Presentation on theme: "Passive Optical LAN Fiber Trends Testing and Updates – Get the Facts"— Presentation transcript:
1Passive Optical LAN Fiber Trends Testing and Updates – Get the Facts This presentation was part of a Pre-Conference seminar at the 2014 BICSI Winter Conference. The slides shown here were presented byLoni Le Van-Etter, 3M
3What is PON? Passive Optical Network. Facilitates a higher bandwidth broadband access technologyWith a PON, optical fiber is deployed either all the way or almost all the way to the end userPassive because:network only consists of passive light transmission components (fiber links, splitters and couplers), with electronics only at the endpointsThis creates great cost savings for the provider (more reliable and less costly to operate/troubleshoot)PONs use a Point-to-Multi-Point (P2MP) topologyWith a 1:n splitter
4PON TypesAPONInitial name for ATM based PON spec. Designed by Full Service Access Network (FSAN) group.BPONBroadband PON standard specified in ITU G through G.893.7APON renamedSupports 155 or 622 Mbps downstream, 155 Mbps upstream.
5PON Types GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network) ITU Standard G.984Downstream 2.488Gbits/s, Upstream 1.244Gbits/sUses GPON Encapsulation Method (GEM), fragmented packets or ATMITU Standard G.987 for 10GbitsSymmetrical 10GBAsymmetric 10 GB downstream /2.488/10GB upstreamCommercial availability in 2014/2015 time frame5
6PON Types EPON (Ethernet Passive Optical Network) Sometimes called GEPON (Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network)IEEE standard, ratified as 802.3ah-2004 for 1Gbits/sSymmetrical 1.25GB downstream and upstreamUses standard Ethernet data framesIEEE 802.3av standard for 10Gbits/sSymmetrical 10GBAsymmetric 10GB downstream / 1GB upstreamCommercially available today6
7How PON Works All data goes to all ONUs, and the ONU Upstream TDM OperationONTs send information to the OLT in aspecific time window.Upstream TDMA OperationONUs send information to the OLT in aUser 2User 1User 3ONTOLTONUDownstream BroadcastAll data goes to all ONTs, and the ONTaddress controls the downstream data.All data goes to all ONUs, and the ONU
9Enterprise Office Building What is POL?Desktop ONTService Provider NetworkEPON OLTSplitter/interconnectDataVideoVoiceBASEMENT1st FLOOR2nd FLOOREnterprise Office BuildingInterconnect to riserequipment cord (1 fiber)riser cable (multi fiber)horizontal cable (1 fiber)Cu patch cordsPassive Optical LAN. Aka “Vertical PON”, “Optical LAN”Uses FTTx PON components in an indoor environmentAgain, optical fiber (single mode) is deployed almost all the way to the end userPoint-to-multi-point
10Passive Optical Network Overview POL is an Enterprise passive optical network based on legacy PON architectureITU-T G.984.x GPONIEEE 802.3ah EPONEnterprise applications began around 2009Vendors with new software features, new hardware for indoor applicationsPoint to multi-point architectureUtilizes singlemode fiber end-to-end
11Copper-based LAN Passive Optical LAN Active Ethernet switches for LAN core, aggregation and access functionsCable infrastructure per serviceCATxCoaxSome Multi-mode Fiber (MMF)Passive Optical LANPassive optical network (PON)Optical Line Terminal (OLT)Optical distribution networkOptical Network terminations (ONT)Single mode fiber converges all building ICT services over single infrastructureLocalProvisioning &ManagementCentralizedProvisioning &ManagementOLTCampus AggregationBuilding AggregationDistanceLimited –MMF – 550mCopper – 100mPassiveNetworkOver20km/12miDistanceCopper based LANAt the building distributor and at every floor distributor/Telecom Room:Requires: Active electronics to regenerate and switch the signal-Requires PowerRequires HVACRequires UPSRequires stacks of copper patch panelsRequires multiple home run cables to each work areaCommunication ClosetbuildingautomationwirelessEnd Usersecurity
12Benefits of Singlemode Fiber for the LAN Superior PerformanceGreater bandwidth and distance.No cross-talk, interferenceEasier InstallationNo ladder rack requiredFiber is easier to test & certifyNo shielding required for EMI and RFIPulling TensionFiber more robust than copper cablesFiber typically has a 50/100 lb tension; copper only 25 lb pull strength.Highly SecureHarder to tap than copper; not vulnerable to emissionsEasier to UpgradeFuture-ready for higher bandwidthsSM lasts for generations of electronicsNon-Heat ProducingFiber is all-dielectricLess likely to cause a fire than copperEnvironmentally FriendlyAttenuates signal less than copperConsumes far less raw materialsMuch smallerSmaller size and lighter weight but more capacity than copper cablesLess an impact on environmental sustainability
