Presentation on theme: "Passive Optical LAN Fiber Trends Testing and Updates – Get the Facts This presentation was part of a Pre-Conference seminar at the 2014 BICSI Winter Conference."— Presentation transcript:
Passive Optical LAN Fiber Trends Testing and Updates – Get the Facts This presentation was part of a Pre-Conference seminar at the 2014 BICSI Winter Conference. The slides shown here were presented by Loni Le Van-Etter, 3M
What Is A Passive Optical LAN ?
What is PON? Passive Optical Network. Facilitates a higher bandwidth broadband access technology With a PON, optical fiber is deployed either all the way or almost all the way to the end user Passive because: – network only consists of passive light transmission components (fiber links, splitters and couplers), with electronics only at the endpoints – This creates great cost savings for the provider (more reliable and less costly to operate/troubleshoot) PONs use a Point-to-Multi-Point (P2MP) topology – With a 1:n splitter
PON Types APON – Initial name for ATM based PON spec. Designed by Full Service Access Network (FSAN) group. BPON – Broadband PON standard specified in ITU G through G – APON renamed – Supports 155 or 622 Mbps downstream, 155 Mbps upstream.
PON Types GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network) — ITU Standard G.984 — Downstream 2.488Gbits/s, Upstream 1.244Gbits/s — Uses GPON Encapsulation Method (GEM), fragmented packets or ATM — ITU Standard G.987 for 10Gbits Symmetrical 10GB Asymmetric 10 GB downstream /2.488/10GB upstream Commercial availability in 2014/2015 time frame
PON Types EPON (Ethernet Passive Optical Network) — Sometimes called GEPON (Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network) — IEEE standard, ratified as 802.3ah-2004 for 1Gbits/s — Symmetrical 1.25GB downstream and upstream — Uses standard Ethernet data frames — IEEE 802.3av standard for 10Gbits/s Symmetrical 10GB Asymmetric 10GB downstream / 1GB upstream Commercially available today
How PON Works
PON FTTx Architecture
What is POL? Desktop ONT Service Provider Network EPON OLT Desktop ONT Splitter/interconnect Data Video Voice BASEMENT 1st FLOOR 2nd FLOOR Enterprise Office Building Interconnect to riser equipment cord (1 fiber) riser cable (multi fiber) horizontal cable (1 fiber) Cu patch cords equipment cord (1 fiber) Passive Optical LAN. Aka “Vertical PON”, “Optical LAN” Uses FTTx PON components in an indoor environment Again, optical fiber (single mode) is deployed almost all the way to the end user Point-to-multi-point
Passive Optical Network Overview POL is an Enterprise passive optical network based on legacy PON architecture – ITU-T G.984.x GPON – IEEE 802.3ah EPON Enterprise applications began around 2009 – Vendors with new software features, new hardware for indoor applications Point to multi-point architecture Utilizes singlemode fiber end-to-end 10
Copper-based LAN Active Ethernet switches for LAN core, aggregation and access functions Cable infrastructure per service o CATx o Coax o Some Multi-mode Fiber (MMF) Passive Optical LAN Passive optical network (PON) o Optical Line Terminal (OLT) o Optical distribution network o Optical Network terminations (ONT) Single mode fiber converges all building ICT services over single infrastructure Over 20km/12mi Distance Passive Network Distance Limited – MMF – 550m Copper – 100m OLT Centralized Provisioning & Management Local Provisioning & Management Campus Aggregation Building Aggregation Communication Closet End User wireless building automation security
Benefits of Singlemode Fiber for the LAN Superior Performance – Greater bandwidth and distance. – No cross-talk, interference Easier Installation – No ladder rack required – Fiber is easier to test & certify – No shielding required for EMI and RFI Pulling Tension – Fiber more robust than copper cables – Fiber typically has a 50/100 lb tension; copper only 25 lb pull strength. Highly Secure – Harder to tap than copper; not vulnerable to emissions Easier to Upgrade – Future-ready for higher bandwidths – SM lasts for generations of electronics Non-Heat Producing – Fiber is all-dielectric – Less likely to cause a fire than copper Environmentally Friendly – Attenuates signal less than copper – Consumes far less raw materials Much smaller – Smaller size and lighter weight but more capacity than copper cables – Less an impact on environmental sustainability
Which Standards Support It ?
