choices are limited (Helmer, S. & Eddy, C. 2003).  Parent Involvement: Many parents support teachers – in differing ways.

18  Advocate for ELLs (Lessons Learned)  Monitor programs and services  Provide support to ELL students  Provide support to schools

19  Roles working with students: ◦ Assist students in areas of reading, listening, speaking, and writing ◦ Help them to gain strength in all areas ◦ See where improvement is needed using WIDA scores and individual accommodations ◦ Work with individual students ◦ Work with students in cooperative groups

20  Make the lesson comprehensible ◦ slow down when speaking, use gestures and visual aids  Make lessons more visual ◦ story maps, graphic organizers, etc.  Use prior knowledge and link the new knowledge to it Haynes, J.

21  Define language objectives and content objectives for each lesson  Modify vocabulary instruction - more direct  Cooperative learning strategies  Modify tests  Modify homework Haynes, J.

22  Increase wait time  Give ELLs a chance to speak/read/write using the new vocabulary Haynes, J.

23  Working together allows everyone to succeed.  Teachers are less frustrated by lesson planning and trying to reach these students.  ELL students’ affective filters are lowered.  All students can reap the rewards of techniques used to help ELL students.

24  Instructional schedules = lesson plans  Teachers and ELL teachers can get together during planning time, Professional Development sessions, or before/after school.  Help the classroom teacher develop content objectives and language objects ◦ “I can” statements that indicate what the student “can” do after the lesson

25  ELL assistant: ◦ Works closely with teachers to assist when students struggle  Teachers help to identify in which areas the student(s) is struggling ◦ Works one-on-one with teachers to develop lesson plans and share strategies ◦ Works with small teacher groups to develop lesson plans and share strategies

26  Help teachers to understand the difficulties that ELL students experience.  Handouts of teaching tips/strategies for teacher reference  Going over lesson plans to check for applicable places to use ELL tips/strategies

27  Every teacher in the state of Kentucky is given planning time. ◦ Elementary school – minimum of 90 minutes/week ◦ Middle/High school – minimum of 50 minutes/day  Teachers in my building meet collaboratively during planning periods or before/after school.

28  Exchange ideas/brainstorm for differentiation ideas/techniques  Co-planning for teachers who teach the same subject.  Co-teaching for teachers whose classrooms support this method.

29 Crochunis, T., Erdey, S., & Swedlow, J. (2002). The diversity kit. Education Alliance: Brown University. Haynes, Judie. Seven Teaching Strategies for Classroom Teachers of ELLs. Retrieved 3 May 2012 from, Haynes, Judie. How long does it take to learn English? Retrieved 3 May 2012 from, Haynes, Judie. Challenges for ELLs in Content Area Learning. Retrieved 3 May 2012 from, Hill, Jane D. & Flynn, Kathleen M (2006). Chapter 2. The Stages of Second Language Acquisition. Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners. Helmer, S. & Eddy, C. (2003). Look at me when I talk to you: ESL learners in non-ESL classrooms. Don Mills, Ontario: Pippin. Stepanek, Jennifer & Raphael, Jacqueline. (Sept 2010). Creating Schools that Support Success for English Language Learners. Lessons Learned.


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