14Industry SupportAPOLAN Global industry association formed (www.APOLANglobal.org)Association for Passive Optical LAN industry organizationMember companies consisting ofDistributorsActive and passive equipment manufacturersIT integratorsConsultants, and other affiliationsAdvocates the education and global adoption of passive optical networks for the LAN marketplace
15BICSI SupportBICSI TDMM (Telecommunications Distribution Methods Manual) 13th Edition published January 2014Includes PON chapter in the Horizontal Distribution SectionContains special consideration topics for PON design in a commercial environmentDeveloped by multiple vendors participation
16TIA Passive Optical LAN Support – August 2012 TIA-568-C Generic Telecommunications Cablingfor Customer Premise – Addendum 2, General UpdatesTable 9 Single-mode Fiber Application support for PONtechnologiesMaximum supportable distances for GPON & EPON applicationsMinimum and maximum channel attenuation including couplers and splitters for PON
17TIA Standards Applicable to Passive Optical LAN Design TIA establishes and maintains standards for the premise wiring industryApplicable standards include:ANSI/TIA-568-C.0, Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer PremisesANSI/TIA-568-C.1, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling StandardANSI/TIA-568-C.2, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard; Part 2: Balanced Twisted Pair Cabling ComponentsANSI/TIA-568-C.3, Optical Fiber Cabling Components StandardTIA-569-C, Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and SpacesANSI/TIA/EIA-606-B, Administration Standard for Commercial TelecommunicationsANSI-J-STD-607-A, Commercial Building Grounding (Earthing) AND Bonding Requirements for TelecommunicationsANSI/TIA-578-B, Customer Owned Outside Plant Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard
19When to Consider Suitable and advantageous for many LAN scenarios Large number of switch portsHigher security inherent to fiber optics is requiredLonger distances needed (over 20km supported)No emissions and EFI/RFI (industrial applications)Bandwidth demands are flexibleTo minimize energy consumptionCongested conduits or tight spaces (much less material required for PON)Non-centralized access switches (ONU/T) are acceptableInfrastructure lifecycle duration optimizedWireless and PoE not primary focus
20Building Owner’s Architectural Considerations New building construction/architectureFreedom offered by distance of single-mode fiberLess space and cabling materials requiredLess in cabling support systems (ladder rack)Less fire loadLess distributor/telecom room spacing (sqft) requiredLess floor distributor HVAC, UPS, copper patch panels, support systems, etc.Consolidation of systems supporting converged servicesConsolidation of multiple cabling infrastructures all over one single-mode fiber
21GREEN BuildingsPassive Optical LANs lend easily to Green & Sustainability initiativesReduction of electronics power consumption/per Ethernet port (vendor specific)Reduced physical cabling materials & new construction support systemsLongevity of the fiber infrastructureConverged services support for voice, video, data, security, WiFi, BAS …LEED® - Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) rating system by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)STEP - Sustainable Technology Environments ProgramRatings plan that will bring sustainability to technology systemsTIA TR Standard for Sustainable Information Communications Technology (TR-42 TIA standard development in process)Key goals of STEP include:Minimize energy, Reduce waste, Optimizing infrastructure design, Provide scalability, & Reduce construction materials
22Today’s Market Adoption Applicable to most verticalsMilitaryGovernmentHigher educationFinancialEnterprise officesHospitalityHealthcareReal deployment examplesSan Diego LibraryUSDA, Dept. Homeland SecurityUniversity of Mary WashingtonRussell InvestmentsDeltek HeadquartersCanon HeadquartersMarriott HotelPardubice Hospital
24Planar Lightwave Circuit Fiber Optic SplittersWhat is a fiber optic splitter?Key enabling technology for passive optical signal distributionContains no electronicsUses no electricity (high reliability)Signal attenuation is the same in both directionsNon-wavelength selectivePlanar Lightwave CircuitFacility and/or equipment redundancy options supported by dual-input splitters 2x32, 2x16…Optical splitter dual inputsOLT
25TIA Compliant Design Requirements TIA-568-C Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer PremiseSingle-mode fiber for backbone & horizontal (performance specs per TIA-568-C.3)Requires generic structured cabling in a hierarchical starSplitters allowed in distributor spaces A, B, CIn a distributor telecom roomIn a distributor enclosure (zone area)Not allowed within cabling subsystem 1Two fiber or higher to each work area recommendedAlthough only one fiber needed two can be installed for growth/spareSource: TIA-568-CDistributors A and B are optional (centralized fiber approach).