Industry Support APOLAN Global industry association formed (www.APOLANglobal.org) – Association for Passive Optical LAN industry organization – Member companies consisting of Distributors Active and passive equipment manufacturers IT integrators Consultants, and other affiliations – Advocates the education and global adoption of passive optical networks for the LAN marketplace 14
BICSI Support BICSI TDMM (Telecommunications Distribution Methods Manual) 13 th Edition published January 2014 Includes PON chapter in the Horizontal Distribution Section Contains special consideration topics for PON design in a commercial environment Developed by multiple vendors participation 15
TIA Passive Optical LAN Support – August 2012 TIA-568-C Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer Premise – Addendum 2, General Updates Table 9 Single-mode Fiber Application support for PON technologies – Maximum supportable distances for GPON & EPON applications – Minimum and maximum channel attenuation including couplers and splitters for PON
TIA Standards Applicable to Passive Optical LAN Design TIA establishes and maintains standards for the premise wiring industry Applicable standards include: – ANSI/TIA-568-C.0, Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer Premises – ANSI/TIA-568-C.1, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard – ANSI/TIA-568-C.2, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard; Part 2: Balanced Twisted Pair Cabling Components – ANSI/TIA-568-C.3, Optical Fiber Cabling Components Standard – TIA-569-C, Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces – ANSI/TIA/EIA-606-B, Administration Standard for Commercial Telecommunications – ANSI-J-STD-607-A, Commercial Building Grounding (Earthing) AND Bonding Requirements for Telecommunications – ANSI/TIA-578-B, Customer Owned Outside Plant Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard
When Should It Be Used ?
When to Consider Suitable and advantageous for many LAN scenarios – Large number of switch ports – Higher security inherent to fiber optics is required – Longer distances needed (over 20km supported) – No emissions and EFI/RFI (industrial applications) – Bandwidth demands are flexible – To minimize energy consumption – Congested conduits or tight spaces (much less material required for PON) – Non-centralized access switches (ONU/T) are acceptable – Infrastructure lifecycle duration optimized – Wireless and PoE not primary focus
Building Owner’s Architectural Considerations New building construction/architecture – Freedom offered by distance of single-mode fiber – Less space and cabling materials required – Less in cabling support systems (ladder rack) – Less fire load – Less distributor/telecom room spacing (sqft) required Less floor distributor HVAC, UPS, copper patch panels, support systems, etc. – Consolidation of systems supporting converged services – Consolidation of multiple cabling infrastructures all over one single-mode fiber
Passive Optical LANs lend easily to Green & Sustainability initiatives – Reduction of electronics power consumption/per Ethernet port (vendor specific) – Reduced physical cabling materials & new construction support systems – Longevity of the fiber infrastructure – Converged services support for voice, video, data, security, WiFi, BAS … LEED ® - Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED ® ) rating system by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) STEP - Sustainable Technology Environments Program – Ratings plan that will bring sustainability to technology systems – TIA TR Standard for Sustainable Information Communications Technology (TR-42 TIA standard development in process) – Key goals of STEP include: – Minimize energy, Reduce waste, Optimizing infrastructure design, Provide scalability, & Reduce construction materials GREEN Buildings
Today’s Market Adoption Real deployment examples – San Diego Library – USDA, Dept. Homeland Security – University of Mary Washington – Russell Investments – Deltek Headquarters – Canon Headquarters – Marriott Hotel – Pardubice Hospital Applicable to most verticals – Military – Government – Higher education – Financial – Enterprise offices – Hospitality – Healthcare 22
How Do I Design It ?
Fiber Optic Splitters Planar Lightwave Circuit What is a fiber optic splitter? – Key enabling technology for passive optical signal distribution – Contains no electronics – Uses no electricity (high reliability) – Signal attenuation is the same in both directions – Non-wavelength selective OLT Facility and/or equipment redundancy options supported by dual-input splitters 2x32, 2x16… Optical splitter dual inputs 24
TIA Compliant Design Requirements TIA-568-C Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer Premise Single-mode fiber for backbone & horizontal (performance specs per TIA-568-C.3) Requires generic structured cabling in a hierarchical star Splitters allowed in distributor spaces A, B, C —In a distributor telecom room —In a distributor enclosure (zone area) —Not allowed within cabling subsystem 1 Two fiber or higher to each work area recommended —Although only one fiber needed two can be installed for growth/spare Distributors A and B are optional (centralized fiber approach). Source: TIA-568-C
