Presentation on theme: "StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship Notes on The IVET-System in Germany k.o.s GmbH, Tobias Funk Berlin / 18.11.2014."— Presentation transcript:
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship Notes on The IVET-System in Germany k.o.s GmbH, Tobias Funk Berlin /
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship Preview 1.Basics: The System of the dual system 1.Three main patterns of IVET in the EU 2.The core of the ‚german‘ pattern: Two linked learning venues 3.… plus the frame of state recognized occupations 4.Curiosities included: A system of grown history 2.The situation of the dual system in Germany today 1.The Dual System within the German IVET-system 2.Still inclusive? - The core in decline and the first OECD appraisal 3.What are the problems? 4.Regions are different – for example the situation in Berlin 5.Coping strategies 3.The nearest visions of the future? – A look to Austria 1.Same but different – Germany and Austria in comparision 2.Austria and Switzerland – role models for further development of the German IVET System?
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship 1.1 Three main pattern of IVET in the EU State driven Highly regulated (vocational schools) Role model France Economy driven Lowly regulated (training on the job) Role Model GB State and Economy driven Highly regulated (enterprises linked with school) Role Model Germany
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship 1.2 The Core of the ‚german pattern‘: Two learning venues Enterprise is contracting with the apprentices They become employees for three years (the normal case) and get paid by the enterprises (fixed wages depending on the resp. occupational field, developing progressively year by year) Enterprises are obliged to cooperate with the vocational schools (i.e. to give time: about 30% of the time is school time, 1-2 days a week) Enterprise * School * holds the contract beyond the contingent with the apprentices needs of the enterprise - reality teaching - -systematic approach- Formally no other requirements for access to dual training, than the absolvation of compulsory fulltime school (till the age of 16) The advantage: a very low threshold for the entry into the labour market after IVET!
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship 1.3 … plus the frame of state recognized occupations Since 1969 a legal frame for the german IVET-system 329 recognized occupation profiles today Traditionally strong emphasis in input-quality with legally fixed training-regulations and fixed durations of an apprenticeship: normally three years Examinations are carried out by corporations under public law e.g by the chambers of commerce New training Regulations for recognized occupations only with obligatory participation of the so called „social partners“ (i.e. representatives of the employers and the resp. trades unions) plus representatives of three (!) ministeries of the federal government, representatives of the „Länder“ responsable for the school part in the frame of the dual system
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship 1.4 Curiosities included - A system of grown history Three years apprenticeship as a rule? - What systematically matters is a certain duration of a apprenticeship to gain something like a „Berufsidentität“ Three years are a rather contingent time frame: It has first concerned just the time between the end of compulsory school and the beginning of compulsory military service at the end of the 19th century: The invention of vocational part time school to secure young boys ‚against the infections of socialism, catholicism and alcoholism‘ in the prussian dominated young German Reich after 1870 Modern Industry in the footsteps of old fashioned craftmenship selforganisation? Quite a miracle and probably the key for the successtory of the german IVET system: The invention of the „Facharbeiter“ as a „Beruf“ in the ‚roaring twenties‘ of the last century when Taylorism was at its peak, - based on the special attitude of the german industrial elites vs. capitalism and socialism als well ‚Apprenticeship‘ in Vocational Fulltime Schools - the underestimated sector of the german IVET system due to a gender gap? Vocational schools in the beginning mainly for girls, who were not supposed to become a real craftsman. Their careers would end with ‚helping‘ assistant jobs in the health care sector, or assistant jobs in the commercial sector. In fact this tradition, that means the discrimation of these IVET pathways (without the backing of chambers and a central german legal act), is probably still at work.
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship 2.0 Where we are – The dual system within the german educational system Leaving compulsory school at the Age of 16 ?? IVET
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship New entries to the three sectors of the German IVET-System 2011 dual system School system Transition system (official part of IVET since 2005) Quelle: Nationaler Bildungsbericht The dual system (the core!) in the frame of German IVET System
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship 2.2. The core in decline … and the first OECD appraisal concerning the core Quelle: Nationaler Bildungsbericht 2014
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship 2.3 What are the problems? Professionalisation – growing percentage of entries in academic studies On the other hand: The dual system is not as inclusive as it was in earlier times - Increasing demands of cognitive and social skills (possibly in combination with fewer school leaving competencies) Demographic effects – a changing employment market (declining figure of school leavers plus e.g. declining attractiveness of traditional occupations with difficult work conditions and low wages makes it difficult for enterprises to find the young people they are looking for Long time neglected internal problems of quality (despite our sophisticated regulations! - high percentage of failing apprenticeship contracts)
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship 2.4 Regions are different – For example the situation in Berlin Good economic development in the last years - But starting from low level… Still with high rates of Unemployed ( = 11%) Migrants unemployed ( = 23,4% of all unemployed) Young adults unemployed ( = 10,0 % of all unemployed ) (Report BA November 2013) General problem: Growing Mismatch of qualifications: 50 % of unemployed (25-35 years old) without vocational qualification Highest age of entry in apprenticeship in Berlin (2011: 21,5 years old) Lowest rate of enterprises participating in apprenticeship (13,5 %) Highest rate of failing apprenticeship contracts (30 %) Highest percentage of apprentices with qualification for university entry in Berlin (30%) Significance of the special economical structure in Berlin : strengths: research. Health care, tourism, creative ‘start ups’, - But only some industries in the manufacturing sector, in fact half of german average
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship 2.5 Coping strategies Improving vocational orientation strategies – „There are more possibillities in IVET than you would imagine“ Preventing drop outs Assisted Apprenticeship … and even small steps to greater permeability of different VET pathways Making aprenticeship more attractive for both sides: potential applicants + enterprises, especiallly SME‘s
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship 3.1 Same but different? – Austria in comparision to Germany Less participation in the dual system as in Germany Higher participation in IVET – 80% of young people in the tenth grade attend a VET pathway The accepted diversity of early starting VET pathways - IVET in school with no lesser reputation! Higher permeability to academic studies (“Berufsreifeprüfung”) Modularisation (“Modullehrberufe”) Rather central VET-governance despite federal constitution in Austria
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship 3.2 Austria and Switzerland - role models for further development of the german IVET System? Fostering the strengths of the dual system via more flexibility Clear governance for all pathways of VET - despite federal constitution ‘Pluralisation’ of the accepted IVET pathways (which allows also more ‘horizontal’ permeability) Facilitating ‘vertical’ permeability i.e. academic studies for people with an occupational qualification ( e.g. the Austrian “Berufsreifeprüfung”)
StartApp – Starting with Apprenticeship Thank you for your attention. k.o.s GmbH Am Sudhaus Berlin Tel