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Passive Optical LAN Fiber Trends Testing and Updates – Get the Facts

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Presentation on theme: "Passive Optical LAN Fiber Trends Testing and Updates – Get the Facts"— Presentation transcript:

1 Passive Optical LAN Fiber Trends Testing and Updates – Get the Facts
This presentation was part of a Pre-Conference seminar at the 2014 BICSI Winter Conference. The slides shown here were presented by Loni Le Van-Etter, 3M

2 What Is A Passive Optical LAN ?

3 What is PON? Passive Optical Network.
Facilitates a higher bandwidth broadband access technology With a PON, optical fiber is deployed either all the way or almost all the way to the end user Passive because: network only consists of passive light transmission components (fiber links, splitters and couplers), with electronics only at the endpoints This creates great cost savings for the provider (more reliable and less costly to operate/troubleshoot) PONs use a Point-to-Multi-Point (P2MP) topology With a 1:n splitter

4 PON Types APON Initial name for ATM based PON spec. Designed by Full Service Access Network (FSAN) group. BPON Broadband PON standard specified in ITU G through G.893.7 APON renamed Supports 155 or 622 Mbps downstream, 155 Mbps upstream.

5 PON Types GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network)
ITU Standard G.984 Downstream 2.488Gbits/s, Upstream 1.244Gbits/s Uses GPON Encapsulation Method (GEM), fragmented packets or ATM ITU Standard G.987 for 10Gbits Symmetrical 10GB Asymmetric 10 GB downstream /2.488/10GB upstream Commercial availability in 2014/2015 time frame 5

6 PON Types EPON (Ethernet Passive Optical Network)
Sometimes called GEPON (Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network) IEEE standard, ratified as 802.3ah-2004 for 1Gbits/s Symmetrical 1.25GB downstream and upstream Uses standard Ethernet data frames IEEE 802.3av standard for 10Gbits/s Symmetrical 10GB Asymmetric 10GB downstream / 1GB upstream Commercially available today 6

7 How PON Works All data goes to all ONUs, and the ONU
Upstream TDM Operation ONTs send information to the OLT in a specific time window. Upstream TDMA Operation ONUs send information to the OLT in a User 2 User 1 User 3 ONT OLT ONU Downstream Broadcast All data goes to all ONTs, and the ONT address controls the downstream data. All data goes to all ONUs, and the ONU

8 PON FTTx Architecture

9 Enterprise Office Building
What is POL? Desktop ONT Service Provider Network EPON OLT Splitter/interconnect Data Video Voice BASEMENT 1st FLOOR 2nd FLOOR Enterprise Office Building Interconnect to riser equipment cord (1 fiber) riser cable (multi fiber) horizontal cable (1 fiber) Cu patch cords Passive Optical LAN. Aka “Vertical PON”, “Optical LAN” Uses FTTx PON components in an indoor environment Again, optical fiber (single mode) is deployed almost all the way to the end user Point-to-multi-point

10 Passive Optical Network Overview
POL is an Enterprise passive optical network based on legacy PON architecture ITU-T G.984.x GPON IEEE 802.3ah EPON Enterprise applications began around 2009 Vendors with new software features, new hardware for indoor applications Point to multi-point architecture Utilizes singlemode fiber end-to-end

11 Copper-based LAN Passive Optical LAN
Active Ethernet switches for LAN core, aggregation and access functions Cable infrastructure per service CATx Coax Some Multi-mode Fiber (MMF) Passive Optical LAN Passive optical network (PON) Optical Line Terminal (OLT) Optical distribution network Optical Network terminations (ONT) Single mode fiber converges all building ICT services over single infrastructure Local Provisioning & Management Centralized Provisioning & Management OLT Campus Aggregation Building Aggregation Distance Limited – MMF – 550m Copper – 100m Passive Network Over 20km/12mi Distance Copper based LAN At the building distributor and at every floor distributor/Telecom Room: Requires: Active electronics to regenerate and switch the signal- Requires Power Requires HVAC Requires UPS Requires stacks of copper patch panels Requires multiple home run cables to each work area Communication Closet building automation wireless End User security