TIA Performance Criteria Single-mode fiber Attenuation – Indoor/Outdoor, Outdoor <.5 dB/km – Indoor < 1.0 dB/km Inside plant – Pull strength 50 lbf min – Bend radius ( 4 fibers 10x outer dia., 20x outer dia. under load) TIA-568-C.3 Optical Fiber Cabling Components Standard Connector Performance Attenuation (insertion loss) – Fiber connectors <.75 dB – Fiber splices <.3 dB Return Loss – 26 dB, 55 dB analog video Other: temperature, humidity, impact, coupling strength, …. Enhanced products offered from manufacturers today - Single-mode bend insensitive fiber: — 5mm bend radius (G.657.B3), indoor/outdoor attenuation <.4 dB/km Easy installable mechanical connectivity: — Connectors IL dB; Splices <.1 dB typical
Infrastructure Fundamentals Simplex Single-mode fiber — Polarity not a concern for Tx/Rx signals — Multimode cannot support the extended reach of PON Connector type — Typically all simplex SC/APC type — Some exceptions (check with equipment vendors) Heavy duty ladder rack not required — Fiber is light weight & tiny compared to copper Longevity, reliability of the fiber plant — Choose quality splitters, connectors — Choose vendors who offer most flexibility J-hook
Other Design Considerations PON Equipment Vendor Options: – Some ONT’s support Power over Ethernet (WAPs, VoIP phones,…) IEEE802.3af, at – Some ONTs support copper horizontal distances (100 m) – Redundancy options for fiber facility and/or added equipment redundancy – Options for remote powering &/or battery reserve at ONT Passive infrastructure choices: – Splitters – Interconnect vs. Cross-connect – Fiber connectivity
Fiber Optic Splitters Various product formats Both single and dual-input All pre-connectorized – Pre-tested, ease of install & use Various split ratios – 1 or 2 x 32, 16, 8, 4, 2 InputsOutputs
Common Enterprise PON Configurations SPLITTERS IN TR/Closet Telecom Room (TR)/Closet PC, VoIP phone, printer, WAP, etc. Fiber patch panels – OLT to Riser/ backbone Optical Line Terminal (OLT) Equip. Room (ER) Configuration 2 – Zone Distributor A Floors 1-n Cat x cords OLT Telecom Enclosure Backbone Cross-connect Backbone & Horizontal Cross-connect SPLITTERS IN ZONE DISTRIBUTOR Backbone ONT Fiber patch cords 1 1 Optical Network Terminals (ONT) 2 2 Optical splitter(s) Cabling Subsystem 1 MC Configuration 1 – TR Distributor A Wall outlet Backbone 30
Interconnect vs. Cross-connect Fiber from backbone to splitter input on front Horizontal cabling plugs into front splitter output ports I)Faceplate Module Interconnect Solution 3-slot wide 1x32 way splitter module Fiber from backbone to splitter input on front Added adapter plate and fiber patch cords facilitate full cross-connect/ patching between splitter and horizontal Horizontal cabling plugs into back of adapter plate III) Splitter Module Cross-connect Solution Standard simplex fiber patch cord 1x32 way splitter module 32 port adapter plate An interconnect choice is the most dense and cost-effective solution.
Link and Channel definitions updated to accommodate PONs “Link attenuation does not include any active devices or passive devices other than cable, connectors, and splices (i.e., does not include splitters).” “Channel attenuation includes the attenuation of the constituent links, patch cords, and other passive devices such as by-pass switches, couplers and splitters.” ANSI/TIA-568-C Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer Premises-Addendum 2, General Updates, published August
Optical Link Budget Allowance →The attenuation measurement results for the link or channel should always be less than the designed optical budget attenuation allowance. The optical link budget allowance is a calculated attenuation/ loss expectancy based on the end-to-end components incorporated within the link or channel design. OLT ONT Connectors Example: Singlemode Fiber GPON Channel SplicesSplitter
Example Optical Budget Optical power budget criteria is specified for the Channel per EIA/TIA 568-C.0-2 – GPON Class B Min = 10dB, Max = 25dB over 20 km distance – EPON Min = 10dB, Max = 24dB over 20 km distance Channel = Constituent links + fiber cords + splitters between OLT and ONT Calculating Optical Loss Budget Allowance (TIA) Step 1 – calculate fiber loss.5 dB/km for outside plant 1.0 dB/km for inside plant Step 2 – calculate the connector loss.75 dB max/connector pair Step 3 – calculate any splice loss.3 dB max per splice Step 4 – calculate the splitter(s) loss Step 5 - Include the loss of the connector at the end of the channel (fiber patch point) Step 6 -Add all losses
Tier 1 Testing is Required – Per TIA/EIA & IEC standards, Link segments should simply be tested visually and tested for loss. – Visual Inspections Visually verify installed length as well as minimum end face scratches/debris and the polarity of any multi-fiber links – Power meter/Light Source (PMLS) PM/LS testing measures the end-to-end loss of the link If attenuation is under the TIA optical budget allowance, it passes for commissioning Use ANSI/TIA/EIA-526-7, Method A.1, One Reference Jumper method - Test Cabling Subsystem 1 links at 1310 nm. - Test Cabling Subsystem 2 or 3 backbone links at 1310 and 1550 nm. - Test channel at 1310 and 1490 nm (Per TIA-568-C.0-2 Table 9 which states min and max channel attenuation for singlemode fiber PON applications) Singlemode Fiber Field Testing - Certification for Passive Optical LANs
Summary Passive Optical Network technology has many benefits for the Enterprise environment and may be a viable alternative The environment will typically dictate which architecture will be most advantageous. Retro-fit environments may not be as conducive to a PON design, but new construction will certainly gain the most benefits from a PON Design & testing of PONS should be done in compliance with TIA cabling industry standards Remember, the best architecture may be a mixture of designs.