26TIA Performance Criteria TIA-568-C.3 Optical Fiber Cabling Components StandardSingle-mode fiberAttenuationIndoor/Outdoor, Outdoor < .5 dB/kmIndoor < 1.0 dB/kmInside plantPull strength 50 lbf minBend radius (<= 4 fibers 1 inch, 2 inches under load) (> 4 fibers 10x outer dia., 20x outer dia. under load)Connector PerformanceAttenuation (insertion loss)Fiber connectors < .75 dBFiber splices < .3 dBReturn Loss26 dB, 55 dB analog videoOther: temperature, humidity, impact, coupling strength, ….Enhanced products offered from manufacturers today -Single-mode bend insensitive fiber:5mm bend radius (G.657.B3) , indoor/outdoor attenuation < .4 dB/kmEasy installable mechanical connectivity:Connectors IL < dB typical & RL >55-60 dB; Splices < .1 dB typical
27Infrastructure Fundamentals Simplex Single-mode fiberPolarity not a concern for Tx/Rx signalsMultimode cannot support the extended reach of PONConnector typeTypically all simplex SC/APC typeSome exceptions (check with equipment vendors)Heavy duty ladder rack not requiredFiber is light weight & tiny compared to copperLongevity, reliability of the fiber plantChoose quality splitters, connectorsChoose vendors who offer most flexibilityJ-hook
28Other Design Considerations PON Equipment Vendor Options:Some ONT’s support Power over Ethernet (WAPs, VoIP phones,…) IEEE802.3af, atSome ONTs support copper horizontal distances (100 m)Redundancy options for fiber facility and/or added equipment redundancyOptions for remote powering &/or battery reserve at ONTPassive infrastructure choices:SplittersInterconnect vs. Cross-connectFiber connectivity
29Fiber Optic Splitters Various product formats Both single and dual-inputAll pre-connectorizedPre-tested, ease of install & useVarious split ratios1 or 2 x 32, 16, 8, 4, 2InputsOutputs
30Common Enterprise PON Configurations Optical splitter(s)1ONTSPLITTERS IN TR/ClosetCat xcordsCabling Subsystem 1Backbone & HorizontalCross-connectONTPC, VoIP phone, printer, WAP, etc.Fiber patchcordsWall outletTelecomRoom (TR)/ClosetBackboneOptical splitter(s)2ONTSPLITTERS IN ZONE DISTRIBUTORTelecom EnclosureBackboneOptical Network Terminals (ONT)Floors 1-nFiber patch panels –OLT to Riser/ backboneConfiguration 1 – TR Distributor ABackboneCross-connectConfiguration 2 – Zone Distributor AOLTOptical Line Terminal (OLT)Equip.Room (ER)MC
31Interconnect vs. Cross-connect ConsiderationsEase of test and MACs w/o unplugging horizontal or splitter legsAre all splitter outputs going to be used?Adds 1 connector pair (IL) where implementedFiber from backbone to splitter input on frontAdded adapter plate and fiber patch cords facilitate full cross-connect/ patching between splitter and horizontalHorizontal cabling plugs into back of adapter plateIII) Splitter Module Cross-connect SolutionStandard simplex fiber patch cord1x32 way splitter module32 port adapter plateFiber from backbone to splitter input on frontHorizontal cabling plugs into front splitter output portsFaceplate ModuleInterconnect Solution3-slot wide 1x32 way splitter moduleAttached input(s) and output legsHorizontal cabling plugs into back of adapter platePigtail Splitter ModuleInterconnect Solutionadapter plate32 pre-terminated output legsAdded adapter plates between splitter and horizontal cabling complete this interconnect solution.Output legs of the splitter plug into front of adapter plateAn interconnect choice is the most dense and cost-effective solution.