12 Benefits of Singlemode Fiber for the LAN
Superior Performance Greater bandwidth and distance. No cross-talk, interference Easier Installation No ladder rack required Fiber is easier to test & certify No shielding required for EMI and RFI Pulling Tension Fiber more robust than copper cables Fiber typically has a 50/100 lb tension; copper only 25 lb pull strength. Highly Secure Harder to tap than copper; not vulnerable to emissions Easier to Upgrade Future-ready for higher bandwidths SM lasts for generations of electronics Non-Heat Producing Fiber is all-dielectric Less likely to cause a fire than copper Environmentally Friendly Attenuates signal less than copper Consumes far less raw materials Much smaller Smaller size and lighter weight but more capacity than copper cables Less an impact on environmental sustainability

13 Which Standards Support It ?

14 Industry Support APOLAN Global industry association formed ( Association for Passive Optical LAN industry organization Member companies consisting of Distributors Active and passive equipment manufacturers IT integrators Consultants, and other affiliations Advocates the education and global adoption of passive optical networks for the LAN marketplace

15 BICSI Support BICSI TDMM (Telecommunications Distribution Methods Manual) 13th Edition published January 2014 Includes PON chapter in the Horizontal Distribution Section Contains special consideration topics for PON design in a commercial environment Developed by multiple vendors participation

16 TIA Passive Optical LAN Support – August 2012
TIA-568-C Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer Premise – Addendum 2, General Updates Table 9 Single-mode Fiber Application support for PON technologies Maximum supportable distances for GPON & EPON applications Minimum and maximum channel attenuation including couplers and splitters for PON

17 TIA Standards Applicable to Passive Optical LAN Design
TIA establishes and maintains standards for the premise wiring industry Applicable standards include: ANSI/TIA-568-C.0, Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer Premises ANSI/TIA-568-C.1, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard ANSI/TIA-568-C.2, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard; Part 2: Balanced Twisted Pair Cabling Components ANSI/TIA-568-C.3, Optical Fiber Cabling Components Standard TIA-569-C, Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces ANSI/TIA/EIA-606-B, Administration Standard for Commercial Telecommunications ANSI-J-STD-607-A, Commercial Building Grounding (Earthing) AND Bonding Requirements for Telecommunications ANSI/TIA-578-B, Customer Owned Outside Plant Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard

18 When Should It Be Used ?

19 When to Consider Suitable and advantageous for many LAN scenarios
Large number of switch ports Higher security inherent to fiber optics is required Longer distances needed (over 20km supported) No emissions and EFI/RFI (industrial applications) Bandwidth demands are flexible To minimize energy consumption Congested conduits or tight spaces (much less material required for PON) Non-centralized access switches (ONU/T) are acceptable Infrastructure lifecycle duration optimized Wireless and PoE not primary focus

20 Building Owner’s Architectural Considerations
New building construction/architecture Freedom offered by distance of single-mode fiber Less space and cabling materials required Less in cabling support systems (ladder rack) Less fire load Less distributor/telecom room spacing (sqft) required Less floor distributor HVAC, UPS, copper patch panels, support systems, etc. Consolidation of systems supporting converged services Consolidation of multiple cabling infrastructures all over one single-mode fiber

21 GREEN Buildings Passive Optical LANs lend easily to Green & Sustainability initiatives Reduction of electronics power consumption/per Ethernet port (vendor specific) Reduced physical cabling materials & new construction support systems Longevity of the fiber infrastructure Converged services support for voice, video, data, security, WiFi, BAS … LEED® - Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) rating system by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) STEP - Sustainable Technology Environments Program Ratings plan that will bring sustainability to technology systems TIA TR Standard for Sustainable Information Communications Technology (TR-42 TIA standard development in process) Key goals of STEP include: Minimize energy, Reduce waste, Optimizing infrastructure design, Provide scalability, & Reduce construction materials

22 Today’s Market Adoption
Applicable to most verticals Military Government Higher education Financial Enterprise offices Hospitality Healthcare Real deployment examples San Diego Library USDA, Dept. Homeland Security University of Mary Washington Russell Investments Deltek Headquarters Canon Headquarters Marriott Hotel Pardubice Hospital