Testing PON in the LAN Tyler Vander Ploeg, RCDD (JDSU)
Testing PON in the LAN Testing Overview – Special Considerations for PON Testing – Tier 1 / Tier 2 Certification PON Test Solutions PON Testing scenarios – Construction / Turn-Up – Troubleshooting
Special considerations for PON testing Connections are Simplex not duplex Bidirectional transmission on the same fiber Testing with Optical Splitters Tighter Loss Budgets Many contaminated connections to deal with All Singlemode APC connectors Different operational wavelengths than "normal” – 1270, 1310, 1490, 1577 Special Tools may be needed – PON selective power meters for construction and troubleshooting – In-line because ONT does not transmit unless there is a signal from the OLT
Tier 1 Certification Testing What is Tier 1 Fiber Certification Testing? – Fiber Inspection – Measure Optical Loss – Check Polarity – Measure Length* Tier 1 Challenges when testing PON architectures – Polarity is not applicable for PON…but Continuity is ie: …make sure fiber 2 of the splitter is going to WS24 – Measuring length in a simplex architecture – Optical Return Loss more of an issue with PON
Tier 2 Certification Testing How TIA-568-C defines Tier 2 Testing – Using an Optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) – “Optional” per international standards bodies, it is not required and does not substitute for PMLS test – Recommended for testing the outside plant and/or for troubleshooting – Further details uniformity of cable attenuation, connector losses, connector/splice or trouble locations – May be requested by the customer
Tier 2 Advantages for testing PON With an OTDR you can Measure… Both Multimode & Single mode Links Optical Distance and Fiber Continuity To Events – splices, connectors Faults, end of fiber Optical loss (dB) Splices, connectors Fiber loss (dB/km) Reflectance or ORL Return loss of link or section Reflectance of connectors Allows comparison to a baseline reference Easily isolate problem areas Multiple schematic views Trace View Graphical representations of link Easier to understand
Contamination and Signal Performance Fiber Contamination and Its Affect on Signal Performance CLEAN CONNECTION Back Reflection = dB Total Loss = dB 1 DIRTY CONNECTION Back Reflection = dB Total Loss = 4.87 dB 3 Clean Connection vs. Dirty Connection The typical budgeted loss for a mated connector pair is 0.5dB This dirty connector wasted ~10X the budgeted connector loss This dirty connector caused ~4.9dB which is a 68% power drop
Tools to Qualify and Maintain Enterprise PON Networks
Tool requirements for Fiber Technicians Drive behavior for best practices Improve technician performance Prevent forming of bad habits Equips technicians follow best practices from day 1 Optimize workflow for essential tasks Inspection / Power Measurement / Cleaning / Fault Location When your Techs work smarter – You save money! Goal = FINISH THE JOB FAST Use it anywhere Datacenters, Overhead Cable Raceways, Under-Floor pathways and spaces, Demarcation Points, etc Keep hands free to access equipment, route cable, etc. Prove the quality of your work Store your data on the device Generate certification reports
Test Solutions for PON in LAN Inspection Microscope – Pass/Fail Connector Inspection OLS + PON Selective Power Meter – Simultaneous Testing of Multiple Wavelengths – Through-Mode Testing – Pass/Fail Connector Inspection OTDR – Ideal for all phases of PON tests – Detects faults – Tests through connectors, splices, and splitters – Fiber loss (dB/km) and Event loss – Multiple schematic views
Enterprise PON: Construction Testing OPTION 1: Overall Link Loss Measurement Only Advantages Inexpensive Disadvantages Not True Tier 1 Don’t know length Unidirectional loss No ORL/Reflectance Tools Optical Light Source PON Optical Power Meter Microscope Test Feeder/Backbone linkTest Distribution link
Enterprise PON: Construction Testing OPTION 2: Per Event Loss Measurement + Length Advantages See loss per event Know your distance Disadvantages More Expensive Uni-directional More Complex to use (perceived) Tools OTDR Microscope Test Feeder/Backbone linkTest Distribution link
Enterprise PON: Construction Testing OPTION 2: Fiber Complete Advantages Tier 1 & 2 Test See loss per event Know your distance Bi-Directional Loss Disadvantages Need 2 Testers Uni-directional More Complex to use (perceived) Tools Fiber Complete (x2) IL ORL OTDR Microscope Test Feeder/Backbone linkTest Distribution link