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Fundamentals of Computer Networks ECE 478/578 Lecture #8: Multiple Access Protocols Instructor: Loukas Lazos Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Computer Networks ECE 478/578 Lecture #8: Multiple Access Protocols Instructor: Loukas Lazos Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamentals of Computer Networks ECE 478/578 Lecture #8: Multiple Access Protocols Instructor: Loukas Lazos Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Arizona

2 The Channel Allocation Problem How to share access to a common medium Attributes of the channel allocation problem Dynamic or Static Allocation A single channel is available Time is continuous vs. slotted Carrier sensing (CS) Collision detection (CD) 2

3 Multiple Access Protocols Aloha (Pure vs. Slotted) Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) Collision Resolution Algorithms 3

4 Pure Aloha Continuous time, no CD, no CS 4

5 Assumptions of Pure Aloha New arrivals of packets at each host are transmitted immediately Arrivals are Poisson with total rate λ If a packet is involved in a collision it is retransmitted after a random period of time. Node becomes backlogged Receivers provides feedback on received packet to implement the collision detection (we know a collision happened) No buffering: A backlogged node does not buffer any arriving packets Or the set of nodes accessing the medium is infinite 5

6 Collisions Occurence Packets arrival: Poisson with rate G > λ packets/t. 6 t1t1 t2t2 t3t3 t4t4 t5t5 collision retransmission Vulnerable period: 2t t

7 Aloha Throughput Probability that k frames are generated within the unit of time t Probability that no traffic is generated within 2t Aloha throughput: Arrival rate times success probability 7

8 Slotted Aloha Time is divided into slots Transmissions start only at the beginning of a slot A collision would occur in slot n, if more than one arrival occurs in slot n – 1 No arrival: Unused slot 8 slot 1 slot 6 collision retransmission t slot 3slot 2 empty

9 Throughput of Slotted Aloha Simplistic Analysis: arrival rate at each slot is G Probability of successful transmission Probability of an idle slot Probability of a collision Probability of a wasted slot 9

10 Pure vs. Slotted Aloha 10

11 Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) Stations listen before transmission 1-persistent Stations listen to the channel continuously If channel is busy wait till free If channel is free, transmit (i.e. with probability 1) If a collision occurs, wait a random amount of time 11

12 Alternative CSMA Strategies Non-persistent CSMA If channel is busy, defer from sensing for a random time Better medium utilization than persistent CSMA p-persistent CSMA If channel is sensed busy, transmit when idle with probability p, else wait for a period τ. Low throughput on low loads due to idle time Improves throughput on high loads 12

13 Comparison of Protocols 13

14 CSMA with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Detect a collision early and abort transmission Two types of slots, packet slots and contention slots Each node tries to transmit at a contention slot with probability p If collision, it is detected at the end of contention slot If success, no transmission tries till end of packet slot 14

15 Duration of Contention Slots How long does it take for two stations to detect a collision? 15 t 0 = 0 τ = d/c τ - ε 2τ - ε A will detect collision after 2τ in the worst case. Contention slots have to be at least 2τ long Minimum frame size 2τC (why?) Ex. 1Km cable, τ = 5μs, If C = 100MBps, Frame size 100bits C = 1 Gbps Frame size = 10,000 bits Α Α Α Β Β Β


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