23 How Do I Design It ?

24 Planar Lightwave Circuit
Fiber Optic Splitters What is a fiber optic splitter? Key enabling technology for passive optical signal distribution Contains no electronics Uses no electricity (high reliability) Signal attenuation is the same in both directions Non-wavelength selective Planar Lightwave Circuit Facility and/or equipment redundancy options supported by dual-input splitters 2x32, 2x16… Optical splitter dual inputs OLT

25 TIA Compliant Design Requirements
TIA-568-C Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer Premise Single-mode fiber for backbone & horizontal (performance specs per TIA-568-C.3) Requires generic structured cabling in a hierarchical star Splitters allowed in distributor spaces A, B, C In a distributor telecom room In a distributor enclosure (zone area) Not allowed within cabling subsystem 1 Two fiber or higher to each work area recommended Although only one fiber needed two can be installed for growth/spare Source: TIA-568-C Distributors A and B are optional (centralized fiber approach).

26 TIA Performance Criteria
TIA-568-C.3 Optical Fiber Cabling Components Standard Single-mode fiber Attenuation Indoor/Outdoor, Outdoor < .5 dB/km Indoor < 1.0 dB/km Inside plant Pull strength 50 lbf min Bend radius (<= 4 fibers 1 inch, 2 inches under load) (> 4 fibers 10x outer dia., 20x outer dia. under load) Connector Performance Attenuation (insertion loss) Fiber connectors < .75 dB Fiber splices < .3 dB Return Loss 26 dB, 55 dB analog video Other: temperature, humidity, impact, coupling strength, …. Enhanced products offered from manufacturers today - Single-mode bend insensitive fiber: 5mm bend radius (G.657.B3) , indoor/outdoor attenuation < .4 dB/km Easy installable mechanical connectivity: Connectors IL < dB typical & RL >55-60 dB; Splices < .1 dB typical

27 Infrastructure Fundamentals
Simplex Single-mode fiber Polarity not a concern for Tx/Rx signals Multimode cannot support the extended reach of PON Connector type Typically all simplex SC/APC type Some exceptions (check with equipment vendors) Heavy duty ladder rack not required Fiber is light weight & tiny compared to copper Longevity, reliability of the fiber plant Choose quality splitters, connectors Choose vendors who offer most flexibility J-hook

28 Other Design Considerations
PON Equipment Vendor Options: Some ONT’s support Power over Ethernet (WAPs, VoIP phones,…) IEEE802.3af, at Some ONTs support copper horizontal distances (100 m) Redundancy options for fiber facility and/or added equipment redundancy Options for remote powering &/or battery reserve at ONT Passive infrastructure choices: Splitters Interconnect vs. Cross-connect Fiber connectivity

29 Fiber Optic Splitters Various product formats
Both single and dual-input All pre-connectorized Pre-tested, ease of install & use Various split ratios 1 or 2 x 32, 16, 8, 4, 2 Inputs Outputs

30 Common Enterprise PON Configurations
Optical splitter(s) 1 ONT SPLITTERS IN TR/Closet Cat x cords Cabling Subsystem 1 Backbone & Horizontal Cross-connect ONT PC, VoIP phone, printer, WAP, etc. Fiber patch cords Wall outlet Telecom Room (TR)/Closet Backbone Optical splitter(s) 2 ONT SPLITTERS IN ZONE DISTRIBUTOR Telecom Enclosure Backbone Optical Network Terminals (ONT) Floors 1-n Fiber patch panels – OLT to Riser/ backbone Configuration 1 – TR Distributor A Backbone Cross-connect Configuration 2 – Zone Distributor A OLT Optical Line Terminal (OLT) Equip. Room (ER) MC

31 Interconnect vs. Cross-connect
Considerations Ease of test and MACs w/o unplugging horizontal or splitter legs Are all splitter outputs going to be used? Adds 1 connector pair (IL) where implemented Fiber from backbone to splitter input on front Added adapter plate and fiber patch cords facilitate full cross-connect/ patching between splitter and horizontal Horizontal cabling plugs into back of adapter plate III) Splitter Module Cross-connect Solution Standard simplex fiber patch cord 1x32 way splitter module 32 port adapter plate Fiber from backbone to splitter input on front Horizontal cabling plugs into front splitter output ports Faceplate Module Interconnect Solution 3-slot wide 1x32 way splitter module Attached input(s) and output legs Horizontal cabling plugs into back of adapter plate Pigtail Splitter Module Interconnect Solution adapter plate 32 pre-terminated output legs Added adapter plates between splitter and horizontal cabling complete this interconnect solution. Output legs of the splitter plug into front of adapter plate An interconnect choice is the most dense and cost-effective solution.