32ANSI/TIA-568-C Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer Premises-Addendum 2, General Updates, published August 2012Link and Channel definitions updated to accommodate PONs“Link attenuation does not include any active devices or passive devices other than cable, connectors, and splices (i.e., does not include splitters).”“Channel attenuation includes the attenuation of the constituent links, patch cords, and other passive devices such as by-pass switches, couplers and splitters.”
33Optical Link Budget Allowance The optical link budget allowance is a calculated attenuation/ loss expectancy based on the end-to-end components incorporated within the link or channel design.OLTONTConnectorsExample: Singlemode Fiber GPON ChannelSplicesSplitterAttenuation is the loss or decrease of signal power and is the primary limiting factor in an optical transmission system.Attenuation/loss testing must be performed after the fiber cable installation to ensure the system meets the originaldesign intent and that the application can be supported within the criteria specified.→The attenuation measurement results for the link or channel should always be less than the designed optical budget attenuation allowance.
34Example Optical Budget Optical power budget criteria is specified for the Channel per EIA/TIA 568-C.0-2GPON Class B Min = 10dB, Max = 25dB over 20 km distanceEPON Min = 10dB, Max = 24dB over 20 km distanceChannel = Constituent links + fiber cords + splitters between OLT and ONTCalculating Optical Loss Budget Allowance (TIA)Step 1 – calculate fiber loss.5 dB/km for outside plant1.0 dB/km for inside plantStep 2 – calculate the connector loss.75 dB max/connector pairStep 3 – calculate any splice loss.3 dB max per spliceStep 4 – calculate the splitter(s) lossStep 5 - Include the loss of the connector at the end of the channel (fiber patch point)Step 6 -Add all losses
35Singlemode Fiber Field Testing - Certification for Passive Optical LANs Tier 1 Testing is Required – Per TIA/EIA & IEC standards, Link segments should simply be tested visually and tested for loss.Visual InspectionsVisually verify installed length as well as minimum end face scratches/debris and the polarity of any multi-fiber linksPower meter/Light Source (PMLS)PM/LS testing measures the end-to-end loss of the linkIf attenuation is under the TIA optical budget allowance, it passes for commissioningUse ANSI/TIA/EIA-526-7, Method A.1, One Reference Jumper method- Test Cabling Subsystem 1 links at 1310 nm.- Test Cabling Subsystem 2 or 3 backbone links at 1310 and 1550 nm.- Test channel at 1310 and 1490 nm (Per TIA-568-C.0-2 Table 9 which states min and max channel attenuation for singlemode fiber PON applications)
36SummaryPassive Optical Network technology has many benefits for the Enterprise environment and may be a viable alternativeThe environment will typically dictate which architecture will be most advantageous. Retro-fit environments may not be as conducive to a PON design, but new construction will certainly gain the most benefits from a PONDesign & testing of PONS should be done in compliance with TIA cabling industry standardsRemember, the best architecture may be a mixture of designs.
