Projects „Unique, one-time operations designed to accomplish a specific set of objectives in a limited time frame.”
Processes in an organization Usual business processes Projects Changes & Uncertainty Routines & regular tasks
Main characteristics of projects Uniqe set of tasks and processes Narrow focus, specific performance objectives The end of the project is definite: –Limited time-frame –Objectives reached or –it is proven, that objectives cannot be reached anymore Budget is limited It can be planned It is always risky
Project management Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. Project-like management: managing non- project processes as projects
Project Manager (Stevenson) Responsible for: Work (tasks)Quality Human ResourcesTime CommunicationsCosts
Other roles in the project Project-coordinator: negotiate with the functional leaders, report to the project manager Projectmanagement-team members Project champion: strong person who promotes and supports the project Project-workers: deliver the tasks
Problem tree diagram A problem tree is a problem analysis tool that illustrates the cause and effect relationship of problems using a hierarchical tree diagram. by arranging the problem statements in hierarchical order and depicting the problem statements in a boxed article.
Fishbone (Ishikawa) diagram A Fishbone Diagram is a problem analysis tool that illustrates the cause and effect relationships of problems and is often use in the quality management discipline.
Objective tree An objective tree is an objective formulation tool that depicts graphically the hierarchy of objectives. It is formulated by initially inverting the statements found in the problem tree (often used in tandem).
Logical Framework Matrix Pre-conditions 4. Activities (inputs) 3. Outputs (results) 2. Immediate objective 1. Strategic goal 4. Risks and assumptions 3. Means of verifi- cation2. Indicators 1. Objectives- structure
Work Breakdown Structure a tool used to define and group a project's discrete work elements (or tasks) in a way that helps organize and define the total work scope of the project
GANTT charts A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Some Gantt charts also show the dependency relationships between activities. Gantt charts can be used to show current schedule status using percent-complete shadings, or colored lines and a vertical "TODAY" line.
The Network Diagram (cont’d) Path –Sequence of activities that leads from the starting node to the finishing node Critical path –The longest path; determines expected project duration Critical activities –Activities on the critical path Slack –Allowable slippage for path; the difference the length of path and the length of critical path
Project Network – Activity on Arrow 1 2 3 4 56 Locate facilities Order furniture Furniture setup Interview Hire and train Remodel Move in AOA
Project Network – Activity on Node 1 2 3 5 6 Locate facilities Order furniture Furniture setup Interview Remodel Move in 4 Hire and train 7S AON
Network Conventions a b ca b c a b c d a b c Dummy activity
Time Estimates Deterministic –Time estimates that are fairly certain Probabilistic –Estimates of times that allow for variation
Deterministic time estimates 1 2 3 4 56 8 weeks 6 weeks 3 weeks 4 weeks 9 weeks 11 weeks 1 week Locate facilities Order furniture Furniture setup Interview Hire and train Remodel Move in
Probabilistic Time Estimates Optimistic time –Time required under optimal conditions Pessimistic time –Time required under worst conditions Most likely time –Most probable length of time that will be required
1-3-4 a 3-4-5 d 3-5-7 e 5-7-9 f 2-4-6 b 4-6-8 h 2-3-6 g 3-4-6 i 2-3-5 c Optimistic time Most likely time Pessimistic time
Time-cost Trade-offs: Crashing Crash – shortening activity duration Procedure for crashing –Crash the project one period at a time –Only an activity on the critical path –Crash the least expensive activity –Multiple critical paths: find the sum of crashing the least expensive activity on each critical path
Crashing exercise activitydurationMinimum duration (crash time) Cost of one day crashing a66- b108500 c54300 d41700 e97600 f21800 Indirect costs: 1000 / day