32 ANSI/TIA-568-C Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer Premises-Addendum 2, General Updates, published August 2012 Link and Channel definitions updated to accommodate PONs “Link attenuation does not include any active devices or passive devices other than cable, connectors, and splices (i.e., does not include splitters).” “Channel attenuation includes the attenuation of the constituent links, patch cords, and other passive devices such as by-pass switches, couplers and splitters.”

33 Optical Link Budget Allowance
The optical link budget allowance is a calculated attenuation/ loss expectancy based on the end-to-end components incorporated within the link or channel design. OLT ONT Connectors Example: Singlemode Fiber GPON Channel Splices Splitter Attenuation is the loss or decrease of signal power and is the primary limiting factor in an optical transmission system. Attenuation/loss testing must be performed after the fiber cable installation to ensure the system meets the original design intent and that the application can be supported within the criteria specified. →The attenuation measurement results for the link or channel should always be less than the designed optical budget attenuation allowance.

34 Example Optical Budget
Optical power budget criteria is specified for the Channel per EIA/TIA 568-C.0-2 GPON Class B Min = 10dB, Max = 25dB over 20 km distance EPON Min = 10dB, Max = 24dB over 20 km distance Channel = Constituent links + fiber cords + splitters between OLT and ONT Calculating Optical Loss Budget Allowance (TIA) Step 1 – calculate fiber loss .5 dB/km for outside plant 1.0 dB/km for inside plant Step 2 – calculate the connector loss .75 dB max/connector pair Step 3 – calculate any splice loss .3 dB max per splice Step 4 – calculate the splitter(s) loss Step 5 - Include the loss of the connector at the end of the channel (fiber patch point) Step 6 -Add all losses

35 Singlemode Fiber Field Testing - Certification for Passive Optical LANs
Tier 1 Testing is Required – Per TIA/EIA & IEC standards, Link segments should simply be tested visually and tested for loss. Visual Inspections Visually verify installed length as well as minimum end face scratches/debris and the polarity of any multi-fiber links Power meter/Light Source (PMLS) PM/LS testing measures the end-to-end loss of the link If attenuation is under the TIA optical budget allowance, it passes for commissioning Use ANSI/TIA/EIA-526-7, Method A.1, One Reference Jumper method - Test Cabling Subsystem 1 links at 1310 nm. - Test Cabling Subsystem 2 or 3 backbone links at 1310 and 1550 nm. - Test channel at 1310 and 1490 nm (Per TIA-568-C.0-2 Table 9 which states min and max channel attenuation for singlemode fiber PON applications)

36 Summary Passive Optical Network technology has many benefits for the Enterprise environment and may be a viable alternative The environment will typically dictate which architecture will be most advantageous. Retro-fit environments may not be as conducive to a PON design, but new construction will certainly gain the most benefits from a PON Design & testing of PONS should be done in compliance with TIA cabling industry standards Remember, the best architecture may be a mixture of designs.

37 Tyler Vander Ploeg, RCDD (JDSU)
Testing PON in the LAN Tyler Vander Ploeg, RCDD (JDSU)

38 Testing PON in the LAN Testing Overview PON Test Solutions
Special Considerations for PON Testing Tier 1 / Tier 2 Certification PON Test Solutions PON Testing scenarios Construction / Turn-Up Troubleshooting

39 Special considerations for PON testing
Connections are Simplex not duplex Bidirectional transmission on the same fiber Testing with Optical Splitters Tighter Loss Budgets Many contaminated connections to deal with All Singlemode APC connectors Different operational wavelengths than "normal” 1270, 1310, 1490, 1577 Special Tools may be needed PON selective power meters for construction and troubleshooting In-line because ONT does not transmit unless there is a signal from the OLT