37Tyler Vander Ploeg, RCDD (JDSU) Testing PON in the LANTyler Vander Ploeg, RCDD (JDSU)
38Testing PON in the LAN Testing Overview PON Test Solutions Special Considerations for PON TestingTier 1 / Tier 2 CertificationPON Test SolutionsPON Testing scenariosConstruction / Turn-UpTroubleshooting
39Special considerations for PON testing Connections are Simplex not duplexBidirectional transmission on the same fiberTesting with Optical SplittersTighter Loss BudgetsMany contaminated connections to deal withAll Singlemode APC connectorsDifferent operational wavelengths than "normal”1270, 1310, 1490, 1577Special Tools may be neededPON selective power meters for construction and troubleshootingIn-line because ONT does not transmit unless there is a signal from the OLT
40Tier 1 Certification Testing What is Tier 1 Fiber Certification Testing?Fiber InspectionMeasure Optical LossCheck PolarityMeasure Length*Tier 1 Challenges when testing PON architecturesPolarity is not applicable for PON…but Continuity isie: …make sure fiber 2 of the splitter is going to WS24Measuring length in a simplex architectureOptical Return Loss more of an issue with PON
41Tier 2 Certification Testing How TIA-568-C defines Tier 2 TestingUsing an Optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR)“Optional” per international standards bodies, it is not required and does not substitute for PMLS testRecommended for testing the outside plant and/or for troubleshootingFurther details uniformity of cable attenuation, connector losses, connector/splice or trouble locationsMay be requested by the customer
42Tier 2 Advantages for testing PON With an OTDR you can Measure…Both Multimode & Single mode LinksOptical Distance and Fiber ContinuityTo Events – splices, connectorsFaults, end of fiberOptical loss (dB)Splices, connectorsFiber loss (dB/km)Reflectance or ORLReturn loss of link or sectionReflectance of connectorsAllows comparison to a baseline referenceEasily isolate problem areasMultiple schematic viewsTrace ViewGraphical representations of linkEasier to understandWith higher speed networks, or those that are longer in length, such as a campus networks, the requirements can extend beyond Tier 1 testing. Tier 2 testing using an OTDR provides the additional functions of evaluating specific impairments and events along the link or evaluate loss and reflectance of individual connections, or even troubleshoot outages.
43Contamination and Signal Performance 1CLEAN CONNECTIONFiber Contamination and Its Affect on Signal PerformanceBack Reflection = dBTotal Loss = dB3DIRTY CONNECTIONClean Connection vs. Dirty ConnectionThe typical budgeted loss for a mated connector pair is 0.5dBThis dirty connector wasted ~10X the budgeted connector lossThis dirty connector caused ~4.9dB which is a 68% power dropBack Reflection = dBTotal Loss = 4.87 dB
44Tools to Qualify and Maintain Enterprise PON Networks “In shorter, simple low-speed networks, you might be able to deploy and maintain the link w/ simple tools such as connector inspection, VFL for continuity and power and/or loss measurements to evaluate overall link loss performance. In the enterprise world, these are referred to as Tier 1 Tests.”In the previous Webexes, Tyler discussed the importance of inspection and cleaning, and Ed covered Tier 1 Certification Testing.Today we will cover Tier 2, or OTDR testing.
45Tool requirements for Fiber Technicians Drive behavior for best practicesImprove technician performancePrevent forming of bad habitsEquips technicians follow best practices from day 1Optimize workflow for essential tasksInspection / Power Measurement / Cleaning / Fault LocationWhen your Techs work smarter – You save money!Goal = FINISH THE JOB FASTUse it anywhereDatacenters, Overhead Cable Raceways, Under-Floor pathways and spaces, Demarcation Points, etcKeep hands free to access equipment, route cable, etc.Prove the quality of your workStore your data on the deviceGenerate certification reports
46Test Solutions for PON in LAN Inspection MicroscopePass/Fail Connector InspectionOLS + PON Selective Power MeterSimultaneous Testing of Multiple WavelengthsThrough-Mode TestingOTDRIdeal for all phases of PON testsDetects faultsTests through connectors, splices, and splittersFiber loss (dB/km) and Event lossMultiple schematic views
47Enterprise PON: Construction Testing Test Feeder/Backbone linkTest Distribution linkOPTION 1: Overall Link Loss Measurement OnlyToolsOptical Light SourcePON Optical Power MeterMicroscopeAdvantagesInexpensiveDisadvantagesNot True Tier 1Don’t know lengthUnidirectional lossNo ORL/Reflectance
48Enterprise PON: Construction Testing Test Feeder/Backbone linkTest Distribution linkOPTION 2: Per Event Loss Measurement + LengthToolsOTDRMicroscopeAdvantagesSee loss per eventKnow your distanceDisadvantagesMore ExpensiveUni-directionalMore Complex to use (perceived)
49Enterprise PON: Construction Testing Test Feeder/Backbone linkTest Distribution linkOPTION 2: Fiber CompleteToolsFiber Complete (x2)ILORLOTDRMicroscopeAdvantagesTier 1 & 2 TestSee loss per eventKnow your distanceBi-Directional LossDisadvantagesNeed 2 TestersUni-directionalMore Complex to use (perceived)