40 Tier 1 Certification Testing
What is Tier 1 Fiber Certification Testing? Fiber Inspection Measure Optical Loss Check Polarity Measure Length* Tier 1 Challenges when testing PON architectures Polarity is not applicable for PON…but Continuity is ie: …make sure fiber 2 of the splitter is going to WS24 Measuring length in a simplex architecture Optical Return Loss more of an issue with PON

41 Tier 2 Certification Testing
How TIA-568-C defines Tier 2 Testing Using an Optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) “Optional” per international standards bodies, it is not required and does not substitute for PMLS test Recommended for testing the outside plant and/or for troubleshooting Further details uniformity of cable attenuation, connector losses, connector/splice or trouble locations May be requested by the customer

42 Tier 2 Advantages for testing PON
With an OTDR you can Measure… Both Multimode & Single mode Links Optical Distance and Fiber Continuity To Events – splices, connectors Faults, end of fiber Optical loss (dB) Splices, connectors Fiber loss (dB/km) Reflectance or ORL Return loss of link or section Reflectance of connectors Allows comparison to a baseline reference Easily isolate problem areas Multiple schematic views Trace View Graphical representations of link Easier to understand With higher speed networks, or those that are longer in length, such as a campus networks, the requirements can extend beyond Tier 1 testing. Tier 2 testing using an OTDR provides the additional functions of evaluating specific impairments and events along the link or evaluate loss and reflectance of individual connections, or even troubleshoot outages.

43 Contamination and Signal Performance
1 CLEAN CONNECTION Fiber Contamination and Its Affect on Signal Performance Back Reflection = dB Total Loss = dB 3 DIRTY CONNECTION Clean Connection vs. Dirty Connection The typical budgeted loss for a mated connector pair is 0.5dB This dirty connector wasted ~10X the budgeted connector loss This dirty connector caused ~4.9dB which is a 68% power drop Back Reflection = dB Total Loss = 4.87 dB

44 Tools to Qualify and Maintain Enterprise PON Networks
“In shorter, simple low-speed networks, you might be able to deploy and maintain the link w/ simple tools such as connector inspection, VFL for continuity and power and/or loss measurements to evaluate overall link loss performance.  In the enterprise world, these are referred to as Tier 1 Tests.” In the previous Webexes, Tyler discussed the importance of inspection and cleaning, and Ed covered Tier 1 Certification Testing. Today we will cover Tier 2, or OTDR testing.

45 Tool requirements for Fiber Technicians
Drive behavior for best practices Improve technician performance Prevent forming of bad habits Equips technicians follow best practices from day 1 Optimize workflow for essential tasks Inspection / Power Measurement / Cleaning / Fault Location When your Techs work smarter – You save money! Goal = FINISH THE JOB FAST Use it anywhere Datacenters, Overhead Cable Raceways, Under-Floor pathways and spaces, Demarcation Points, etc Keep hands free to access equipment, route cable, etc. Prove the quality of your work Store your data on the device Generate certification reports

46 Test Solutions for PON in LAN
Inspection Microscope Pass/Fail Connector Inspection OLS + PON Selective Power Meter Simultaneous Testing of Multiple Wavelengths Through-Mode Testing OTDR Ideal for all phases of PON tests Detects faults Tests through connectors, splices, and splitters Fiber loss (dB/km) and Event loss Multiple schematic views

47 Enterprise PON: Construction Testing
Test Feeder/Backbone link Test Distribution link OPTION 1: Overall Link Loss Measurement Only Tools Optical Light Source PON Optical Power Meter Microscope Advantages Inexpensive Disadvantages Not True Tier 1 Don’t know length Unidirectional loss No ORL/Reflectance

48 Enterprise PON: Construction Testing
Test Feeder/Backbone link Test Distribution link OPTION 2: Per Event Loss Measurement + Length Tools OTDR Microscope Advantages See loss per event Know your distance Disadvantages More Expensive Uni-directional More Complex to use (perceived)

49 Enterprise PON: Construction Testing
Test Feeder/Backbone link Test Distribution link OPTION 2: Fiber Complete Tools Fiber Complete (x2) IL ORL OTDR Microscope Advantages Tier 1 & 2 Test See loss per event Know your distance Bi-Directional Loss Disadvantages Need 2 Testers Uni-directional More Complex to use (perceived)

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